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ernment, of course, does its best to them money, upon the banks which maintain order; but the Army with the have cashed their creditors' bills, and colors, though excellently disciplined, is upon the little towns which have been not large, and its Generals find it diffi- plundered or have found their petty (ult at once to defend the small towns commerce brought to a standstill by and protect the scattered estates, and the disorders. are compelled, therefore, to call out the Ajacquerie like this, whatever its Reserves. The Reservists are almost termination, has a lesson in it for all all peasants, they sympathize with the Europe. It has been assumed by all sufferings of the insurgents, like them statesmen and almost all observers that they hate the Jews, who monopolize in the great collision between Labor every kind of productive industry ex- and Capital which is now shaking Eucept agriculture, and before restoring ropean society the steadying influence order they murder the Jews and pillage is the stolidity of the peasants, who the estates. The insurrection creeps on have always been ready to furnish solfrom district to district, till throughout diers, and who are supposed to have an Moldavia and Wallachia there is a roar- instinctive regard for the security of ing jacquerie such as, except in Galicia property. That idea is substantially in 1848, has not been seen in any sec- sound so long as the peasants own their tion of Europe for a hundred years. little farms; but as we have seen for The King, who is a really able man, is generations in Ireland, and as all Asiprostrated with sickness. The Gov- atic statesmen have recognized for ernment, which is Conservative-that is, ages, when the cultivators rent the soil nominated by the great landlords-has in patches, and are liable to increasing thrown up the sponge; and its succes or indetinite demands, the doctrine sor, which is taken from the Liberal ceases to be true. The peasants then Opposition, must, if it is to avoid inter- suffer like artisans, and being armed ference from its great neighbors, Aus- with the instruments of agriculture, or, tria and Russia, restore order swiftly, in Europe, baving passed through the and can only do it, after it has tried military mill, they insurrect with more palliatives, by proposals which, how- readiness and much greater effect than ever their meaning may be hidden in their rivals, the workmen of the towns. legal phrases, must involve large meas. They are, too, much fiercer, more igures of confiscation. One of them, it norant, and from their position as scatis reported, will authorize the State, tered communities are able to make a · whenever a quarrel between the land- better fight of it with the soldiers, who, lord and his tenantry becomes visible, again, are for the most part drawn to take the control of the property into from their own ranks. This is the bis own bands. The owners of the grand danger throughout Eastern Eusoil, in fact, are to be treated en masse rope, and it is very doubtful indeed as it was proposed in Ireland to treat whether it can be removed without a Lord Clanricarde. External order will transfer of property so great and so of course be restored, but it needs no violent that it would make all property economist to prove that the very basis insecure, and would incidentally extirof society will be upset throughout pate or cripple the only class which, Roumania, which has for years been baving the leisure and inclination to considered in Western Europe the best cultivate itself, has begun at all events governed of the Balkan States. The to be civilized. That class is not nuloss will not fall upon the landlords ex- merous enough to defend itself with its clusively, but upon all who have lentown hands, it cannot depend permanently on the soldiers, and it has, there show himself the first statesman, as be fore, before it only two alternatives. has long since been accepted as the first One is to fly as the French nobles did soldier, in Eastern Europe. In Russia, and it is this which is being generally in Austria, in parts of Italy, and in adopted-and the other is to submit to most of the Balkan States the Roumalow permanent quit-rents imposed from nian jacquerie, whether successful or above, and accepted by the losers with defeated, will immensely increase the the sense of insufferable injustice. If excitability of the peasantry and the King Charles, who is thoroughly aware perplexities of statesmen, already overof the dangers of the situation, and who loaded by problems which as yet no bitterly reproaches the statesmen who man of genius has arisen with sufficient have just resigned for their want of mental power and sufficient daring to prevision and energy, can suggest a attempt to solve. compromise other than this, he will

The Spectator.

VACATION CHRISTIANITY.*

We have felt from time to time a not When there was mid-sea, and the inconsiderable respect for Mr. Camp- mighty things; bell. We have known him on several Left to repeat, “I saw, I heard, I occasions to refuse either to toe a political line or to kiss the foot of some

And go all over the old ground again. sectarian pope. We have heard of his

But such an answer does not excuse the telling the impeccable working men of

two faults which must always be as. London what he thinks of them, and of

sociated with Mr. Campbell's prohis arranging to repeat the information ili their presence. All this argues

nouncement upon the so-called New

Theology, which he must by this time be pluck, but it is all compatible with an

rather tired of hearing described as not absolute want of humor and of a sense

"theological," and still less “new." of the fitness of things. Let us admit for a moment that the times require a

First, it is absurd to ask us to give

serious consideration to a book which in new message; Mr. Campbell is a young man to have acquired the certainty that

its introduction purports to deal with

its subject "in some comprehensive and he has the particular new message that

systematic way," and in its concluding the times require. He will answer that, if he waits till he gets old, the new

chapter is described as "the task which message will probably have become

has occupied the greater part of my

winter resting-time.” Any one who once more the old one:

walks along Holborn Viaduct in Febru. But at the last, why, I seemed left alive ary knows the duration of Mr. CampLike a sea-jelly weak on Patmos bell's resting-time; it stares you in the strand,

face and makes you see in a moment To tell dry sea-beach gazers how I fared the absurdity of an effort at recasting

Christianity in the course of three "The New Theology?" By R. J. Campbell, M.A., Minister of the City Temple. London:

weeks. We could imagine that at the Chapman and Hall. 6s.

end of years of steady reading and dili

gent gymnastic a theologian might be
in good blood to write currente calamo
a statement of what has been slowly
and laboriously revealed to him:-
Oh, such a life as he resolved to live,

When he had learned it,
When he had gathered all books had to

give!
Sooner, he spurned it.

But here is a man who puts pen to paper during a holiday at St. Ives; writes, as he says, “before a window overlooking the heaving waste of waters on a rock-bound Cornish coast,” and,

bhonnd Cornish coast,” and. though he has but three weeks in which to re-state his faith, can stay to notice that "it is a stormy day.” What is the result? A slipshod, slangy, often quite grotesque explanation of what we have no doubt are the sincerely entertained ideas of his heart and his mind. By consequence he allows himself to de. scribe the God of "ordinary churchgoing Christians” as One who is "greatly bothered and thwarted” by human depravity and who “takes the whole thing very seriously.” Also he patronizes the author of the fourth Gospel ag an "exceedingly able writer."

The Outlook.

Secondly, Mr. Campbell makes the bopeless mistake of expounding his creed as if his own personality had any importance in connection with it. We have no patience with those who at. tack him on the ground of his unfaithfulness to the trust deed of the City Temple, unless they are at the same time members of that congregation, but equally we have no patience with Mr. Campbell's insistence on the fact that "chapter and verse" for all that he here avows “can be produced from my pub. lished sermons." That is a purely do. mestic matter, like his reference to "the controversial methods of the editor of the British Weekly.The public have no concern with either. When we have a more laborious, a more conscientious exposition of what Mr. Campbell would have his generation believe, we shall consider it with the respect that is its due. Meantime we can only express our regret that a sympathetic preacher of many gifts and graces should have essayed so lightly a task which years of toil may yet enable him to perform with credit.

BOOKS AND AUTHORS.

*The Warden” and “Framley Par- work on “The Cities and Cemeteries of sonage” follow “Barchester Towers" in Etruria"; and the mystery of the origin, the new group of books in Everyman's the language, the religion and the instiLibrary; and although "Doctor Thorne" tutions of the Etruscans remains nearly should come between them in the reg. or quite as complete as when he wrote, ular order, it is probably safe to as- in spite of researches and discoveries sume that both that and the remaining in the interval. Mr. Dennis's work is two volumes of the Barsetsbire Series now reprinted in Everyman's Library, will be added so that the reader may in two volumes, with a map and plans have the most charming group of Trol- and a hundred or more illustrations. lope's stories complete in this edition.

Among the works of solid and enIt is sixty years or more since George during value included in the latest volDennis completed the studies and ob umes of Everyman's Library are Samservations which found fruit in his uel Coleridge's essays, notes and lectures on Shakespeare and some other are those who have taken philology for old poets and dramatists; Augustine their subject, who have something of Thierry's history of The Conquest of the enthusiasm of Trench although England by the Normans, in two vol- their way is charted by those who have umes--one of the most brilliant histo- traversed it in the years intervening beries of that great event; Professor Alex- tween this happy day and his. (E. P. ander Fraser Tytler's Essay on the Dutton & Co.) Principles of Translation; George Fiulay's history of Greece Under the Ro- Mrs. Colquhoun Grant's "Queen and mans; Mungo Park's Travels in the In- Cardinal" is such a history of Aune of terior of Africa,-travels now a century Austria and of Mazarin as may be old, but still full of vivid interest; Vir- gleaned not only from the kindly, re. gil's Aeneid, in a new translation into spectful pages of De Motteville but English verse, by Mr. E. Fairfax Tay- from the less good-natured persons who lor, who beguiled his leisure through according to a fashion not yet banmany years in turning the great epic ished from courts saw the better and into limpid Spenserian verse; and that decided that others had followed the classic among classics, Bunyan's Pil worse. The story, like all stories of grim's Progress, with an introduction its time, one is tempted to say, is sad, by Rev. H. Elvet Lewis.

Tranquillity was nowhere; faith hardly

existed; intrigue was universal; sinMr. Henry Cecil Wyld's "The His- plicity hardly possible, and, interesting torical Study of the Mother Tongue" is although the story of the period may not meant for those dwelling in the be, too often it is almost too painful. lower air in which spelling reform and The only advantage possessed by roysimilar questions are discussed, but alty in Anne's day seems to have been for those seriously intent upon learning an opportunity to try all the discomthrough what changes and by what in- forts and misadventures possible in fluences English has become what it is, every one of the lower ranks, with the not only to the ear and eye, but also added torture of enduring everything to the understanding mind. “To give in the glare of publicity, and the occasome indications of the point of view sional outbursts of splendor and luxfrom which a language should be stud- ury are poor compensation for interied, and of the principal points of vening troubles. Anne's story has not method in such a study," is the author's hitherto been made the chief subject modest summary of its object; and his of a book written in English, and, alhope, as he states it, is to prepare the though the author disclaims any histori. way for the study of some of the great val pretensions, she has made the two pioneers of our knowledge, and the Cardinals, Madame de Chevreuse, and chief framers of contemporary pbilolog- the Queen herself living figures, not ical theory. The opening chapters on easily forgotten. Portraits of both phonetics may be read with profit by Queen and Cardinal at various ages all teachers of orthoepy and elocu- have been added by the publisher, but tion, and students of easy etymology inscrutability was the royal merit of may gain from later passages something those days, and the pictured faces furof that wider view of their work which nish no key to the characters of the will give zest and energy to its pur- originals. (E. P. Dutton & Co.) suit, but the proper readers of the work

SEVENTH SERIES
VOLUME XXXV.)

No. 3278 May 4, 1907.

I FROM BEGINNING

Vol. COLIII.

CONTENTS.
1. Henry Fielding and His Writings. By Harry Christopher Minchin

FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 259 II. Women and Politics : Two Rejoinders. By Caroline E. Stephen

and Theo. Chapman NINETEENTH CENTURY AND AFTER 270 II. Fakumen, By David Fraser . . . BLACKWOOD's MAGAZINE 276 IV. The Enemy's Camp. Chapter VII. (To be continued) .

MACMILLAN'S MAGAZINE 286 V. “Eugenics " and Descent. By R. Brudenell Carter

CORNHILL MAGAZINE 291 VI. Tembo's Intercession. By Ralph A. Durand . . . . .

MACMILLAN'S MAGAZINE 301 VII. The Poetry of Bridges . . . . . . . OUTLOOK 308 VIII. The Literary Coiner. By J. Churton Collins . . . NATION 310 IX. The Speed of Travel

. . . SPECTATOR 314 X. Higher Education in the United States. By A. T. 8. NATURE 316 XI, Britanniæ Omnes. By H. W. Just . . SATURDAY REVIEW 318

A PAGE OF VERSE
XII. The Primrose Path. By Rosamund Marriott Watson . .

ATHENAEUM 258 XIII. The Storm. By Olive Douglas . . . . . ACADEMY 258 XIV. Facts. By William H. Davies . . . . . . . . 258

BOOKS AND AUTHORS . . . . . . . . . 319

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