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2. To complete, as a predicate, a verbal notion of pos

session with the verb Be : Every subject's duty is the king's.Shakespeare. NOTE 1.—The use of the Possessive in our older writers is much more common with names of persons than with names of things.

NOTE 2.—The Noun on which the Possessive depends is often omitted in well-known expressions : as

We went to St. Paul's (Church).

Run to the doctor's (house). Here we have examples of a form of speech called Ellipsis (from a Greek word meaning leaving out), which consists in the omission of a word necessary to complete the sentence.

NOTE 3.–Of and the Possessive Case are used together; for example, we say, “A friend of my brother's," meaning, “ One among the number of my brother's friends ;” and “This is a horse of my father's,” meaning, “ This is one of the horses belonging to my father.”

THE DATIVE CASE. 55. A Noun or Pronoun, expressing the person for whom an action is performed, not having a Preposition before it, is said to be in the Dative Case. The form of this case is the same as that of the objective. The name dative is selected for it, because it is usual with Verbs of giving to have an objective case of the thing given, and another Noun expressing the person to whom the gift is made.

He brought me a letter.
I grant you this favour.
I gave John a penny.

Lend me a pencil.
Heat me these irons hot.-Shakespeare.

PART 11.


56. School is over. The boys rush out. They run. They leap. They shout.

Here are five simple sentences, the last four of which can be arranged in a single sentence: thus

The boys rush out, and run, and leap, and shout. In the first arrangement the last three sentences are connected with the second sentence by the Pronoun they: in the second arrangement the word and effects the connexion, and is for that reason called a Conjunction. But observe that the Pronoun forms part of the sentence attached by it to the preceding sentence, whereas the Conjunction forms no part of either sentence.

57. A Compound Sentence contains two or more Simple Sentences. If they are connected, but are grammatically independent of each other, they are called Co-ordinate Sentences, that is, sentences on a footing of equality, each depending in no way on the other : if they are not independent of each other, one is called the Principal Sentence, and the others Subordinate Sentences. For example,

I shall go to him, but he shall not return to me, is a compound sentence, made up of two independent sentences connected by the word but; and

I go that I may prepare a place for you. is a compound sentence, made up of a principal sentence, I go, and a sentence expressing the purpose of the departure, and thus subordinate to the principal sentence.

NOTE.—The second of these sentences is usually called a Complex Sentence. See Part V.

Conjunctions. 58. Conjunctions are words that join words to words, phrases to phrases, and sentences to sentences. They are divided into1. Co-ordinate Conjunctions, which join words to words,

phrases to phrases, and co-ordinate sentences to co

ordinate sentences. 2. Subordinate Conjunctions, which join subordinate sen

tences to principal sentences. Examples of these will be found in Part V.

CO-ORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. 59. Of these there are four kinds1. Copulative Conjunctions. And-words; that is, words

of which and is the chief type.
And, too, also, moreover, besides, further.
2. Alternative Conjunctions. Or-words.

Or, nor, else, otherwise, either, neither.
3. Adversative Conjunctions. But-words.
But, yet, nevertheless, notwithstanding, though, how-

ever, save, whereas.
4. Inferential Conjunctions. Therefore-words.

Therefore, then, so, consequently, accordingly. 60. And merely connects, without modifying the sense of the words connected by it; and hence it may often be omitted. In lively descriptions, the occasional omission of and gives vigour to the style: as

I came; I saw; I conquered.

On right, on left, above, below,

Sprung up at once the lurking foe.--Scott. Suit the action to the word, the word to the action.-Shakespeare. The first word or phrase is sometimes introduced by Both :

And now there came both mist and snow,

And it grew wondrous cold.—Coleridge.

61. Or connects statements of which one, and one only, is asserted to be true : as

He would not, or he could not come.
Nelson either knew the danger, or suspected the deceit.

Either she hath bewitch'd me with her words,

Or nature makes me suddenly relent.--Shakespeare. If the first clause is a negative one, or brings the connected clause under the influence of the negative :

No war or battle's sound
Was heard the world around.-Milton.
The bleak wind of March

Made her tremble and shiver;
But not the dark arch,

Or the black flowing river.Hood. When nor connects a clause with a negative clause, a negative word is not used in the second clause :

He answers not, nor understands.— Tennyson.
In old writers this rule is not always observed-

All the skill I have
Remembers not these garments; nor I know not

Where I did lodge last night. --Shakespeare.
The form neithernor negatives both clauses :

His fate excited neither surprise nor compassion.--Gibbon. Neither the fortitude of Caractacus, nor the despair of Boadicea, nor the fanaticism of the Druids, could avert the slavery of their country.—Gibbon. Or is but rarely omitted :

Come one, come all, this rock shall fly

From its firm base as soon as I.-Scott. 62. But-words introduce a statement opposed to or restricting a statement in a preceding clause, or shewing the failure of some natural or likely consequence from such a statement :

The rose is fragrant, but it fades in time;
The violet sweet, but quickly past its prime.—Dryden.

Stand not upon the order of your going,

But go at once.Shakespeare. We had a limb cut off; but we preserved the body: we lost our colonies ; but we preserved our constitution.--Burke.

All the conspirators, save only he,
Did that they did in envy of great Cæsar. --Shakespeare.

Swiftly, swiftly flew the ship :

Yet she sailed softly too.--Coleridge.
But is sometimes omitted :

Man proposes : God disposes.
My words fly up, my thoughts remain below:

Words without thoughts never to heaven go.-Shakespeare. 63. Therefore-words introduce an inference or a conclusion drawn from a preceding statement :

I'll have my bond; I will not hear thee speak :
I'll have my bond, and therefore speak no more.

Shakespeare. God has made us to desire happiness; he has made our happiness dependent on society; and the happiness of society dependent on good or bad government. His intention, therefore, was that government should be good.Bolingbroke.

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