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employed six months in condensing their baggage, and, in short, every and bringing into a mass all his la- thing that constituted the materiel bours and researches, and he had of an army. They liad been comlaid before the house the result of pelled to abandon the strong milihis six months' concoction. After tary positions on the Ebro, which so long an absence from his parlia: they had been fortifying for months, mentary duty, he presented himself, and where they reckoned upon at the end of the session, just in time making a stand, if forced to relinto tell his constituents that he had quish that portion of Spain which been labouring for the service of they had previously heid. But the the navy. All the resolutions, with great talents of lord Wellington the exception of the first, constituted were not less displayed in the decia gross and scandalous libel on sive battle of Vittoria, than in the the navy; and although the house skill with which the campaign had could not consent to become parties been planned, and the rapidity with in the libel, he assured the noble which it had been conducted. Inlord, that if he thought proper to deed the enemy, confounded and write a pamphlet on the subject, subdued by superior skill, even beinstead of making a speech or pro- fore the action, seem not to have posing resolutions, he would pledge displayed that valour for which himself to answer it. All his they have been distinguished on statements and assertions were un- other occasions. They appear to founded imputations against the have fought with spirit only on two navy, against the house, against points: the one on their right, the country.

He trusted they where it was their object to cover would be met with a decided ne- or regain the main road to France gative, for the sake of the glory, by Bayonne, but in which they the reputation, and the valour of were completely repulsed by the the navy—of that great bulwark troops under sir T. Graham : the of our national independence, and other point was on the left, where of that safeguard of our liberties they endeavoured, in vain, to retake and happiness. He therefore im- the commanding positions that were plored the house, if the noble lord forced and maintained by the divi. dared to try the question, to reject sion of sir Rowland Hill. It was it by such a majority as would in this part of the field that colonel mark the sense and indignation of Cadogan received the wound which the house.

cost him his life. Feeling that his The motion was accordingly ne- wound was fatal, he made it his last gatived without a division.

request to his brother soldiers, that July 7, in the house of lords, earl they would convey him io a small Bathurst rose and observed, that eminence in the rear. There, seated the victory which their lordships with his back leaning against a were now called upon to comme- tree, he gazed on the field of battle morate, was of a nature as decisive till death shut his eyes in darkness, in itself, and as gigantic in its re- He was a gallant officer, as brave sults, as any which had graced the in accion as amiable and respectamilitary annals of England. Not ble in private life. He lord Baonly were the enemy defeated and thurst) lamented sincerely the losses driven off the field, but they had which our army su tained; but he lost all their artillery, their stores, believed they would be found in

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considerable, when compared with ledgements to those who had ad-
the magnitude of the victory which vised the prince regent to confer a
had been gained; a victory that mark of military honour on lord
would be ever memorable in the Welliugton, which was almost as
annals of this country, and of which unexampled as his services.
it was impossible to calculate the The marquis Wellesley, at the
beneficial consequences. It was close of an eloquent speech, said
not a little remarkable, that near the victory they were now cele.
the spot where this battle was brating was an achievement which
fought, another victory had been would shed an eternal lustre on our
obtained in one of the proudest history-a victory to be held in
days of England's martial glory: everlasting remembrance, and one
It was when Edward the Black which would excite the admiration
Prince defeated the usurper of the and applause of Englishmen to the
crown of Spain, who on that occa: latest posterity.
sion was supported by French Lord Holland was aware that
troops. How different, however, he could add nothing to what had
under all the circumstances, was been said on the subject in the for-
that battle from the present! How cible and eloquent speech of the
incomparably superior were the re- noble mover; and yet, considering
sources of France at the present that no man felt a warmer interest
day, compared to what they were than he did in the cause of the pen.
then! and how much greater the insula, he was unwilling to give
talents of the man who was at the merely a silent vote. From the
head of her government! Then commencement he hailed the pro.
France was only an auxiliary ; now gress of lord Wellington, and, in his
she was a principal; the victory own mind, could not help conceiv-
of the Black Prince was only the ing that he was marked out to
result of a single campaign, but this achicve the great“ object which
of a series of campaigns. Could there was now the happiest pro-
such a victory as the present have spect of seeing accomplished. The
been foretold to Edward, how necessity of the case, and the na-
would it have cheered him to have ture of the circumstances, were
seen the martial glory of his coun- calculated to bring forward the ta-
try still supporied, and that his lents of a great genius. When he
name would be transmitted to pos- saw lord Wellington, like another
terity, united to another exploit of Fabius, conquering by delay, and
a still higher order! Lord Bathurst restraining the impetuosity of his
concluded with moving, “ That army at one time ; at another seiz-
the thanks of this house be given ing the unexpected opportunity,
to field-marshal the marquis of and drawing success from retreat ;
Wellington, for the energy and and now saw him with a superior
distinguished skill with which he force turning it to the utmost pos-
has conducted the late operations sible account ; seeing his transcen-
of the campaign in Spain, and par- dent merits in all these particulars,
ticularly for the splendid victory he could not help saying, that par-,
which he obtained over the enemy liament had never voted its thanks
in the neighbourhood of Vittoria.” upon sounder principles,or for juster

Lord Rosslyn rose merely for the reasons.
purpose of expressing his acknow- Lord Lauderdale suggested that


a monu

2 monument ought to be erected ment. But he was sure the house to the memory of col. Cadogan. would hear with peculiar concern,

Lord Liverpool said, that as a that accounts were received, of the member of the government, as a correctness of which there could be peer, and as a man, he was bound no doubt, that notwithstanding the to attend to that suggestion; and solemn pledge of the prince regent more particularly as colonel Cado- of Portugal, the trade of the Porgan had been a private friend and tuguese in African slaves tad, since acquaintance.

the abolition of that traffic, increased Lord Castlereagh made a similar in a very considerable degree, and mộtion in the house of commons, accompanied too with fresh cirwhich was carried nem. con, cumstances of aggravation, with

July 14, in the house of com- such circumstances, indeed, as were mons, Mr. Wilberforce rose, pur- outrageous to common humanity. suant to notice, to move an address After expatiating with the most to the prince regent for the pro. impressive eloquence upon these duction of such information as had descriptions, the hon. member exbeen received with respect to the pressed his hope that Portugal, conduct of the Portuguese govern. which in fact owed to our navy

the ment, in consequence

of the treaty protection of the very vessels thus signed at Rio de Janeiro in Feb. ignominiously occupied, would be 1810, in which treaty the prince of yet brought to act upon her treaty, Brazils had pledged himself to co- and to respect the rights of justice operate with his Britannic majesty, and humanity. by adopting the most efficacious Lord Castlereagh expressed an means for the gradual abolition of entire concurrence with the sentithe slave trade throughout his do- ments of his hon. friend, and acminions. The hon. member read knowledged his forbearance in not the words of the treaty, containing bringing forward his motion at an a statement of the grounds upon earlier period, in consequence of which this pledge was entered into, the disappointment alluded to. He and observing that he need not re- lamented that disappointment; but mind the house of the resolutions in as it would be impossible to lay the same strain, adopted in 1806 any information upon this subject and 1810, for promoting the abo- before the house within the present lition of this odious traffic. He sessions, he submitted whether it expressed his satisfaction that our would not answer his wishes better government had evinced the utmost to withdraw his motion at present, sincerity and zeal in its endeavours giving notice of his intention to to accomplish the object of these bring it forward again, if he saw Tesolutions, not only in the treaty occasion, at an early period of the alluded to, but in its more recent next session. communications with Sweden. On the 22d of July parliament Therefore he wished it to be di- was prorogued by the prince regent; stinctly understood, that he did not on which occasion the speaker of mean to impute any disappoint, the house of commons addressed ment of the wishes of justice and his royal highness in a long speech, humanity upon this interesting sub- which, with the speech from the ject, to any want of zeal or exertion throne, will be found among the on the part of our own govern- Public Papers.

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vill. Necessity and Importance of taking a retrospective View of the Events of 1812

-Moral and political Change produced on ihe Coniinent of Errope during that rear-Great political Changes always attended with moral Changes instanced in the French Revolution-Sketch of the Causes of that Event, preparatory to the Sketch of the Causes of the Overthrow of the French Power The French rendered almost invincible by the Spirit of National Independence -by absurd but enthusiastic Id as of Libertyby the Development and proper Application of political and military Taleni— by tbeir Love of Glory-Causes of the Decline of the Power of BonaparteOppression of the conquerid Countries-anti-commercial System Haired of England-Character of bis

Armies destroyed in Spain-His mod Obstinacy in the Russian War. TH

THE change that took place in dily, clearly, and comprehensively.

the political and moral appear- In the midst of the wonderful events ance and condition of Europe, in of the year 1812, succeeding cach the course of the year 1812, was so other as they did with so much ragreat and momentous, and burst pidity, and confounding the conupon the astonished and delighted jectures and calculations of the eyes of the friends of human inde. most profound and experienced popendence and happiness so suddenly liticians, the heart was too much and unexpectedly, and in such a elated, the faculties of the mind were complete and perfect form, that we too much overpowered, to see them consider ourselves not merely justi- in all their importance, to trace them fied, but imperiously called upon, to back to their causes, or to anticipate devote this first chapter of the histo- the consequences which they were rical department of our work to a likely to produce. The annalist too, rapid sketch and development of the obliged from the very nature and causes which produced it. We have object of his work to confine his atcalled it a moral as well as a politi- tention to the events and transac. cal change; because we are firmly tions of the passing year, is necesand clearly of opinion, that every sarily cut off from those campre. great political change in the state hensive views which the historian and condition of nations must be (especially if he writes when all is preceded, accompanied and follow- before him, and when the feelings ed by a moral change; and to this which such events as those which moral change historians in general, occurred last year are calculated to too much occupied with the detail excite have subsided into tranquil. of battles, or with the characters of lity, and given ro


and kings, and what are called and es- nity for cool and sober judgement teemed great military and political and reflection to come in and exer; men, have paid too little attention cise their powers,) can minutely and and respect. We are induced to fully attend to. take this retrospect, because, while Before, however, we enter into a the change was taking place, or developnient and explanation of the rather while the consequences of its

causes which have tended so comhaving begun to operate were ma- pletely, and we trust permanently, nifesting themselves, it was impossi- to alter the appearance of Europe, ble for the mind to view them stea and the fate and fortunes of her in



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habitants, it may be proper to point With regard to the origin of the
out those causes which had brought French revolution, we are strongly
the continent into that abject and disposed to doubt, whether there.
miserable condition from which it existed, at the time, any very gene-
has now emerged: this we are in- ral or very powerful feeling of the
clined to do, because, if we are not oppression under which, in many
much mistaken, it will appear that respects, the bulk of the French
in both cases the political and mo- nation laboured: we are far from
ral changes were brought about denying that their condition, in
nearly at the same time, and from many respects, was bad, and both
the same causes. In this sketch of admitted of and required melio-
the events and transactions which ration; but we would lay it down
occurred at the commencement of as a sound and undoubted position,
the French revolution, and of the that when nations, as well as indivi.
means by which the French govern- duals, have been brought up in a
ment were enabled to subjugate by state of slavery and political degra-
far the greatest portion of the con- dation and misery, they are nearly,
tinent of Europe to their power, we if not quite, insensible to its exist-
shall carefully abstain from all re- ence: they do not know the mean-
ference to party topics or politics: ing of the terms freedom and inde-
the day is certainly now arrived, pendence; and till they are enlight-
when the most zealous and sanguine ened, all appeal to them on this sub-
admirer of the French revolution ject will be in vain. But there is one
at its commencement, must admit feeling and sentiment which all na-
that he was grossly and fatally mis- tions entertain, and which among
taken in the ideas which he formed even the most ignorant, abject, and
of its origin, nature, character, and enslaved, are sufficiently active and
probable effects on the happiness powerful to stir them up to the most
either of the French nation itself or determined and persevering acts of
of mankind in general ; while, on self-defence; we mean the feeling
the other hand, those who, either and sentiment of national independ-
from more profound and elightened ence. It may seem strange that it
views of man, from a more perfect should be so, and the speculative
knowledge of the French character, politician may ridicule and rejecț the
and of the persons who acted the notion ;-but all history, and espea
chief part at the commencement of cially the history of the last four
the revolution, or from the violent years, most unequivocally and a.
antipathy which they entertained bundantly proves, that nations to
against every thing which had the tally ignorant of the rights of civil,
appearance and held out the pro- political, and religious liberty, and
spect of promoting the liberty of the insensible to their calls, will be
human race;-all these, we say (for roused whenever their national in.
there were opponents of the French dependence is at:acked. Spain and
revolution of allthese classes), must Portugal are instances in point; and
allow, that the operations of the there can be little doubt that even
combined powers against France the inhabitants of Turkey would be
originated not in the most noble or animated with a much greater share
disinterested views, nor were con- of heroism, if their country were
ducted with sound wisdom and attacked by a foreign foe, than if

they were called to fight for the


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