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tional Assembly at Frankfurt, and the Upper House may, or may not, when other notable men of that race, reject them, even as is done in this like Johann Jacoby, played a promis country by the so-called hereditary nent part, it is all the more painful wisdom of born legisilators. The only to see what retrogression has taken difference is, that here they sit in virplace in that respect, especially in tue of their own right, whilst in GerPrussia, owing to the bigoted course many the Upper House, or Federal pursued in the highest quarters. Council, is composed of the delegates

Let us hope that a change for the of the various princely governments better has now begun, and that the and of the three Free Republican hopes put in this "new man" will be cities. These latter are the only ones properly fulfilled. His style of speak still left from the more than a huning before large audiences has proved dred such free cities once existing in an incisive and energetic one, correct the older Empire, which was an arisin matters of fact, as behooves one who tocratic commonwealth, with a large has had a commercial and financial number of free towns, and a King, training. True, he has been reproved or Kaiser, who had no hereditary right even by a Liberal paper, which is of succession, but was elected for life otherwise quite on his side, and free -on condition of observing the counfrom religious or racial prejudice, be try's constitution. cause it thought it detected a note Perhaps even casual readers in Engof undue self-laudation in his re- land may remember a case of the inpeated saying: “For twenty-five years itiative of the Reichstag. Ever since we have had colonies, but no colonial that Parliament has existed, it has alpolicy.” But Herr Dernburg will, no ways unanimously voted for the modoubt, soon get rid of such oratorical tion of some deputy who proposed slips; for, as the Berlin journal rightly "payment of members." The Upper says, “speeches are, after all, only as House, at the beck and call of princely signments for the future," and "the Governments, regularly rejected the proof of a very necessary reform in measure. Prince Bismarck was afraid colonial affairs, which he is to work that, through payment of members, too out, has yet to be furnished. We must many Liberal and Radical opponents wait to see what he is able to do." of his might come in. Germany is, All other information is, however, to territorially, a large country, even the effect that Herr Dernburg will be since she has lost Austria; and there as good as his word.

are not many men with independent

fortunes who could travel to, and reVI.

main at, Berlin for a great part of the

year. Hence so often a quorum is not Some details as to the constitutional to be got in the Reichstag; especially powers of the Reichstag will here be as it is fixed at 199 members, in a in their place. I have seen it stated House of but 397. of late, in various English journals, Quite recently, however, the oftenthat that Parliament has no right of demanded reform, for which the Reichinitiative, that it can only say "yes" or stag had taken the initiative, was at "no" to Government Bills.

last agreed to by the Imperial Gov. This is an absolute error. A great ernment and by the delegates of the many motions, in the way of Bills, are Confederated Princes and Free Cities. continually made in the Reichstag by A dissolution of the Reichstag, I may private members. If they are passed, add, cannot be decreed by the Kaiser

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alone. The Federal Council bas to give the two candidates who are next in its approbation.

number to each other. Then, if sevAs to the questions of military and eral competitors have been in the field, naval armament, the Kaiser can neia bargaining usually begins, in which ther get a single man nor a ship more often the most discordant elements than there are at present without the have to make an arrangement between consent of the Reichstag. Repeatedly, themselves. proposals of the Imperial Government In this last election the oddest comhave been rejected. On other occa- binations have taken place for the secsions parliamentary assent was only ond ballots, in the various parts of the got after laborious negotiations, or Empire, and within different States.

fter a dissolution, when the country There was no uniformity of action as at large sided with Government. to coming to a compromise between

It will thus be seen that the field is Conservative and Liberal, or Liberal free, in some ways, for the new Reich- and Social Democrat, or Centre and stag, if only the Liberal and Radical any other party, as against some supgroups, which have come back with posed common enemy who was to be increased numbers, are true to their ousted from his insufficient majority professed principles, and worth their by a subsequent alliance between othsalt. In numbers, the National Liber- erwise discordant groups, or who als-somewhat altered in tone for the wanted to have his insufficient majorbetter through late experience—the ity increased to an absolute one by the Free People's party, the Free Pro- addition of the votes of one of the gressist Union, the German People's defeated candidates whose friends party, and the German Reform party finally choose the "lesser evil." all show an increased strength.

To some extent these necessary, but The Centre remains as it was, with sometimes rather sordid, transactions the addition of two, or, according to are made all the more difficult through other accounts, three seats, but with the very existence of separate Statesgreatly diminished influence. In fact, with “Home Rule" Legislatures of their it is stated that nine of its seats were own. Political development has, in only obtained by way of a bargain them, gone so far in a centrifugal sense which delivered over twelve other seats that the nation has been sadly split up to the Social Democrats. But as these and the public mind too much divided latter now dispose only of forty-three into merely local concerns and issues. seats, which, without the help of the Those who praise the alleged excelCentre, would to all evidence even lent "Home Rule" arrangements of the bave been reduced to thirty-one, it is German Empire forget that in reality clear that the Ultramontanes are now they are the evil inheritance of our old deprived of an ally without whom they national misfortunes. are henceforth powerless.

In the older constitution of the EmHere, that special institution, the sec- pire there was' virtually more unity. ond ballot, or "Stichwahl," has to be The several Dukes, as they were simtouched upon. In Germany it is not ply called, were mere officials of the enough that a candidate should have a Empire, deposable by the central augreater number of votes than anythority--that is, by the elective King, other competitor. He must have a or Kaiser. It was during foreign commajority over the votes of all other plications and wars that these Dukes candidates combined. If he has not, gradually made themselves semi-indea second ballot is to be taken between pendent.

After the Thirty Years' War, which other candidate, whom they really deruined the country, they exercised al- test with all their heart, but whom most sovereign power as Landesherren. they wish to use as a means of spiting In consequence of the Napoleonic wars one still more deeply hated. All this they made themselves downright "Sov- does not make for political honesty. ereigns." Any kind of real unity was then gone; a mere confederation of

VII. dynasties-several dozens in point of fact-remaining as a common bond. A "block" is now formed, of various This state of things, though altered groups of Liberals and Conservatives, now to some extent, still reacts on the who, from patriotic motives, can give present political situation. It renders Government a sufficient majority in the task of an effective plan of cam- matters concerning the defensive paign against "personal government" strength of the country. This does not in the central authority all the harder. mean that the Liberals and Radicals This is a state of things which English- have to be, or ought to be, simply at men may well consider, when being that Government's order. They must told that Germany, with her many decide each case according to its dynasties and her separate legislatures, merits. is a proper example to follow.

In his speeches the Imperial ChanIrrespective of this baneful influence cellor evidently wished for a combiof a so-called "Home Rule" state of nation of the Conservatives and the things, on the life of the nation at Liberals in such cases, but still cast a large, I must confess that the huckster- curious side-glance at the Centre. This ing at the second ballots does not strike was not the right way of strengthening me as an ideal institution. It generthe Progressist efforts. It must, howally goes, in Germany, under the name ever, be confessed that a Radical Berof Kuh-Handel (cow-bargain). It often lin paper forgot, in its criticism, that brings out the worst symptoms of in- Prince Bülow, being dependent on the trigue and political immorality. So Emperor, who can undo him in a moit has, as above shown, done in the ment, is not able to go beyond a certain present instance.

line. The Chancellor, nevertheless, I hold it to be by far better to make gave a hint, in his usual oratorical every voter feel that the struggle must style, to the Liberals, by saying: "In be concentrated on a single issue, and order to make music, there must be that he and those thinking with him musicians." In other words, he called should, from the beginning, do their for a Progressist orchestra, whom he best to win the day by manly effort might lead. The Berlin paper referred The so-called Zähl-Kandidaten-men to answered: “Great composers have who are only put forward in order to never waited for their orchestra. Real find out the strength of a party or statesmen know how to create imporgroup-have become a perfect nuisance tant movements." in Germany. So have the shuffling But seeing that an Imperial Chanceltricks of those who dabble in the Kuh- lor is appointed by the Crown, and that Handel. They either lead their own there is no Ministerial responsibility in contingent as allies into an enemy's the Reichstag, Prince Bülow has clearly camp, from spite against another ad- not a free hand. The nation itself, by versary; or they induce their own men its own Progressist spokesmen, must to desist from voting at all at a second work out its own salvation. Selbst ist ballot, so as to give a chance to an der Mann!"'--that well-known good Ger

man maxim-must be the guiding prin- quickly come in rather unpleasant ciple. Ministerial responsibility, ex- terms. tended parliamentary rights, have to be Language held by a late Lord of the claimed, as the least reforms, whilst British Admiralty as to the necessity looking forward to larger possibilities of "smashing a certain navy in the in the future. If Social Democrats will North Sea before even people knew aid in that work, all the better. It that there was a declaration of war," would certainly be better than to fling has made a deep impression in Gerin the face of the most advanced men, many-not in the way of fear, but of who willingly work also for social Re- greater readiness for preparing against forms, the charge of their being, to a possible danger. The revelations of gether with the Conservatives, "one M. Delcassé have added to that feeling. reactionary mass." Such accusations He asserted, uncontradicted, that "100,only make for militarist and bureau- 000 English troops had been promised cratic reaction.

to him for a landing in Schleswig-HolAnother word of necessary admoni- stein" in a certain eventuality! When tion. Any attempt from abroad of dic- it was seen that even in a Social Demtating to the German nation as to its ocratic organ of this country the rerigbt of looking to its own security on turn to office of M. Delcassé — who had land or at sea, will have a fatal ef- laid a plan of attack against Germany, fect. Even in a Liberal London paper and who, therefore, was overthrown it was recently said that the creation by the prudent and wise action of Soof a strong fleet is an "un-German" cialist Republican leaders in France enterprise. History itself-witness our was repeatedly wished for, and that Hansa-disproves the assertion. I those French Socialists were blamed recollect too well how, in days gone here by English comrades, the impresby, any proposal of amelioration in sion in Germany grew still deeper. English State affairs was always de. I mention all this from a sincere nounced here, by arch-reactionists, as wish of seeing peace and goodwill up"un-English." That word is scarcely held and promoted between Germany used now any longer.

and England as well as between GerThe French fleet is superior to that many and France. To threaten Germans of Germany. So was the Russian with the British trident is the best Navy until lately, and it is now being means of furthering the cause of "perrebuilt with the money of the French Sonal government" among them, and of ally of Czardom. Almost all nations bampering the efforts of men who want of any importance are strengthening to make an end of that nuisance for their naval armaments. Japan does the sake of greater freedom. A naso. The United States of America are tion's independence being its first natdoing the same, though for what pur- ural concern, there will always be a pose, being in no danger of attack, no- rapid rally round its defender, whoever body could say. Germany still ranks he may be. If German freemen are fifth only in strength at sea; yet she is to set out for “riding down” reactionexposed to manifold dangers, and has ary tendencies at home, they must not to look to the safety of her increasing be menaced from abroad. over-sea trade.

Let this not be forgotten by those Will any one say that the increase of who talk so loudly about the desirabila navy is un-French, un-Russian, un- ity of overthrowing Imperial absolutAmerican, un-Japanese? If words ofism, and who have even gone to the that kind were used, the answers would strange length of describing the adhe. rents of the Pope's personal govern- reformers" a party which in their own ment as true defenders of liberty, country they load with abuse. whilst picturing as "most moderate

Karl Blind. The Nineteenth Century and After.



have seemed to call for a display of "I'll put the kettle on," said William, emotion, nor would he have found it stepping off the plank that somewhat easy to explain why indignation was insecurely bridged the small lagoon of so rapidly succeeding surprise in the mud beyond the stile, "and -4," but demeanor of the three. The sun had he stopped abruptly in the middle of lost something of its fierceness, and both sentence and progress, his eyes had reached that period of its decline and mouth wide open with astonish- when men may truthfully aver that it ment and his right foot slightly in ad- is cooler than it was. From a pleasant vance of the left. The others, con- angle it shone upon as fair a picture of cerned with the passage, did not at meadow, river, and tree as may be first notice anything, but when they found in the Western Midlands. Ou too, had reached firm ground they had the right of the three men a steep knoll leisure to follow their friend's gaze and sloped up almost from the river bank. to share in his emotion. The frown of Elms crowned its summit and a great concentration incidental to lighting a oak guarded its base. A line of wilpipe while crossing a narrow plank re- lows separated it from the meadows mained on Talbot's brow, though the sleeping in the sunlight beyond, while match that he had just struck burned behind was the little forest of osiers away unheeded. The Admiral's hand through which they had come. On remained motionless on the crown of the left lay the river, deep and slugthe battered straw hat that it had been gish, its further bank lined with old settling more comfortably on the back twisted willows which marked its sinuof his head, while his face lengthened ous course away into the distance and in pained displeasure.

the woods, its nearer bank fringed with So they might have stood for some thick clumps of reeds, in whose bays time had not Talbot's match suddenly were white and yellow water-lilies, and restored him to activity by burning with the paler green of sedges. There his fingers. Casting the charred frag- was no babble of gravelly shallows to ment on the ground he stamped on it disturb the restfulness of the picture. viciously, and then found his tongue. By dint of slow perpetual motion the "Where did he get them?" he asked, river had worn out a little bay at the raising his eyes again to the object of foot of the knoll, almost under the scrutiny.

shadow of the oak-tree, and therein "I haven't an idea," returned Wil- was lying a house-boat, misty gray in liam endeavoring, as always, to answer color and almost luminous in the eventhe question.

ing sun. At its stern was a flag-staff "Consider the lilies," said the Ad- from which the Union Jack drooped miral, who belonged to a profession idly. that enjoys its opportunities for sar- But it was on none of these things casm.

that the friends had concentrated their To a stranger the scene would hardly attention. They had eyes for nothing

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