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“3. Resumed our journey at seven; road level and good. At nine our attention was arrested by a smoke arising from a small pond of water in a marsh meadow. We left our attendants, and went to examine it. The pond was about three rods in diameter, and the water, near the centre, boiled in several places. At the edge it was as hot as the hand could bear without pain. The vapor was strongly impregnated with sulphur.
“Entered Haivali at seven; that is, in 25 hours, or about 75 miles from Smyrna. With some difficulty we found our way to a tavern; and, after much delay and perplexity, obtained the use of a small apartment. A wooden platform covered one half of it, and this served us for chairs, table, and bed.
“4. At an early hour Martino went to the Russian consul with a letter given us by the Russian consul in Smyrna; and he immediately sent his janizary to conduct us to his house. There we found a room ready for us, and every necessary comfort generously offered. Such hospitality is welcome indeed, after the fatigue of our journey.
"At one o'clock the consul accompanied us to the college. The two principal instructors are Gregory and Theophilus, to whom we had a letter from Professor Bambas. They received us very affectionately. We gave them some Tracts, and proposed to distribute others among the students on Monday, to which they very readily assented. The college, in its present form, was established about twenty years ago; it had previously existed, however, for a long time, on a smaller scale. Benjamin, who is now in Smyrna, was, for a long time, at the head of it. There are now four Professors; and about twenty of the older scholars assist in teaching the younger classes. The whole number of students is three hundred; of whom not above one hundred belong to Haivali. About seventy are ecclesiastics. This circumstance is peculiarly auspicious, the Greek priests, as a body, being ex
tremely ignorant; yet almost all the schools in the country are under their instruction. The course of study seems, from the account given us, to be about the same as in Scio. The library contains between one and two thousand volumes. The college building forms a large square, (inclosing a garden which the students cultivate,) and contains a library-room, a philosophical laboratory, lecture-rooms, apartments for the instructors, and a great number of smaller rooms for the sti ts. The establishinent is supported by the Greek community. No pupil pays any thing for his room, or his tuition.
65. Sabbath. In the afternoon went out to distribute Tracts among the priests. Every church has some small apartment adjoining it, in which the clergy live. Went to eight churches, and distributed Tracts among all the priests. There are forty belonging to these eight churches; they have also at each church, a small school under their care, in which the children are taught to read the church service. Heard of only one other church in town, and that a very small one. Found one of the principal priests engaged with a layman, in the settlement of an account respecting oil and olives which had been sold for him. Had to wait half an hour before we could get an opportunity to speak with him about Tracts. This shows how the Sabbath is observed in this country.
66. Went with the consul to see Paesios, the Bishop of this district. His diocese includes Pergamos, Haivali, and the surrounding country. He is under the Archbishop of Ephesus. His title is Bishop of Elaia, an ancient town, which does not now exist.
him a Testament and some Tracts, and received from him a letter of introduction to his agent in Pergamos.
“Went to the college; conversed a little while with the teachers; gave them a French and an Italian Testament, and 350 Tracts for the students,
"Haivali is situated on the sea shore, opposite the island Musconisi, which lies between the town and the north part of Mytilene. The Turkish name is Haivali; the Greek name Kidonia: both signifying quinces. Why these names were given we do not know, as the place produces very few quinces. Olives and oil are its principal productions. The streets are narrow and very dirty, and the houses mean. You see no elegance, and very little neat
The Bishop, the consul, and the Professors, united in stating the population at 20,000 souls, all Greeks. This estimate seemed to us very high.
“We gave orders in the morning for our horses to be ready at eleven o'clock; but both of the horsemen were partially intoxicated, and it was almost two before we were able to set out. Departed, much indebted to the consul for his hospitality.
“At half past six reached the khan where we dined on Friday. We had left some 'Tracts here, and the landlord inquired about them. It seemed to him a new and a wonderful thing, that men should go about, giving away books for nothing.
67. Left a few Tracts with our landlord to be given to such as wish for them, and are able to read. Left the khan at half past seven.
At ten we saw, at a little distance on our right, the smoke of a boiling spring, and went out to examine it. The pond of water is smaller, but the smoke is greater, the heat more intense, and the steam more strongly impregnated with sulphur, than at the one we saw on Friday, a few miles south of this. Several smaller springs of the same kind are in sight.
“At two we reached Pergamos, now called Bergamo. Our road from Haivali has been generally level; the land verdant; several flocks of cattle and sheep in sight; two or three very small villages by the way; and a few scattered houses. at a public khan. The Bishop's letter, and another
We put up
from a Greek in Smyrna, introduced us to several persons, whose acquaintance was of use to us.
“Obtained a guide, (Stathi Spagnuolo,) to show us whatever we might wish to see in the town, and its vicinity. He had fifteen or twenty certificates in Italian and English, given him by travellers whom he had served as a guide.
“Went first to see the ruins of an old monastery. The walls are still standing, as high as a four story house, and perhaps 150 feet long. In it there are now several Turkish huts. In passing through the town, we found two ancient Greek inscriptions which we copied. Passed an immensely large building, formerly a Christian church, now a Turkish mosque. This is said to be the church in which the disciples met, to whom St. John wrote.
Went up to the old castle, north of the town. Vast walls are still standing composed principally of granite, with some fine pillars of marble. The castle includes five or six acres of ground, and about half way down the hill is a wall which includes several times as much. Within the castle are large subterranean reservoirs which used to serve for water and provisions. Most of the walls are evidently not very ancient, and are said to be the work of the Genoese. The foundations, and a part of the wall, seem more ancient, and are said, perhaps with truth, to be the work of the ancient Greeks. Noticed several Corinthian capitals, and copied one Greek inscription. The castle furnishes a good view of the city. North and west of it are verdant, mountainous pastures; south and east a fertile plain. Nine or ten minarets speak the power of the false prophet.
“Returned from the castle, and went to the site of an ancient theatre, west of the town. It is a semicircular cavity in the side of a bill. The semicircle measures about 600 feet. Massy walls of granite are yet standing.
“Went next to the amphitheatre. It is a deep circular valley, formerly no doubt filled with rows of seats rising one above another to enable the spectators to witness the fighting of beasts, or the destruction of men, on the arena at the bottom of it.
“Passed by what is said to be the tomb of Antipas near the old monastery. See Rev. ii, 13.
We next visited a building which is called the temple of Esculapius. It is a lofty vaulted dome, the inside about forty feet in diameter; the granite wall about eight feet thick.
We remember to have seen it somewhere stated, that Esculapius once practised physic in Pergamos; that the inhabitants erected a temple to him, and offered sacrifices and adored him as a god.
“There is in Pergamos one synagogue, one Greek and one Armenian church. At the Greek church we found a school of twenty boys taught by a priest. Gave one Tract to each boy, and several to the master, which were received, as our Tracts usually are, with many expressions of gratitude. The master then went with us to visit the other priests. We showed them, in the Romaic Testament, the address to the church in Pergamos, which one of them read. We then gave them a Testament, and a number of Tracts.
"The population of Pergamos is said to be about 15,000; viz. 1,500 Greeks, 2 or 300 Armenians, 100 Jews, nd the rest Turks. The streets are wider and cleaner than any we have before seen in Asia. As we were about to leave town, a man to whom we had a letter from Smyrna, brought us three fowls for our journey, and a letter of introduction to Immanuel, a friend of his, three hours on our way to Thyatira.
"At half past one we left Pergamos: at three we crossed the Caicus, and pursued our way along the southern bank through a fertile plain several miles wide, with verdant hills on the north and south, and