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With shadowy forests and with champains rich'd,
Reg. I am made3 of that self metal as my sister,
and with champains rich'd, With plenteus rivers -- ] These words are omitted in the quartos. To rich is an obsolete verb. Steevens.
Rich'd is used for enriched, as ’tice for entice, 'bute for abate, strain for constrain, &c. M. Masun. Speuk.] Thus the quartos. This word is not in the folio.
Malone. 3 I am male &c.] Thus the folio. The quarto reads, Sir, I am made of the self-same metal that my sister is.
Steevens 4 And prize me at her worth. &c.] I believe this passage should rather be pointed thus:
Anil prize me at her worth, in my true heart
I find, she names &c.
And prize you at her worth.
M. Mason. Prize me at her worth, perhaps means, I think myse!f as worthy of your favour as she is. Henley.
5 Only she comes too short,—that I profess &c.] That seems to stand without relation, but is referred to finil, the first conjunction being inaccura-ely suppressed. I find that she names my deed, I find that I profess, &c. Johnson.
The true meaning is this :—“My sister has equally expressed my sentiments, only she comes short of me in this, that I profess myself an enemy to all joys but you.”—That I profess, means, in that I profess. M. Mason.
In that, i. e. inasmuch as, I profess myself, &c. Thus the folio. The quartos read:
Only she came short, that I profess," &c. Malone. 6 Which the most precious square of sense possesses ;] Perhaps square means only compass, comprehension. Johnson. So, in a Parenesis to the Prince, by Lord Sterline, 1604: " The square of reason, and the mind's clear eye.”
And find, I am alone felicitate
Then poor Cordelia! [oíuide.
Lear. To thee, and thine, hereditary ever,
Golding, in his version of the 6th Book of Ovid's Metamorphoses, translates
quotiesque rogabat “ Ex justo ~"
- As oft as he demanded out of square." i. e. what was unreasonable. Steevens.
I believe that Shakspeare uses square for the full complement of all the senses. Edwards.
More richer than my tongue. ] The quartos thus: the folio-more ponderous. Steevens.
We should read their tongue, meaning her sisters. Warburton. I think the present reading right. Johnson.
: No less in space, validity,] Validity, for worth, value ; not for integrity, or good title. Warburton.
So, in The Devil's Charter, 1607: “ The countenance of your friend is of less value than his councel, yet both of very small validity.” Steevens.
confirm’d-] The folio reads, conferrd. Steevens. Why was not this reading adhered to? It is equally good sense and Better English. We confer on a person, but we confirm to him.
M. Mason. Now, our joy, &c.] Here the true reading is picked out of two copies Butter's quarto reads:
But now our joy,
" What can you say to win a third,” &c. The folio:
Now our joy,
6. Strive to be intress'd. What can you say.” &c. Johnson. 2 Although the last, not least ; &c.] So, in the old anonymous play, King Leir speaking to Mumford :
to thee last of all; “ Not greeted last, 'cause thy desert was small.” Steeverts. Again, in The Spanish Tragedy, written before 1593:
“ The third and last, not least, in our account.” Malone.
The vines of France, and milk of Burgundy,
Cor. Nothing, my lord.
Cor. Unhappy that I am, I cannot heave
Lear. How, how, Cordelia ?6 mend your speech a little,
my You have begot me, bred me, lov’d me: I Return those duties back as are right fit, Obey you, love you, and most honour you. Why have my sisters husbands, if they say, They love you all? Haply, when I shall wed, That lord, whose hand must take my plight, shall carry Half my love with him, half my care, and duty: Sure, I shall never marry
iny sisters, To love my father all.7
Lear. But goes this with thy heart ?8
3 Strive to be interess:d ;] To interest and to interesse, are not, per. haps, different spellings of the same verb, but are iwo distinct words though of the same import; the one being derived from the Latin, the other from the French interesser. Steevens. to draw -] The quarto reads-what can you say, to win.
Steevens. 3 Lear. Nothing? Cor. Nothing.] These two speeches are wanting in the quartos.
Steevens. 6 How, how, Cordeliu?) Thus the folio. The quartos read-Go to, Foto. Steevens.
? To love my father all.] These words are restored from the first edition, without which the sense was not complete. Pope.
8 But goes this with thy heart?] Thus the quartos, and thus I have no doubt Shakspeare wrote, this kind of inversion occurring often in his plays, and in the contemporary writers. So, in King Henry VIII:
- and make your house our Tower.” Again, in The Merchant of Venice:
That many may be meant “ By the fool multitude." See Vol. IV, p. 358, n. 7. The editor of the folio, not understanding this kind of phraseology,
Ay, good my lord. Lear. So young, and so untender?9 Cor. So young, my lord, and true.
Lear. Let it be so, -Thy truth then be thy dower: For, by the sacred radiance of the sun ; The mysteries of Hecate, and the night; By all the operations of the orbs, From whom we do exist, and cease to be; Here I disclaim all my paternal care, Propinquity and property of blood, And as a stranger to my heart and me Hold thee, from this,” for ever. The barbarous Scythian, Or he that makes his generation messes To gorge his appetite, shall to my bosom Be as well neighbour'd, pitied, and reliev'd, As thou my sometime daughter. Kent.
Good my liege, Lear. Peace, Kent ! Come not between the dragon and his wrath : I lov'd her most,4 and thought to set my rest On her kind nursery.--Hence, and avoid my sight!
[To CORDELIA. substituted the more common form-But goes thy heart with this? as in the next line he reads, Ay, my good lord, instead of- Ay, good my loril, the reading of the quartos, and the constant language of Shakspeare. Malone. 9 So young, and so untender ?] So, in Shakspeare's l'enus and Adonis:
“ Ah me, quoth Venus, young, and so ukini.?" Maone. 1 The mysteries of Hecute, ] The quartos have mistress, the filio miseries. The emendation was made by the editor of the second folio, who likewise suustituted operations in the next line for operation, the reading of the original copies.
Malone. 2 Hold thee from this,] i. e. from this time. Steevens.
-generation --- ] i. e. his children. Malone 4 I loo't her most,] So, in Holinshed: “- - which daughters he grea'iy loved, but especially Cordeilla, the youngest, farre above the two elder.” Malone.
5 [ To Cordelia.] As Mr. Heath supposes, to Kent For in the next words Lear sends for France and Burgundy to offer Cordelia without a dowry. Steevens.
Mr. M. Mason observes, that Kent did not yet deserve such treatment from the King, as the only words he had uttered were “Good my liege.” Reed.
Surely such quick transitions or inconsistencies, which ever they are called, are perfectly suited to Lear's character. I have no doubt that
So be my grave my peace, as here I give
Revenue, execution of the rest,
Lear. The bow is bent and drawn, make from the shaft.
Kent. Let it fall rather, though the fork invade
the direction now given is right. Kent has hitherto said nothing that could extort even from the choleric king so harsh a sentence, having only interposed in the mildest manner. Af erwards indeed, when he remonstrates with more freedom, and calls Lear a madman, the king exclaims—' Out of my sight!” Malone.
Only we still retain -] Thus the quarto. Folio: we shall retain. Malone.
- all the additions to a king ;] All the titles belonging to a king. See Vol. XII, p. 85, n. 5. Malone.
execution of the rest,] The execution of the rest is, I suppose, all the other business. Johnson.
9 As my great patron thought on in my prayers,] An allusion to the custom of clergymen praying for their patrons, in what is commonly called the bidding prayer. Henley.
See also note to the epilogue to King Henry IV, Part II, Vol. IX, p. 193, n. 1. Reed.
1 Thinks't thou, that duty shall have dread to speak, &c.] I have given this passage according to the old folio, from which the modern edi. tions have silently departed, for the sake of better numbers, with a