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KNOW YE THEREFORE, That we (favouring the Petition and good Purpose of the laid William Penn, and having Regard to the Memory and Merits of his late Father in divers Services, and particularly to his Conduct, Courage, and Discretion under our dearest Brother JAMĚS Duke of York, in that fignal Battle and Victory fought and obtained against the Dutch Fleet, commanded by the Heer Van Opdam, in the Year 1665 : In Consideration thereof, of our special Grace, certain Knowledge, and meer Motion) have given and granted, and by this our present Charter, for us, our Heirs and Successors, do give and grant unto the said William Penn, his Heirs and Affigns, all that I'ract or Part of Land in America, with the Iflands therein contained, as the fame is bounded on the East by Delaware River, from twelve Miles Distance Northwards of New castle Town, unto the three-and-fortieth Degree of Northern Latitude, if the said River doth extend so far Northward : But if the said River shall not extend fo far Northward, then by the faid River fo far as it doth extend, and from the Head of the faid River the Eastern Bounds are to be determined by a Meridian Line, to be drawn from the Head of the said River, unto the said forty-third Degree. The said Land to extend Westward five Degrees in Longitude, to be computed from the faid Eastern Bounds; and the faid Lands to be bounded on the North by the Beginning of the three-and-fortieth Degree of Northern Latitude, and on the South by a Circle drawn at twelve Miles Distance from Newcaftle Northward, and Westward unto the Beginning of the fortieth Degree of Northern Latitude, and then by a strait

Line Westwards to the Limits of Longitude abovementioned.

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We do also give and grant unto the said William Penn, his Heirs and Affigns, the free and undisturbed Use and Continuance in, and Paflage unto, and out of all and singular Ports, Harbours, Bays, Waters, Rivers, Illes, and Inlets, belonging unto, or leading to and from the Country or Iflands aforesaid, and all the Soils, Lands, Fields, Woods, Underwoods, Mountains, Hills, Fenns, Ifles, Lakes, Rivers, Waters, Rivulets, Bays, and Inlets, situated or being within, or belonging to the Limits or Bounds aforesaid, together with the Fishing of all Sorts of Fish, Whales, Sturgeon, and all royal and other Fishes, in the Seas, Bays, Inlets, Waters, or Rivers within the Premisses, and all the Fish therein taken ; and also all Veins, Mines, Minerals, and Quarries, as well discovered as not discovered, of Gold, Silver, Gems, and precious Stones, and all other whatsoever, be it Stones, Metals, or of any other Thing or Matter whatsoever, found or to be found within the Country, Ines, or Limits aforesaid.

SECT. III.

And him, the said William Penn, his Heirs and Afligns, we do, by this our Royal Charter, for us, our Heirs and Successors, make, create, and conItitute, the true and absolute Proprietary of the Country aforesaid, and of all other the Premisles : Saying always to us, our Heirs and Successors, the Faith and Allegiance of the said William Penn, his Heirs and Asigns, and of all other Proprietaries, Tenants, and Inhabitants, that are or shall be with

in the Territories and Precincts aforesaid ; and faving also unto us, our Heirs and Successors, the Sovereignty of the aforesaid

Country, to have, hold, poffefs, and enjoy the faid Tract of Land, Country, īnes, Inlets, and other the Premisses, unto the said William Penn, his Heirs and Aligns, to the only proper Use and Behoof of the said William Penn, his Heirs and Alligns, for ever, to be

holden of us, our Heirs and Succeffors, Kings of England, as of our Castle of Windsor in our County of Berks, in free and common Soccage, by Fealty only for all Services, and not in Capite or by Knights Service : Yielding and paying therefore to us, our Heirs and Succeffors, two Beaver-skins, to be delivered at our Castle of Windsor on the first Day of January in every Year; and also the fifth Part of all Gold and Silver Ore, which shall from Time to Time happen to be found within the Limits aforesaid, clear of all Charges. And of our further Grace, certain Knowledge, and meer Motion, we have thought fit to erect, and we do hereby erect the aforesaid Country and Islands into a Province and Seignorie, and do call it PENNSYLVANIA, and so from henceforth will have it called.

SECT. IV.

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And forasmuch as we have hereby made and ordained the aforesaid William Penn, his Heirs and Alligns, the true and absolute Proprietaries of all the Land and Dominions aforesaid, KNOW YE THEREFORE, That we (reposing special Trust and Confidence in the Fidelity, Wisdom, Justice, and provident Circumspection of the faid William Penn) for us, our Heirs and Successors, do grant free, full, and absolute Power" (by Virtue of these Presents) to him and his Heirs, to his and their Deputies, and Lieutenants, for the good and

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happy Government of the said Country, to ordain, make, and enact, and under his and their Seals to publish, any Laws whatsoever, for the raifing of Money for publick Uses of the said Province, or for any other End, appertaining either unto the # publick State, Peace, or Safety of

the said Country, or unto the private Utility of particular Persons, according unto their best Discretion, by and with the Advice, Allent, and Approbation of the Freemen of the said Country, or the greater Part of them, or of their Delegates or Deputies, whom, for the enacting of the said Laws, when, and as often as Need shall require, we will that the said William Penn and his Heirs, shall assemble in fuch Sort and Form, as to him and them shall seem best; and the same Laws duly to execute, unto and upon all People within the said Country and Limits thereof.

SECT. V.

And we do likewise give and grant unto the faid William Penn, and to his Heirs, and their Deputies and Lieutenants, full Power and Authority to appoint and establish any Judges and Justices, Magistrates, and other Officers whatsoever, for what Causes soever, (for the Probates of Wills, and for the granting of Administrations within the Precincts aforesaid) and with what Power soever, and in such Form, as to the faid William Penn, or his Heirs, shall seem most convenient: Also to remit, release, pardon, and abolish (whether before Judgment or after) all Crimes and Offences whatsoever, committed within the said Country, against the said Laws, (Treason and wilful and malicious Murder only excepted, and in those Cases to grant Reprieves, until our Pleasure may be known therein) and to do all and every other Thing and Things,

which unto the compleat Establishment of Justice unto Courts and Tribunals, Forms of Judicature, and Manner of Proceedings do belong, although in these Presents express Mention be not made thereof; and by Judges by them delegated, to award Process, hold Pleas, and determine in all the said Courts and Tribunals all Actions, Suits, and Causes whatsoever, as well criminal as civil, personal, real, and mixt; which Laws so, as aforė. said, to be published, our Pleasure is, and so we enjoin, require, and command, shall be most abfo. lute and available in Law; and that all the Liege People and Subjects of us, our Heirs and Succelfors, do observe and keep the same inviolably in those Parts, so far as they concern them, under the Pain therein expressed, or to be expressed. PROVIDED nevertheless, That the same Laws be consonant to Reason, and not repugnant or comtrary, but (as near as conveniently may be) agreeable to the Laws and Statutes, and Rights of this our Kingdom of England, and saving and reserving to us, our Heirs and Succeffors, the receiving, hearing, and determining of the Appeal and Appeals of all or any Person or Persons, of, in, or belonging to the Territories aforesaid, or touching any Judgment to be there made or given.

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SECT. VI.

And forasmuch as in the Government of so great a Country, sudden Accidents do often happen, whereunto it will be necessary to apply Remedy, before the Freeholders of the faid Province, or their Delegates or Deputies, can be assembled to the making of Laws; neither will it be convenient that instantly upon every such emergent Occasion, fo great a Multitude should be called together: Therefore (for the better Government of the said CounVOL. II.

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