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Any appropriation of a part of the re- this circumstance weuld form a decisive venue of the linking fund, in a way dif- objection to it; but it will appear, that, ferent to that in which it was originally on the supposition of the continuance of intended to operate, thould certainly be war for 20 years, and that it wouid be viewed with such a degree of jealousy neceffary to borrow 11,000,0001. annualas may prevent its milapplication; and ly on the present fyltein, tie anuunt of if the proposed arrangement, as it relates the money capital of ine debt which to the finking fund, tended in the finallest would be redeemed in each yeir would degree to retard the period when the be greater, and an amount equal to the whole annount of the debt, for the reduc- whole of the present debt, would be retion of which the fund is appropriated, deemed thiee years fooner by the prowould have otherwise been redeemed, poled plan, than by the prescut fyrien.
Money capital of debt Money capital of debt Larger amounts of which would have been which will be redeemed debt redeemed by the redeemed in each year, in each year by the pro- proposed plan than by by the present fyítem. pofed plan.
the preleut syltem.
The amount of the money capital of carried on, upon its present expensive the present debt, valuing 3 per cents. at scale, for three years, from the present 60 (the price on which the above tables time, without any additional taxes, that are formed) is 352,793,7221. It appears, it may be continued for seven years therefore, that, fupposing the 10¢ks to longer by impofing new taxes, to the continue at that price, an amount, equal arount, on an average, of only 293,000 to the prefent delt, would be redeemned, per annum; and, that after that period, by the proposed pla!), in 1824; wherens, it may till be carried on without any according to the present syltem, such an further additional taxes; while at the amount would not have been redeemed time the public are reaping these advantill the year 1827.
tages from the propofed arrangements The important advantages which the the finking fmd will be greatly auga public will derive from the proposed niented, and coníequently the reduction plan, thus appear to be, that if it thouki of the debt be greatly excelerated. be neceitary to continue the war, it may be
To the Editor of the Jonthly Magazine. my fentiments respecting the interval SIR,
bütween the bite and the subsequent A ,
vations on dogs, lately sent you, there better discriminated, thall be prohappening to take up a newspaper of duced. I do not, therefore, hesitate to the preceding day, I cast my eyes on repeat, that from five to fix weeks is a paragraph on the same subject, by fulficient for the continennent of a dog another anonymous writer,
suspected to be bitten, and that the Hc allerts, " that a dog bitten, but animal may from thence be allowed the separated and confined, remained free enjoyment of his liberty, without danger tur fire mouths, and then took the dif- of difcate; yet I Mall not inveigh agaiutt rate of which lie died; while several any one whose timidity may impel hiin others, bitten at the same time, had at to extend to his fulpected dog the time diferent intervals, previously become of confinement, if, in his own opinion, rabid and died."
it should render him securer and more This fact is given on the credit of an happy. I intili only on the truth of the huntiman. May we not alk, Was he general law, and have never found it qualified to judge, whether this was in to deviare in any instance, wherein my Cv.fcquence of the bite, or, whether it directions were concerned. might not be a diferent malady? Dogs, The laydrophobic poiton tahes a greatThe other animals, are subject to various er range from inoculation, till the lystein cuinplaints, and funie wlich nearly re- becomes infected, than any other confemble hydrophobia. There is a dif- tagious virus, fome indiances of typhus, eaie, which Dr. James and others call according to the obiervation of a redesió endness, under which the animals spectable auior, excepted, where many du not atcinpt to bite, but remain months intervened froin exposure to the lugth and ftupid till they die. This eiiluvia in one instance, before it betry be called ipurious, and of doubt- caune active, thouzh the general law in ful intaction; yet admitting the faći, as it, as in others, be well detined. It this writer intends, it makes only an ex- would, however, be unfair to take exception to a general law; which, instead treme cases, as well as unphilofophical of destroying, is a stronger confirmation and contrary to fixts to conclude that Some have taken the finall-pox ,twice, the lıydrophobic is uncertain and indeyet this will never deliroy the beliet finite as in its time of acting; yet this that the general character of the discale opinion bhs unfortunately long prevailis, to attack once only the fame indivi- ed, and has been copied by one author dual. The faine has been observed of from another without examining into the scariet fever, though I am confident the fact. that it is specific, and its general ch:- This ill-founded notion bas been raćter uimilar, in this respect, io the small- franght with much mitery to individuals. box. The general character, alfu, of the All the farrago of preventives have been vaccine virus, is to run through its stages eagerly fought after, and human health in about nine days, yet I have met, in deit:oyed, for more than half a life-tiine, my practice, with two cases, where the to obviate a disease, which it was believe inoculated punctures healed in two or ed might occur at any interval, froin an three days without the least appearance hour after the bite, to the most advanced of infection, and I coolidered it a failure. age. At the end of fifteen days, however, in A respectable person, in this county, que initance, and feventeen in the other, baving been bitten by a suspected hound, the punctares inflamed, went through and rendered miserable from this belief, their ttages, and a complete velicle was swallowed many noftrums. He melted prudaced at the usual period. Both down his conftitution with mercury, and these chuldren, exposed tince to the small- neither role nor lay down free from appor, to prove the eificacy of the vaccine prebentions for a series of years, till my prefervative, continue fecure from the animadversions on the subject happily variolous infection; while they prove, restored him to quiet of mind. Twenty at the same time, the dormant liate of years have lince elapsed, and he still the infection in these instances to have lives free from aların, enjoying his ufual tech nearly double that of the general health. The doctrine, I believe, is no luw, anumala which may not again hap- longer held by the faculty, though it exists pen is n thousand cales.
in full force among the generality of I am, therefore, little inclined to change the other orders in society.
From the collation of many cases, the In August, 1795, a little spaniel, faperiod between the bite and first symp- miliar with the children of a gentleman tom of the disease appears a little mort- of this place, bit one of them tlightly, er in quadrupeds, than in the human but sufficiently to draw blood; the paspecies. A dog bitten in Ipswich, Au- rents were alarmed, as mad dogs had gust 30, 1795, died chained, on the 24th been in the town a few wecks before, day after. In the neighbourhood where which caused many of the inhabitants, Dr. White resided, several animals were through apprehenlion, to kill their bitten, all of which took the disease and dogs. A surgeon was called to the died within the month. At another child, and the circumstances related. time, a cow, some swine, and other ani- The animal lay by the fire, apparently mals, the number of which my author in health, while he listened to the redoes not specify, bitten by a mad fox, lation. Through the beli motives, but were all dead in three weeks.
miltaken ineans, in order to quiet their M. Bonel asserts, that a dog, a cat, a fear, and induce a belief that it was in bull, and two cows, bitten and infected, perfect health, be took it up, as I was likewise died within three weeks. Two told, opened its mouth, introduced his dogs, mentioned by Dr. Gutherie, died hand, which he turned round in the fauces. within a month from the bite. A dog, This it fuffered without the least figu in Ipswich, wormed when a puppy, from of ruffled temper. But the act was an erroneous opinion that it would prove unguarded and rath, although he escaped; a preservative, went mad fome years for it had bitten the same morning a after, and bit'two dogs which died of kitten feverely, severing the head almost the disease in twenty days. A dog, men- from its body. The indifference which tioned by Mr. Froot, died fourteen days it thewed at the introduction of his after being bitten. Dr. Weitern men- hand, calmed the fears of the family tions two thecp bitten, which died of the for that night; and next day but early disease in fourteen days. C. Nixon re- on the morning of the third, attacked lates an instance of a dog which died with another fit, the furious animal laid on the tenth day. Mr. Meynell observ- hold of the lip of a puppy about five ed the first symptoms fourteen days after months old, fo firmly that the servant, the bite. Dr. Shadwell observed the who ran to its allistance, was obliged first symptoms in a pig ninc days only to draw them forcibly afunder. after it was bitten. Dr. Dickson fai This threw the family into new conthe disease oceur so early as the seventh fternation, and the child's father imday.
mediately waited on me for iny advice. I trust, Mr. Editor, these examples Being by indisposition confined to my will bear me out in the opinion that room, I had not before heard of this I have advanced, respecting the interval, most serious and alarming affair. I and the time necessary for a fulpecied urged him to chain the animal without a dog's confinement. Had I more leisure moment's delay. As the fit had fubfor research, the catalogue might be fided, the creature was easily secured, greatly increased.
when in little more than a day after, Before concluding, I would beg leave with the most obvious marks of rabies, to point out the necessity of caution in it died in confincinent, as did the puppy approaching strange dogs, or thewing in the sanse manner in the space of three any familiarity with them, however weeks. The reader will be happy to healthy and harmless they may appear. learn that prophylactic means, one of If a dog lay on the pavement in the which was excision of the bitten part, passengers' way, it would be safer to go were luccessful preventives for the child. round, than force him from his place. The inadvertency of the medical at
Many of the accidents ariling from tendant, in risking his fafety to allay the bite were caused by firange dogs a parent's agoby, is no impeachment of too familiarly approached, when in the his geperal knowledge, and is mentioned first stage of the complaint, and when here as an overlight merely, and an usethe animals fewed no appearance to ful caution in future exigencies of the the common observer of the malady. fame nature. The first accession of saIt will be the highest temerity, let the bies in the dog is very gradual, thinoccafion be what it may, to take the tervals long, and exacerbations trifling, usual liberties with the animal
, if the but daily shortening and strengthening, least suspicion be entertained.
they become at last numerous. Recol
lection at length fails, when the animal been always successful, but in proporruns off wandering without conscioutnets, tion, as the talk is arduous, the luce , committing ravages as he proceeds, and cess will be glorious. Yours, &c. dies about the seventh or eighth day. Ipswich,
R. HAMILTON, lo the last day their tight, as well as February 7, 1807. recollection seems to be lost. In one inttance, at leaft, I think this observation To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, verified.
AM encouraged by your invitation, Wettminster-bridge, across the fields to at page 516 of the December Mathe Borough, I niet a concourse of peo- gazine (vol. xxii.) to offer a few reple in pursuit of a mad dog, which was marks, in addition to the many judionly a thort way before them. My cious ones, by Aquarius, at pages 436 fervant, seeing the animal approach us, to 439 of the faine nuinber, on the gave the alarm, and we ran to one lide. subject of procuring a supply of wholeThe track the animal kept was in a
fome water for domestic purposes; my direct line with the rails of the obelisk, prefent delign is, to treat of ipring waagainst which, as it ran with confider- ter only. The many far-fetched and able force, it dalhed its head and feil; fanciful hypotheses which philosophers the pursuers coming up, iminediately dil have invented, for railing water tür fuppatched it. I am inclined therefore plying the earth with Iprings, have at to conclude, that, in the lait day of the length given way to the more innple disease, blindness may be enumerated and rational theory, which accounts among the symptoms.
for every known spring, by the descent Ithall feel nyself obliged to any of and filtration of the water, lupplied your readers, who can produce well-au- on the surface by rains, dews, &c. In thenticated facts on the subject of the fome inftances the water percolates rabid dog, which has contracted the through gravel, fand, or other porous disease, either spontaneously, or in con- matters, on or near the surface, to linall fequence of a bite ; for it is vain to depths only, before its progress downlcontend, that by the latter only the wards is arrested, by clay or other water, canine virus is propagated. Minute, tight matters below, and the water is but continued alterations in the various either held up, so as to fully laturate fecretions from innumerable sources, the porous matter, fometiines to the though the chief I think may be afcribable very furface, or the same soakes away to food, weather, and situation may be laterally on or near to the inclining adequate, without a bite, to the forma- surface of the clay, &c. bencath, until tion of the disease.
it arrives at some lower place, where I have bestowed considerable atten- the spring vents itself on the surface; tion on the fubject, and with to continue of this kind are all the springs in and my relearches. It is an investigation near London, which are reached by lalwell meriting our labour. We take the low wells; below the level and in the animal to our bofoms, we load him with vicinity of the Thames, the surface, graour carefles; he is a faithful friend, and vel and fand, will be found faturated and au useful lervant; he guards our houses fupplied alto with water from the river, and tennis our focks. In proportion, The linking of welis, in the above class therefore, to lus familiarity with us, is of springs, is su simple a buliness, that oor danyer, when he is under this, Aquarius truly observes, “ few villages larther, incurable disease. Few qua- are without an engineer capable of the drupeds, bitten by a rabid doy, escape task.” infection; and it is evident how detri- It is to Mr. William Smith, a gentlemental hic then may become to the man who has devoted many years to live stock of the farmer, or stud of the the minute investigation of the strata pentleman. The effects on the human of the British INands, that we are prinspecies is till more deplorable; yet it cipally indebted for a general knowledge is fome confolation, that at an average, of the more powerful and universal formed oi a pretty wide scale, not above Springs, which are to be reached by deep one m fistcen bitien take the disease. wells: it is true, that deep wells in some If proper means be taken, to free districts, as on the chalk downs, near the wounds from the poison, and pre- Brighton), Lewes, &c. in Sufex, belong rent its effects on the system, all may to the care already mentioned ; the efonpe. We taave not, it is true, in this chalks to the depth of one, two, or even three hundred feet, being there suffi- if the water did not escape through the cienty open, by means of its numerous gravel and fand on the top of the clas; cracks or ftiues, to let the rain water an infiance of which, I have observed in foak frecly down, almott, or quite to fome modern wells, on the fouth lide of the love of the sea. Mr. Smith, has the village of East Sheen. to me and nunierous others, demon- The out crop of the thick stratuin of frated in the exercise of his protection, fand supplying the deep wells near Lonand he will 11.ortly putolith an important don, particularly thote north of the work on the subject, that every iratum, river, may be traced through the pawhether of clay, fand, chall, tone, ac rishes of South Mims, Ridue, Buthey, which we meet with in fuking a well, Rifclit, and other places about fifteen or pit, however deep, fornus part of an or fixteen miles troin London, whole extended inclining plane, ot' dearly equal coniderable elevation above the level thickness throughout; ulich, at a great- oi the metropolis fully accounts for the er or less distance from the well, arrives force with which the water is there sent, at, and crops or ballets out won the in this lower land firatuin, and in the surface, generally for a long diitance chalk on which it relis. The village together, and that all, or most of the of Riselif furnithes a curious example porous tirata, as fand, or open rock, are of the general ignorance or want of perihus at their on-crops fupplied with severance in well-Goking in those parts; water, which percolates, or foaks down fuch wells as they have (if any inforınathem, often to complete saturation. tion on the inut, when iracing the ouiThe deep wells in London and its vi- crop of the above land, be correct) cinity, furnith us with infiances of this reaching, no further than the firit fand, last kind of springs; many of these wells and producing a bad and unwholesome first pass through the gravel and other water, which might easily be walled out, alluvial matters, containing a finall spring and the remarkably good water procured of the first kind, before they enter a in plenty in their town, which they now thick tiratum of clay; a few fect within fetch in drags a distance of half a mile this clay, layers of those singular nodules, from its accidental vent in the meacalled "Ludus Helmonti, are frequently dows. found, and in fome infiances the same Our newly acquired knowledge of produces a small spring, much impreg- the Itratification, while it points out nated with mineral qualities; after pro- the pollibility of finding plenty of water ceeding a great way further in the clay, in any place, and furnillies data for gucka ftratum of fand' is met with, and ing at its quality, and calculating nearly which fand sometimes produces water, the expence at which it inay be got; but in no great quantities, and often by making known all the matters comunfit fur culinary purposes : the two posing the south and castern parts of springs, last mentioned, are stopped or this island, has rendered the expectawalled out by the well-digger, a pro- tions vain, of digging coals in all these cess which I must take fonie other op- parts, notwithifunding the confident alportunity of explaining, and either the fertions in your Magazine to the conlinking of the well, or ihe boring of trary, by certain speculators in Sutiex, a large augur-hole, proceeds further sec vol. xxi, p. 581, and vol. xxi. p. 94. through the clay until a thick stratum I might have mentioned above, thin of loose fand is reached, often at thrce erery considerable brewer in London hundred feet deep, so perfectly faturaied has now a deep well, and raises the sand and charged with water as to produce or chalk spring-water, above-mentioned, the effects, described by Mr. Vulliamy, for use in brewing his porter, the penear Acton, and gentioned by Aquarius culiar properties of which bererage at p. 433.
were herettore afcribed by many to The rise of water is deep wells near the use of the Thanies water. London, is always very conderable and The vale of the Thames, is not the its quantity great, arier the thick fand only situation where overflowing wells itratum is renched; in tuine wells in luw might be had; uimoti auy low situatia situations, it actually flows over above might furnith them, by proper manage the ground, as in Richmond Town, in ment, and soinetimes a confiant rull of Thaires Street, London, and other water, of no inconfiderable use, might brys places, besides Mr. Vulliamy's ; and be obtained, as I have myfdf witbeiled. ihis would be the casc more generally, Westminjter', Your's, &c. or perhaps, universally - such lcuations, 10 February, 1807, Juin Paris