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that is accepted from them, as the hopes which are given to them, are become a fort of creditors; and these debtsy being debts of honour, ought, according to the accustomed maxim, to be first discharged.
WHEN I speak of dependents, I would not be understood to mean those who are worthless in themselves, or who, without any call, will press into the company of their betters. Nor, when I speak of patrons, do I mean those who either have it not in their power, or have no obligation to assist their friends } but I speak of fich leagues where there is power and obligation on the one part, and merit and expectation on the other.
The division of patron and client, may, I believe, include a third of our nation; the want of inerit and real worth in the client, will strike out about ninety nine in a hundred of these; and the want of ability in patróns, as many of that kind. But however, I must beg leave to say, that he who will take up another's time and fortune in his service, though he has no prospect of rewarding his merit towards him, is as unjust in his dealings, as he who takes up goods of a tradesman without intention or ability to pay hin. Of the few of the class which I think it to confia der, there are not two in ten who succeed, insomuch that I know a man of good sense, who put his fon to a blackfinith, though an offer was made him of his being received as a page to a man of quality. There are not more cripples come out of the wars than there are froin thofe great services; some tlırough discontent lose their speech, some their memories, others their senses or their lives; and I seldom fee a man thoroughly discontented; but I conclude he has had the favour of fume great man. I have known of such as have been for twenty years together within a month of a good employment, but never arrived at the happiness of being pofleffed of any thing.
There is nothing more ordinary, than thst a man who has got into a considerable station, shall immediately alter his manner of treating all his friends, and from that moment he is to deal with you as if he were your foe. You are no longer to be consulted, even in matters which concern yourself; but your patron is of a species above you, and a free communication with you is not to be expe ted. This, perhaps, may be your condition all the while he VOL. III.
It is very
bears office, and when that is at an end, you are as intimate as ever you were, and be will take it
very ill if you keep the distance he prescribed you towards him in his grandeur. One would think this should be a behaviour a man could fall into with the worst grace imaginable, but they who know the world have seen it more than once I have often, with secret pity, heard the same man, who has professed bis abhorrence against all kind of pallive behaviour, lose minutes, hours, days, and years in a fruitless attendance on one who had no inclination to befriend him. much to be regarded, that the great have one particular privilege above the rest of the world, of being flow in receiving impressions of kindness, and quick in taking offence. The elevation above the rest of mankind, except in very great minds, inakes men so giddy, that they do not fee after the same manner they did before: thus they despise their old friends, and strive to extend their interest to new pretenders. By this means it often happens, that when you come to know how you loft such an employment, you will find the man who got it never dreamed of it; but, forsooth, he was to be surprised into it, or perhaps folicited to receive it. Upon such occasions as these a man may perhaps grow out of humour; if you are so, all man. kind will fall in with the patron, and you are an humorist and untractable if you are capable of being four at a disappointinent: but it is the same thing, whether you do or do not resent ill usage, you will be used after the same man. ner; as fome good mothers will be sure to whip their :children till they cry, and then whip then for crying.
THERE are but two ways of doing any thing with great people, and those are by making yourself cither considerable or agreeable; the former is not to be attained but by finding a way to live without them, or concealing that you want them; the latter is only by falling into their taste and pleasures: - this is of all the employments in the world the moft servile, except it happens to be of your own natiral humour. For to be agreeable to another, especially if he be above you, is not to be possessed of such qualities and accomplishments as should render you agreeable in yourself, but fuch as inake you agreeable in respect to hiin. An imitation of his faults, or a compliance, if not fubfersience to his vices, must be the measures of your conduct.
When it comes to that, the unnatural state a man lives in, when his patron pleases, is ended;' and his guilt and complaisance are objected to him, tho' the man who rejects him for his vices was not only his partner but seducer. Thus the client (like a young woman who has given up the innocence which made her charming) has not only lost his time, but also the virtue which couldi render liin capable of resenting the injury which is done him.
It would be endless to recount the tricks of turning you off from themselves to persons who have less power to ferve you, the art of being forry for such an unaccountable accident in your behaviour, that such a one (who, periiaps, has never heard of you) opposes your advanceinent; and if you
have any thing more than ordinary in you, you are flattered with a whisper, that it is no wonder people arefo flow in doing for a man of your talents, and the like.
AFTER all this treatment; I must still add the pleasantest infolence of all, which I have once or twice seen; to wit, that when a filly rogue has thrown away one part in three of liis life in unprofitable attendance, it is taken tveidei fully ill that ne withdraws, and is réfülied to einploy the rest for himself.
When we consider these things, and reflct upon so many lionest natures (which one, who makes observation of what passes, may have seen) that have miscarried by such sort of applications, it is too melancholy a scene to dwell-upon; therefore I shall take another opportunity to · discourse of good patrons, and distinguish such as have done their duty to those who have depended upon them; and were not able to act without their favour. Vorthy patrons are like Plato's guardian -angels, who are always duing good to their wards ; but negligent patrons gre like Epicurus's gods, that lie lolling on the clouds; and, instead of blessings, pour down storins and tempests on the heads of those that are offering incenle.to-thern..
Tuesday, November 6.
- Ingenuas didiciffe fideliter artes Emoliit mores, nec finit alle feros.
Ovid. ep. 9. 1. 2. de ponto. V. 47.
Ingenuous arts, where they an entrance find,
CONSIDER an huinan foul without education like
marbel in the quarry, which shews pone of its inherent beauties, till the skill of the polisher fetches out the colours, inakes the surface shine, and discovers every ornamental cloud, spot and vain that runs through the body of it.. Education, after the same manner, when it works upon a noble mind, draws out to vie:v every latent virtue and perfection, whicle without such helps are never able to make their
appearance, If my reader will give me loave to change thie alluficar fu foon upon him, I Mall make use of the fame instance to illustrate the force of cducation, which Arifi otle has. brought to explain his doctrine of fubftantial forms, when lie tells tis tut a statue lics hid ip a block of marble; and that the art of the statuary only clears away the superflu.. ous matter, and removes the rubbish. The figure is in the stone, the sculptor only finds it. What sculpture is. to a block of marble, educatioy is to an human soul. The pliilosopher, the faint, or the hero, the wise, the good, or. the great man, very often lie hid and concealed in a plea beian, which a proper education might have dif-interreda and have brought to light. I am therefore niuch delightcd with reading the accounts of lavage nations, and with contemplating those virtues, which are wild and uncultivas ted'; to sec courage exerting itself in fiercepels, resolution . in obstinacy, wisdom'in cunning, patience in fullenness and delpair.
Men's passions operate variously, and appear in different kinds of actions, according as they are inore or less rectified and swayed by reason. When one hears of negroese, who, upon the death of their masters, or upon changing iheir
Service, hang themselves upon the next tree, as it frequent-ly happens in our American plantations, who can forbear admiring their fidelity, tho' it expresses itself in fo dreadful a manner? What might not that "favage greatness of soul which appears in these poor wretches many
occafi. ons, be raised to, were it rightly cultivated ? And what colour of excuse can there be for the contempt with which we treat this part of our species that we should not put. theui.upon the common foot of humanity, that we should only set an insignificant fme upon the nian who murders them; nay, that we should, as much as in us lies, cut them off from the prospects of happiness in another world as well as in this, and deny them that which we look up.-on as the proper means for attaining it?
SINCE I am engaged on this subject, I cannot forbear mentioning a story which I have lately heard, and which is fo well attested, that I have no manner of reason to furo pect the truth of it. I may call it a kind of wild tragedy: that paffed about twelve years ago at St Christophers, one of our British leeward islands. The negroes, who were. the persons concerned in it; were all of them the slaves of a gentleman who is now in England. This gentleman among g his negroes
young woman, who was looked upon as a moft extraordinary beauty by those of her own coinplexion. He had at the same
fellows who were likewise negroes and Nives, reinarkable for the comeliness of their persons, and for the friendship which they bore to one another. It unfortunately happened that both of their fell in love with the female negroe above-mentioned, who would have been very glad to have taken either of them for her husband, provided they could agree between themselves which should bé the man.
But they were both so passionately in love with her, that neither of them could think of giving her up to his rival; and at the faine time were fo true to one another, that neither of thein would think of gaining her without his friend's confent. The torments of these two lovers were the discourse of the finily to which they be longed, who could not forbear observing the strange complication of paffions which perplessed the hearts of the poor negroes, that often dropped expressions of the unealiness.
tinie two young