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four days, but afterwards declared he several years, and wlio had been perwould henceforth entirely abstain from sonally acquainted with him previous food. On the 30th of October he died, to this his adventure, after fasting 66 days (with the excep- Letters from Calcutta report the estion of the four above mentioned) in tablishment of a British colony in the the whole of which time, all he allowed island of New Zealand. It appears to himself to take was a little warm water. have assumeil a regular form, and His body, as may well be imagined, is considered as dependant on the gewas merely a skeleton, but he retained vernment of New South Wales. Nr. all his intellectual faculties to the last. J. Bullier, the missionary, is authorized Having hereby acquired the title of by Governor Macquarrie, to act as jussaint, his corpse was attended to the tice of peace and magistrate. Mr. funeral pile by all the Banias of the Marsden, first missionary in New South city, with the pomp and ceremonies Wales, has proceeded with other misusual on such occasions.
sionaries to New Zealand, to provide
the means of instruction and prosperity About 30 miles northwest of Nooahe- for the establishment. vah, one of the Marquesas Islands, A letter from Mr. Samuel Leigh, Capt. Powell, of the Queen Charlotte, missionary in New Zealand, says, brought away from the top of a rock I was walking on the beach in cona man who had lived there nearly three versation with a chief, my attention years, like Robinson Crusoe. In the be- was arrested by a great number of perginning of 1814, this man proceeded sons coming from a neighbouring hill. thither from Nooahevah with four Enquiring into the reason of such a others, all of whom had left an Ame concourse, I found that they had killed rican boat, in order to collect certain a young man, whom they were going to feathers which are highly valued by the roast and eat. I repaired instantly to inhabitants of Novahevah. The boat the spot, and coming to the village being wrecked on the rock, three of where the people had assembled, I his companions shortly died of hunger asked to see the body; I was shewn a and especially thirst, there being no great fire at some distance, and was other water than the rain when it fell. told I should find it there. When arThe fourth remained with him a few rived, I found the place besmeared with weeks, when he determined to make for blood, where the head of the wretched the island by swimming, supported by victim had been cut off, and drawing a piece of wood which remained of the near the fire, beheld with horror, a boat, but he must have inevitably fierce looking man of gigantic size, perished. He himself attempted to wholly naked and armed with a large escape from his desperate situation by hatchet. This cook, for that was the making a raft, but he failed in the un- cannibal's trade, shewed me the young dertaking, and lost the means of re- person half roasted, holding him up by newing it. From the first, they had the legs. I then returned to the village, brought away fire from Nooahevah, and where I found a number of persons he had always taken care to preserve seated in a circle, preparing potatoes, it, but one day, having moved to a little and waiting for the body being roasted. distance, the fire went out, and he Among them was the mother of the could not have rekindled it, but for young person, who like him was a slave, some grains of gunpowder and part of and had been made a prisoner of war. a musket which he had broken while This unfortunate mother would perhaps making his raft. His only sustenance have been obliged to take a share in the was the flesh and blood of wild fowl; horrible feast, if I had not succeeded the blood quenched his thirst, and the in persuading the people to bury the skulls of his dead comrades 'were his corpse." drinking vessels. A mere chance discovered him to the Queen Charlotte, The Abbe Inglesi, after several as the rock was known to be desert months travelling through all North and barren ; but a fire being observed America, has been so affected with reat night, as the vessel was passing by, ligious compassion for the uninstructed search was made, and the inhabitant native tribes, that he has resolved to of the rock taken up. Capt. Powell share in the pious labours of M. Duconveyed him to Nooalieval, and left bourg, missionary of Upper and Lower him in the care of an European named Louisiana, and those of his companions, Wilson, who had resided in that island (M. Dubourg left France in 1817, on
this mission.) M. Inglesi has been de- mate not agreeing with his constitution. puted to solicit in Europe, the means of The yellow fever had not then comfurther propagating Christianity among menced its ravages; some sailors had the Indians, and to engage other reli- died, but all the rest composing a part of gious characters to join them in the dis the expedition, were in good health. charge of their sacred duties.
Population of Demerary and EsseWEST INDIES.
quibo. Male African Slaves 24,526. A letter from M. Plee, dated Fort feinale do. 14,385. Male Creole Slaves Royal, Martinique, May 31, 1820, says: 16,458. Female do. 17,556. Other " I'am pursuing my tour through all colonists, males 2005. Females 1,999. the different parts of the island, and Births in the three last years 4,817. constantly a pedestrian, althongh the Augmented population since 1817, 763 hoat (in April and May) is excessive. males and 977 females. 12 slaves from The thermometer of Reaumur is at 2lo 90 to 100 years of age, and three from at five in the morning; at 26°, 27' and 100 to 110. but seldom at 29° at noon. It is never Don Manuel S. Badia, a missionary below 20° throughout the night. On residing some time in St. Lucia, has the peaks of the Carbet, the Vauquelin, published the discovery of a reinedy the Hot Springs, St. Pierre, &c. not for the bite of serpents, and sting of higher than 140, 159, 16'. I have not scorpions, which he had learned from been able to meet with the viper known the Indians of Venezuela and Santa Fé. by the name of fer de lance, though I Eight years trial on different inhabihave traversed considerable distances, tants of the colony leaves no room to at all hours of day and night. This doubt of its efficacy. It is required to reptile, denounced by an author of ce- collect grains of Gombre perfumed with lebrity as the inost dangerous of any musk; these to be dried and reduced in our sugar islands, is not so common to an impalpable powder; then to be as has been reported, in the paths and sifted or bolted, and put in a bottle, to high roads of Martinique. Not an in- fill one third of it, which is afterwards dividual is to be found in Guadaloupe. to be filled up with rum (tafia), If an This serpent chiefly haunts the cane individual or animal has been bit or plantations, and especiallywhere the rats stung, the bottle to be well shaken, and are in the greatest numbers. No planter when the liquor is thoroughly tinctured is without his sovereign remedy against with the grosser substance, the patient the bite of this animal, which shews to swallow a glassfull. Scarifications that the wounds it inflicts are not so to be made in the place bitten; the same fatal as is believed. Besides the reme- to be rubbed slightly with a cloth well dies which the heads of families are in soaked in the liquid, which is then to possession of, there are negro conjurors, be laid over the wound, and as it dries, oi a sort of old men sorcerers, that are to be wetted four or five times more. looked up to with a confidence almost Half an hour after the first dressing, unlimited by the blacks, and even by a second glass of the liquor to be taken many of the whites; and it must be internally). If some time has elapsed admitted that very rarely a negro dies after the bite, and the vomiting has under their treatment, unless, as is fre- commenced, the patient to keep drinkquently the case, with hydrophobes, ing, almost incessantly, till the vomitterror has no overpowered the senses of ing be stopped. This remedy has not the patient that no remedy can reach failed in a single instance. Two gen the true seat of affliction. More recent tlemen, Messrs. Bernard and Dianet, of news from this naturalist, dated July the Old Fort, and Laborie, St. Lucia, 31, report his having expedited for the have themselves wrought more than Jardin du Roi, a large collection of ob forty cures. Every negro may easily jects in natural history, intrusted to carry about with him this preparation the care of his younger brother, who in a vial, and keep it in a state of preis obliged to return to France, the cli- servation.
REPORT OF CHEMISTRY AND EXPERIMENTAL PHILOSOPHY.
articles of iron ware soon get spoiled given as an effectual preservative from and rusty, from the humid climate of the rust and all oxidation, and prepared at a Torrid Zone. Among other improvements trifling expence :„A very simple process to accelerate the progress of rural and will suffice for instruments, utensils, &c.
of small dimensions. Let them be heated mating by the eye) as in the accompanying red hot, and rubbed over in that state sketch [distant from the northern limb of with wax. This substance will close the the moon about one-tenth of her diameter.] pores of the metal which the fire has din Its appearance was that of a small nebula lated, and thereby preclude the action of subtending an angle of about three or four the oxigen of air upon it. For other iron seconds. Its brightness was very variable; implement machines, &c. not susceptible of a luminous point, like a small star of the the above process, a similar effect may be 6th or 7th magnitude, would suddenly apobtained from varnish, discovered after six pear in its centre, and as suddenly disapyears research, by M. Lampodius, pro. pear, and these changes would sometimes fessor of chemistry, at Freyburg in Saxony. take place in the course of a few seconds. This varnish is not to be heated; it resists On the evening of the 5th, having an enthe action of humid air, and even that of gagement which prevented my observing acid vapours. It is made in the manner it myself, I arranged the telescope for two following:-Reduce an ounce of plomba friends, who remarked the same phænomegine (lead and silver ore) or ambracite to na as the night before, but in an inferior an impalpable powder; mix with it four degree, partly perhaps in consequence of ounces of sulphate of lead and one ounce of the evening not being so favourable. On sulphate of zinc; add to this gently (or a the 6th I again observed it; it had cerlittle at a time) a pound of varnish pre- tainly become more faint, and the star-like pared with linseed oil-heat the whole to appearance less frequent. I could see it boiling. This varnish will close up the very distinctly with a power of 40. As the pores, &c. very speedily. The sulphate moon approached the horizon, it was visi. of lead is prepared by putting a dissolu. ble only at intervals when the star-like aption of acetate of lead into twelve ounces pearance took place. On the same evening of water, with a dissolution of seven I had the pleasure of showing it to Mr. ounces of sulphate of soda (Glauber's salts) Henry Browne, F.R.S. I regret that I had into fourteen ounces of water. The preci- no micrometer adapted to my telescope; pitate from this mixture is a sulphate of but I have reason to believe the distance lead, to be filtered, edulcorated and dried. of the volcano from the edge of the moon
The Annales Maritimes report the dis- was about one-tenth of her diameter, and covery of a new method to determine the the angle it formed this evening with a line latitude, by a single non-meridian height, joining the cusps was about 500. I remarked deduced from two other heights taken in a near the edge of the moon, a well-known very short space of time.
dark spot, from which the volcano was The Mnemosyné, a Finland Journal, distant, as nearly as I could estimate, makes mention of a singular stone, (there- three times its distance from the edge of the in called meteorological) in the northern moon. In a map of the moon published by part of the province, which serves there Dr. Kitchener (and which is the best small
a sort of public barometer. At the map with which I am acquainted,) there is approach of rain it takes a black or a mountain sufficiently near the situation greyish black colour, and when the wea- of the volcano, to authorize the supposition ther changes to fair, it becomes covered that they may be identical. On the 7th I with white spots. It is probably an ar- could still see the volcano, and the occagillous substance, containing rock salt, or sional star-like appearance; but I do not ammoniac, or saltpetre, and absorbing think it was sufficiently perceptible to have more or less of moisture, as the atmosphere been discovered by a person ignorant of its is more or less charged with it. In the precise situation. I am inclined however to latter case, the saline particles crystalis- think, that the difficulty of seeing it is rather ing, will become visible to the eye and to be attributed to the increased light of the form the white spots.
moon, than to the diminished action of the Capt. HENRY KATER, F.R.S. has pub- volcano. The spot in which I observed the lished the following notice respecting a volcanic appearance is that named Aristarvolcanic appearance in the moon :-“On chus. This spot was particularly examined Sunday evening, the 4th February, I ob- by Hevelius, who calls it Mons Porphyrites, served a luminous spot in the dark part of and who considers it to be volcanic. If bis the moon, which I was inclined to ascribe drawings are to be relied upon, it has unto the eruption of a volcano. The tele- dergone a considerable change in its apscope used was an excellent Newtonian of pearance since his time. Sir William Hers64 inches aperture, with a power of 74. chel has recorded in his Philosophical
The moon was exactly two days old, and Transactions an observation of three vol. the evening so clear, that I was able to canoes, which he perceived in the moon, discern the general outlines in the dark April 19, 1787, at 10h 36ın, sidereal time. part of her disc. Her western azimuth was One of these, which he says showed “an about 700, and her altitude about 10 de- actual eruption of fire or luminous matter,” grees. In this position at 6 hours 30 was distant from the northern limb of the minutes, the volcano was situated (esti- moon 3' 571.3, the diameter of the burning
part being not less than". I find that this mains to be proved whether even the very observation was made about 9 o'clock in appearance of bread (as to colour) is imthe evening, when the moon was not quite proved by the use of this astringent salt. two days old; and from the situation of Even bakers, themselves, acknowledge the spot described by Sir William Herschel, that it hinders fermentation, by killing the I have no doubt of its being the same that I yeast. They say, likewise, that to counhave noticed.”
teract its effects, they use the potatoes ; Mr. MACKENZIE, in his Thousand Ex- that is, to promote the fermentation which periments in Chemistry, states the follow- has been checked by the alum. But, in ing facts relative to the criminal adul- order to demonstrate that the quantity of teration of bread in London :-“ Leavened alum, above specified, is actually swalbread is chiefly made from wheaten flour, lowed by bread eaters, we need only reof various degrees of fineness, though pota- duce the two pounds of alum to grains ; toes and rice flour are frequently, and with and supposing that a quartern loaf is eaten advantage, used in its preparation. In Lon- (on an average) at eight meals, first, multiply don the quantity of potatoes used in the best the number of quartern-loaves produced baker's bread, is from ten to fifteen pounds from a sack of flour, by 8; and, secondly, to every sack of flour. The finest flower is divide the number of grains of alum by the seldom, or never, used in making loaf product, thus :—A sack of flour generally bread, it is always employed in making produces 86 quartern-loaves; which, mulbiscuits and pastry.
A tradesman who tiplied by eight meals, produces 688 pordeals in salt, alum, &c. and who is in the tions :-2 pounds of alum being multiplied habit of furnishing bakers with these arti- by 16, become 32 ounces; these, multicles, informed me that he supplies each plied by 8, become 256 drams; and this of his customers, every night, with two product again multiplied by 60 is convertipounds of alum, and six pounds of com- ble into 15,360 grains. If, then, we divide mon salt. These quantities they use for the latter of these numbers by the former, each sack of flour. The employment of the quotient will be 22 and a fraction of salt in bread is attended with great advan- grains of alum in the composition of an 8th tages to health, but that of alum is truly part of a quartern-loaf. pernicious; and what is worse, it yet re
BRITISH LEGISLATION. ACTS PASSED in the FIRST YEAR of the REIGN of GEORGE THE FOURTH, or in the SECOND SESSION of the SEVENTH PARLIAMENT of the UNITED KINGDOM.
AP. XLVIII. To amend the several such Degree of Bachelor of Arts, unless
nies and Solicitors.—June 8th, 1821. such Degree within Six Years next after the
I. Any person who has taken a Degree Day when such Person shall have been or of Bachelor of Arts or of Law at Oxford, shall be first matriculated in the said UniverCambridge, or Dublin, may act as an At- sities respectively; nor to any Person who torney or Solicitor, after having served a
shall take or shall have taken such Degree Clerkship of Three Years, and during the of Bachelor of Law within Eight Years after said Term of Three Years sball continue such Matriculation; nor to any person who in such Service, and during the whole Time shall be bound, by Contract in Writing, to of such Three Years Service, shall con
serve as a Clerk to any Attorney, Solicitor, tinue and be actually employed by such
or Six Clerk, under the Provisions of this Attorney or Solicitor, or Six Clerk, or his Act, unless such Person shall be so bound or their Agent or Agents, in the proper within Four Years next after the Day when Business, Practice, or Employment of an
such Person shall have taken such Degree. Attorney or Solicitor, and shall also cause CAP. XLIX. For making further an Affidavit of himself, or of such Attorney Regulations in respect to the Payment or Solicitor or Six Clerk, to whom he was by Remittance Bill of the Wages of bound as aforesaid, to be duly made and Petty Officers, Seamen, and Marines, filed, that he hath actually and really so
in the Royal Navy; and for extending served and been employed during the said whole Term of Three Years.
the Provisions of an Act made in the 11. Persons bound for Five Years, and Fifty-fifth Year of His late Majesty, serving Part of that Time, not exceeding relating to the E.recution of Letters of One Year, with a Barrister or Special Plead Attorney and Wills of Petty Officers, er, may be admitted, on applying to a
Seamen, and Marines, in His Majesty's Judge or other sufficient Authority. Navy.—June 8th, 1821. Nothing in this Act contained shall ex
CAP. L. To alter and amend an Act tend, or be construed to extend, to any made in the Fifty-ninth Year of the Person who shall have taken or shall take Reign of His late Majesty King George
the Third, intituled An Act to regulate some Mixture, Ingredient, or Thing whatthe Making and Sale of Bread out of soever, in the making of such Bread, or the City of London, and the Liberties on any Account, or under any Colour or thereof, and beyond the Weekly Bills of Pretence whatsoever, upon pair that every Mortality and "Ten Miles of the Royal such Person, whether Master or JourneyExchange, where no Assize is set; and man, or other Person, who shall knowingly for establishing other Provisions and offend in the Premises, and shall be con Regulations relative thereto.—June 8th,
victed of any such Offence, shall forfeit and 1821.
pay any Sum of Money not exceeding
Twenty Pounds, or less than Five Pounds, 11. It shall be lawful for any Person or or in Default, shall be committed to the Persons whomsoever, out of the City of House of Correction or some Prison, not London and the Liberties thereof, and be- exceeding Twelve nor less than Three Cayond the Weekly Bills of Mortality and lendar Months, unless such Penalty shall Ten Miles of the Royal Exchange, to be sooner paid; and it shall be lawful for make, bake, sell, and expose for Sale any the Magistrate to cause the Offender's Bread made of Flour or Meal of Wheat, Name, Place of Abode, and Offence, to be Barley, Rye, Oats, Buckwheat, Indian published in some Newspaper which shall Corn, Peas, Beans, Rice, and every other be published where the Offence shall be Kind of Grain whatsoever. and Potatoes, committed. or any of them, and with any common V. No Person shall knowingly put into Salt, pure Water, Eggs, Milk, Yeast, Barm, Coru, Meal, or Flour, which shall be Leven and Potatoe Yeast, and mixed in ground, dressed, bolted, or manufactared such Proportions as the Makers or Sellers for Sale out of the said City of London and of Bread shall think fit.
the Liberties thereof, and beyond the III. Assize Bread -and Priced Bread not Weekly Bills of Mortality and Ten Miles to be made at the same Time in the same of the Royal Exchange, either at the Time Place; (that is to say), no Assize Loaves of grinding, dressing, bolting, or in any. of the Price of Three-pence, and Priced wise manufacturing the same, or at any Loaves called Quartern Loaves; nor Assize other Time or Times, any Ingredient, Mix: Loaves of the Price of Sixpence, and Priced ture, or Thing whatsoever, or shall know. Loaves called Quartern Loaves ; nor Assize ingly sell, offer or expose to or for Sale, Loaves of the Price of Twelve-pence, and any Meal or Flour of one Sort of Grain, as Priced Loaves called Half-peck Loaves; or for the Meal or Flour of any other Sort nor Assize Loaves of the Price of Eighteen- of Grain, or any Thing as or for or mixed pence, and Priced Loaves called Peck
with the Meal or Flour of any Grain which Loaves, shall at the same Time be made shall not be the real and genuine Meal or for Sale, sold, or carried out for sale, or be Flour of the Grain the same shall import to offered or exposed to or for Sale, or allowed be and ought to be, upon pain that every to be sold by any Baker or other Seller of Person who shall offend in the Premises, Bread, in his, her, or their Shop, Dwelling and shall be thereof convicted in Manner House, or Premises, that unwary Persons herein-after mentioned, shall forfeit and may not be imposed upon and injured by pay for every such Offence any Sum not baying Assize Loaves, referred to in the exceeding Twenty Pounds nor less than said Tables, as or for Priced Loaves so Five Pounds. referred to in the said Tables, or by buy- VI. Loaves made of the Meal of any ing such Priced Loaves as or for such As- other Grain than Wheat, to be marked with size Loaves; and every Person who shall the Letter (M). offend therein, and be convicted of any VII. Magistrates or Peace Officers by such Offence in Manner herein-after men- their Warrants, may search Bakers Pretioned, shall for every such Offence forfeit mises, &c. and enter into any House, Mill, and pay a Sam not exceeding Forty Shil. Shop, Stall, Bakehouse, Bolting-house, lings nor fess than Ten Shillings.
Pastry Warehouse, Outhouse, or Ground IV. No Person or Persons making or who of or belonging to any Miller, Mealman, shall make Bread for Sale oat of the City of or Baker, or other Person who shall grind London and the Liberties thereof, and be- Grain, or dress or bolt Meal or Flour, or yond the Weekly Bills of Mortality and make Bread for Reward or Sale as aforeTen Miles of the Royal Exchange, nor any said, and take with hiın or them, to his or Journeyman or other Servant of any such their Assistance, one or more Master MilPerson or Persons as last mentioned, shall ler, Mealman, or Baker, Millers, Mealmen at any Time or Times, in the making of or Bakers, and to search or exanrine whc. Bread for Sale, put any Alum, or Prepara- ther any Mixture, Ingredient, or Thing, tion or Mixture in which Alum shall be an not the genuine Produce of the Grain such Ingredient, or any other Preparation or Meal or Flour shall import or ought to be Mixture in lieu of Alum, ivto the Dough of shall have been mixed up with or put into such Bread, or in anywise use or cause to any Meal or Flour in the Possession of such be used any Alum, or any other unwhole Miller, Mealman, or Baker, and also search