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11. Personal identity in change 19. We have ordinarily as

of substances.

clear (or clearer) notions

12-15. Whether in the change of

of the relation, as of its

thinking substances.


16. Consciousness makes the 20. The notion of the rela.
sane person.

tion is the same, whether
17. Self depends on conscious.

the rule, any action is


compared to, be true or

18-20. Objects of reward and pu.



21, 22. Difference between iden.

tity of man and person.


23—25. Consciousness alone makes

Of clear and distinct, obscure and


confused ideas.

26, 27. Person a forensic term.
28. The difficulty from. ill use SECT.
of names.

1. Ideas, some clear and dis.
29. Continued existence makes

tinct, others obscure and



2. Clear and obscure, ex.

plained by sight.


3. Causes of obscurity.

of other relations,

4. Distinct and confused,



5. Objection.

1. Proportional,

6. Confusion of ideas, is in

2. Natural.

reference to their names.

3. Instituted.

7. Defaults which make con.

4. Moral.

fusion. First, complex

5. Moral good and evil.

ideas made up of too

6. Moral rules.

few simple ones.

8. Secondly, or its simple

8. Divine law, the measure

ones jumbled disorderly

of sin and duty.


9. Civil law, the measure of 9. Thirdly, or are mutable

crimes and innocence.

or undetermined:

10, 11. Philosophical law, the 10. Confusion, without re.

measure of virtue and

ference to names, hardly



12. Its inforcements, com. 11. Confusion concerns al.

mendation, and discredit,

ways two ideas.

13. These three laws the 12. Causes of confusion.

rules of moral good and 13. Complex ideas may be


distinct in one part, and

149 15. Morality is the relation of

confused in another.

actions to these rules.

14. This, if not heeded, causes
36. The denominations of ac.

confusion in our argu.
tions often mislead us.


17. Relations innumerable.

15. Instance in eternity.

18. All relations terminate in 16. - Divisibility of mat.

simple ideas,



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2. Metaphysical truth cone

tains a tacit proposition.
3. No idea, as an appear.

ance in the mind, true

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24. Fourthly, When judged to 5. From a wrong connexion represent the real essence.

of ideas. 25. Ideas, when false.

6. This connexion how made. 26. More properly to be call. 7, 8. Some antipathies an effect ed right or wrong.

of it. 27. Conclusion.

9. A great cause of errours. 10-12. Instances.

13. Why time cures some dis. CHA P. XXXIII.

orders in the mind, which

reason cannot. Of the association of ideas.

14-16. Farther instances of the SECT.

effects of the association 1. Something unreasonable in

of ideas. most men.

17. Its influence on intellec2. Not wholly from self.

tual habits. love.

18. Observable in different 3. Nor from education, 4. A degree of madness.

19. Conclusion.



. .


Secondly, To the reality of

things. Of words or language in general.

6. Words by use readily excite SECT.

ideas. 1. Man fitted to form articu.

7. Words often used without late sounds.

2. To make them signs of 8. Their signification perfect.

ly arbitrary.
3, 4. To make general signs.
5. Words ultimately derived
from such as signity.sensi.

..ble ideas.
6. Distribution.

Of general terins.

1. The greatest part of words CHA P. II.


2. For every particular thing Of the signification of words.

to have a name, is impossiSECT

1. Words are sensible signs ne. 3, 4. And useless. .

cessary for communication. 5. What things have proper 2, 3. Words are the sensible signs

of his ideas who uses them. 6-8. How general words are 4. Words often secretly refer

made. red, First, to the ideas in 9.. General natures are nothing other men's minds,

but abstract ideas.

10. Why



spec es.

io. Why the genus is ordinar 11. Simple ideas, why underily made use of in defini.

fioable further explained. tions.

12, 13. The contrary showed in 11. General and universal are complex ideas by instances creatures of the under.

of a statue and rainbow. standing,

14. The names of complex ideas 12. Abstract ideas are the es.

when to be made intelligi. sences of the genera and ble by words.

15. Fourthly, Names of simple 13. They are the workmanship

ideas least doubtful. of the understanding, but 16. Fifthly, Simple ideas have have their foundation in few ascents in linea prædi. the similitude of things.

camentali. 14. Each distinct abstract idea 17. Sixthly, Names of simple is a distinct essence.

ideas, stand for ideas not at 15. Real and nominal essence.

all arbitrary. 16. Constant connexion between the name and no.

CHAP. V. minal essence.

Of the names of mixed modes and 17. Supposition, that species

relations. are distinguished by their

SECT. real essences, useless.

1. They stand for abstract ideas 16. Real and nominal essence

as other general names. the same in simple ideas

2. First, The ide:is they stand and modes, different in

for are made by the under. substances.

standing. 19. Essences ingenerable and

3. Secondly, made arbitrarily, incorruptible.

and without patterns. 20. Recapitulation

4. How this is done.

5. Evidently arbitrary, in that CHAP. IV.

the idea is often before the Of the names of simple ideas.

existence. SECT.

6. Instances, murther, incest, 1. Names of simple ideas, stabbing.

modes, and substances, have 7. But still subservient to the each something peculiar.

end of language. 2. First, Names of simple ideas 8. Whereof the intranslatable

and substances, intimate words of divers languages real existence.

are a proof. 3. Secondly, Names of simple 9. This show's species to be

ideas and modes signify al- made for communication. ways both real and nominal 1o, . In mixed modes, it is the essence.

name that ties the combi. 4. Thirdly, Names of simple nation together, and makes ideas undefinable.

it a species. 5. If all were definable, it 12. For the originals of mixed

would be a process in infi. modes, we look no farther nitum.

than the mind, which also 6. What a definition is.

shows them to be the work7. Simple ideas, why undefi. manship of the understand. nable.

ing. 8, 9. Instances, motion,

13. Their being made by the 10. Light.

understanding without pat


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terns, shows the reason why 24. Not by substantial forms,

they are so compounded, 25. The specific essences 14. Names of mixed modes made by the mind.

stand always for their real 26, 27. Therefore very various and esserices.

uncertain, 15. Why their names are usu. 28. But not so arbitrary as ally got before their ideas.

mixed modes. 16. Reason of my being so large 29. Though very imperfect. on this subject.

30. Which yet serve for com.

mon converse.

31. But make several essences C H A P. VI.

signified by the same name. Of the names of substances.

32. The more general our ideas

are, the more incomplete SECT.

and partial they are. 1. The common names of sub.

33. This all accommodated to stances stand for sorts.

the end of speech. 2. The essence of each sort is

34. Instance in cassuaris, the abstract idea.

35. Men make the species. In. 3. The Aominal and real es.

stance gold. sence different.

36. Though nature makes the 4-6. Nothing essential to indi.

similitude. viduals.

37. And continues it in the 7-8. The nominal essence bounds

races of things. the species.

38. Each abstract idea is an es. 9. Not the real essence, which we know not.

39. Generà and species are in 10. Not substantial forms,

order to naming. Instance, which we know less.

. That the nom nal essence is
that whereby we distinguish

40. Species of artificial things

less confused than natural. species, farther evident from

41. Artificial things of distinct spirits.

12. Whereof there are probably
numberless species

42. Substances alone have pro.

per names.
13. The nominal essence that of
the species, proved from

43. Difficulty to treat of words

with words. water and ice. 14-18. Difficulties against a certain

44, 45. Instances of mixed modes

kineah and niouph. number of real essences.

46, 47. Instance of substances in 19. Our nominal essences of

substances, not perict col.
lections of properties.

48. Their ideas imperfect and

therefore various.
21. But such a collection as our
name stands for.

49. Therefore to fix their spe.

cies, a real essence is sup. 22. Our abstract ideas are to us

the measure of species. In.
stances in that of man.

50. Which supposition is of no 23. Species not distinguished by Conclusion.






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