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No. 209.]

FEBRUARY 1, 1811.

[1 of VOL. 31,

Al long as those who write are ambitious of making converts, and of giving their Opinione i Maximum of

Inuence and Celebrity, the mom exteulively circulated Miscellany will repay with the greateu Lied the Curiosity of those who read either for Amusement of instruction.-JOHNSON.

ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. For the Month!y Muguzine. partners or head clerks, and the pupils Now there comes the inhabitants on and apprentices are doresticated there, all the new houses built in the suburbs of the population of the city reinains nearly london?

the same, and is probably not aifected Nothing can be more rational than to the nuinber of a thousand souls by such an enquiry; at least one thousand the affectation and extravagancies of houses per annum having been finished this class of citizens.. in the suburbs of London during the last The sober and more respectable city forty years—yet every new house is taken families have their country-houses at and occupied before it is finished, or its distances varying between four and ten walls dry! This mce of increase teiny miles from St. Paul's. These are proten times greater than it was between bably ten thousand in number; but as the death of Elizabeth and the accession their houses are not an integral part of of the Hanoverian family, the causes the metropolis, they form, of course, no may be deserving of investigation, not part of the population of the forty thouonly as inatter of curiosity, but with re. sand new houses built within forty years ference to their connection with the soi- in the suburbs. Even these ten thouse Ence of political economy.

sand families diminish but slightly the As the new houses are generally of resident population of the metropolis, respectable size, and may be taken at because they generally dwell in their the full number of eight souls to a house, town-bouses in the winter season; and, in the population of the metropolis is as- summer, these are . occupied by junior certained, from the occupation of the partners, clerks, or shopmen. new buildings, to have increased in the I refer to seven causes chiefly, the agpresent age upwards of three hundred gregation of the houses and population thousand souls. So rapid an increase of of the suburbs of the metropolis. inbabitants is not therefore to be ac- 1. London is not only the ancient me. counted for on ordinary principles; and it tropolis of England and Wales, but it is obviously involves a variety of consi- now she new metropolis of the added derations.

kingdoms of Scotland and Ireland; and It is not unusual to account for the moreover, of our increased colonies in all occupation of the new streets, by advert- parts of the world. In the reign of Eli. ing to a change of manners among the zabeth, it was the metropolis of about citizens and the trading classes. It is seven millions of people, but it is now the said, and with truth, that the houses of metropolis of an aggregation of twenty trade do not satisfy the citizens of our millions. It is not theretore to be won. days, and that, to avoid the smell and dered, without referring to other causes, bustle of the shop, the dwelling-house that London has increased to treble its must be at a distance. Doubtless, fron size since that time, and that the popus this cause, many capital houses at the lation within ten miles of St. Paul's, west end of London are occupied by biil. should be four times grenter. All the manufacturers called bankers, by bank colonists consider London as their home; directors, by upstart monopolists, and it is the focus of their correspondence successful speculators, in various branches and interests; their fortunes are remitted of trade. These, however, are not nu- to it; and here they find pleasanter merous, probably they do not exceed five means of spending them than among their hundred families; and, as their houses of native wilds, whether in Scotland, trade are generally occupied by junior Ireland, Yorkshire, or other districts. Alox]uLX Mao, No, 209.,


These persons, with their families, form, teneinents, either on annuities, on the beyond a doubi, a considerable portion bounty of government, or by their labour of the new population of the suburbs of in various departments of the arts. London; probably they occupy at least 6. The sixth class of independent tive thousand of the largest new houses : residents in the suburbs, are an increased I shall remark, by the hye, that they nuinber of persons who have made fora also form a considerable portion of the tunes of various amounts in trade. idle inhabitants of Bath, Cheltenham, These occupy at least two thousand of Clifton, Brighton, and other fashionable the new houses, of all sizes. watering-places.

7. The enormous increase of the army 2. The increase of our government and navy, and the consequent increase establishments, the treasury, the cus- of officers living on half-pay, and on pentoms, the excise, army, navy, and taxe sions, leads to the occupation of at least offices; and of our great trading coin-iwo thousand houses in the immediate panies, the Bank, the India-house, and vicinity of London, not only for the Others of bill-brokers, bankers, and prie advantages of society, but for the convate establishments, furnishes at least venience of receiving their annuities, and three thousand competent occupiers of jinproving their interests with adminis the new houses. None of these esta- tration. blishments, or occupations, provide Hence, from these seven causes, we board and lodging for their clerks and have no difficulty in accounting for the their families; lience all houses from occupation of part of the recent forty forty pounds to one hundred pounds per thousand new houses, by the families of annum, in new and pleasant streets, are

5000 Colonists, and persons who have made eagerly taken by this class, and they are

their fortunes in the East or West constantly on the increase in their several

Indies. departments.

3000 Clerks in public offices, in banking3. Persons who live upon annuities

houses, &c. derived from the increased public funds, 3000 Annuitants of the funds and stocks and from the numerous stock companies

companies. created in the metropolis within the last

3000 Artists of luxury. twenty or thirty years, are a large class 2000 Emigrants of all nations. of

2000 Retired traders. metropolitan housekeepers.

2000 Officers of the army and navy. They feel a local interest and attachment; they are, besides, in general,

20,000 Families. natives, or old residents of London; and they prefer receiving their interest in Having thus accounted for the avg. person to confiding it to any agent. mented population of twenty thousand These occupy at least three thousand houses, it is easy to conceive that as of the new built houses, at rents at from many more are greedily taken by tradesfifty to two hundred pounds per annum. men and others, who purpose to obtain

4. The general increase of the metro- a living out of those by trade and labour polis, by adding to the mass of luxury, of various kinds. There will be bakers, has increased the number of artizans, butchers, fruiterers, grocers, publicand persons employed on objects of lux- houses, barbers, laylors, shoe-makers, wry, such as painters, engravers, jewe hatters, carpenters, smiths, bricklayers, allers, embroiderers, authors, designers, schoolmasters, lawyers, apothecaries, -architects, and others of lıke description; physicians, and all the varieties which and these require three thousand compose the industrious and enterprising small habitations among the new build. part of a cominunity, supporting them. ings in the retired streets around the ine- selves out of the wants of the twenty tropolis.

thousand independent families, and also 5. Another distinct large class of re- on the mutual wants of each other. sidents, in the inmediate environs of To what extent this increase of a meLondon, are French, Dutch, Spanish, tropolis can be advantageously carried, German, Italian, and other emigrants it is impossible to anticipate. Ancient who, during the late wars and revolutions, Rome was said to be sixiy miles round; have fled to England, as a place of se- and London is not yet more than twenty. curity, and who, by the alien laws, are To equat ancient Rome, it must include attached w the metropolis. I estimate Stratford to the east, and Brentford on those to amount to about two thousand the west; Flanıpstead and Highgate on fainilies; and they live in the smaller the north; and Clapham and Camber


well on the south; betsveen which places able that the town should be more comand London, there now are open spaces pact; but it is desirable in regard 10 larger than London itself,

health, that it should spread itself to the I cantess I have my doubts about the neighbouring villages. It is however alleged size of ancient Rome; and I sus. worthy of consideration, whether the in). pect there never existed so large and po. terior of the lown does not draw inore pulous a city as London, or as London attention, and there can be no doubt but will be, within seven years, when the new good streets near the centre of business, streets and squares are erected which would be preferred like Finsbury Square have lately becn planned on every side of and Chatham Place, to similar streets in the town. Twenty thousand houses are remote parts of the town. A grand mall, already projected in various situations; on the plan of the Adelphi, might be and, judging from the demand for new built on the south side of the Thames, houses, and the uniform success which from London to Westminster-bridge; has attended building-speculations for Smithfield might be converted into an several years past, I entertain no doubt elegant square, and some elegant streets that they will be completed and occupied built in its neighbourhood, on the present wilbin je period abovc-named. If we scites of disease and misery. A grand retaia oor foreign colonies, and the con. cross strect, from Blackfriar's-bridge to tinent of Europe continues to be dis. Pentonville, with good collateral streets, turbed by revolutions and military cone is much wanted. In short, most of the quest, as it has been for the last twenty old streets in the centre of the town, years, I have no doubt but in another are as worthy of building-speculation as iwenty of thirty years, the fields and scites in the suburbs. Cross streets are roads between London and the above every where wanted; and half a dozen mentioned villages, will be filled with squares northward of the city, would houses, and the population increased answer as well as Finsbury Square: St. from three quarters of a million to a Martin's-le-Grand should be pulled down, million and a half

. This is the necessary, and Aldersgate-street carried straight, consequence of increased empire, of in and of equal width, to meet Newgatesular security, of civil and religious lic street, at the area which terminates berty, and of public confidence. Cheapside. Bartholomew Close might

It is idle to talk of limiting the extent be converted into another elegant square; or size of the town by law, unless you and Charterhouse-square would be a decould prevent colonists, aliens, and an- sirable residence, if connected with the nuitants, from coming to dwel? among town by Aldersgate-street; as would St. us. Whether the increased population John's-square, if united by a good street should be provided for by improvements with Smithfield-square. It is impolitic and in the interval parts of the town, or senseless to carry the town to Highgate, whether by indefinite enlargement, is Hampstead, and Clapham, when so bad however a question worthy of consider- a use is made of its internal parts; where ation. Already the town is found to be whole districts consist alınost of waste of inconvenient size for social and ground, or are occupied by begyary and trading purposes; the foreign or country wretchedness. trader, who has many calls to make, finds I bave otten marvelled at the want of his time and labour wasted in going froin concert and general plan with which the ove end of so large a town to the other. extensive suburbs are raised, after read. There has long ceased to be any common ing the lamentations of writers in regard interest between the remote parts of so to the neglect of all plan, in rebuilding the immense a city: the inhabitant of Mary, city after the great fire. We see street on le-bone is a foreigner in Wapping; and street rising every where, without any so is the inhabitant of Spital Fields, in general design; every undertaker build Westminster. There are thousands who ing after his own fancy, and to suit the have arrived at old age in one half of patch of ground of which he is the mas. London, who never visited the other ter. Perhaps it is now too late for parhalf; and other thousands who never saw liament to prescribe the plan of future a słup, thougli London is the first port in erections; or rather, in this free country the world. Of course, these are beings of magnificence must yield to convenience, very different habits and characters; and and a fancied public good, to private they possess even a varied pronunciation interest. and peculiar idioms. For convenience of In conclusion, I shall observo, predc and association, it would be desir- that great cities contain in their very


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