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rate was to be levied in Ireland for the relief of A third member of the Government advocates some English county.

the proposition which he says is consistent with freeThe opposition experienced by the Ministry to trade. And is it free-trade now to leave the shipthis bill is unexpected, and yet so intense that we owners of this country to compete with foreign doubt whether they will be able to carry it through shipping, while enacting that every British vessel Parliament, or will consider its enactment prudent. shall be commanded by a British captain, and NAVIGATION-LAWS.

managed by a crew of whom three-fourths must be The majority for the second reading of the bill for British sailors ? the repeal of the Navigation-laws was greater than

This must be West Indian free-trade, and that we anticipated, but smaller than in the last session, is the worst quality of this article administered although a larger number of members voted. The hitherto to any interest. bill has been carried through committee, and the

The members in the House of Commons who third reading will be probably taken after the had courage to oppose these anomalies number a Easter holidays.

little more than fifty. Where will they be on the Many speculations have been formed respecting the third reading? The question is one of those that state of the vote on the third reading, and although try men's consistency. & small majority is generally expected, yet the Times has endeavoured to concuss country gentle

THE FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE. men, and the House of Peers, by a semi-official From the Punjaub, we have heard nothing furthreat of the dissolution of Parliament, or the re- ther than that Lord Gough and Shere Singh were signation of the Ministry, if the bill be defeated in looking out at each other from their entrenched the upper house. The threat would be childish, if camps. dictated by any higher functionary than the man The renewal of hostilities between Denmark and who sweeps the crossings opposite the Treasury Germany is imminently threatened. Large armies Offices.

from Prussia and other German states are hastenThe Cabinet will neither resign nor dissolve Par- || ing towards the probable scene of conflict. liament on a bill that has been made an open ques- The Danes are actively engaged in naval pretion in th Government. But if they adopted || parations; and unless a pacific measure be adopted the last alternative, we do not believe that they in course of a week the renewal of war is apwould come well out of the struggle. The mem- || parently inevitable. bers for all the large seaport towns would be An uneasy feeling exists regarding the threatenreturned against them. At present a majority are|| ing attitude of Russia, which, armed to the teeth, in their favour. The quantity of indifferent speak-hangs on the outskirts of Europe, “biding the ing on the bill is melancholy; and the reasons af- time,” that may not be far distant, when her leforded for supporting it are specimens of bad logic. ||gions will again traverse Germany and Italy. One member of the Government supports it because The stnpid King of Sardinia, Charles Albert, he calls reciprocity by a bad name, which would who has scarcely done a wise act in his life until be libellous if the principle had a right of admis- || the 27th ult., when he is said to have abdicated, sion to any court of justice. Yet reciprocity, in pushed matters to an extremity by invading LomItalics, stands on the margin of the bill, and the Lardy. Queen in council is empowered to enforce that con- The war has fortunately been decided in four cession.

days, during which Radetzsky, the Austrian GeneAnother member of the Government argues in || ral, has fought four battles, scattered the Sardinian favour of the bill, because he says it is just; and army, and probably entered Turin—an extraordiwe confess that a just measure being a rarity, one nary example of activity in a general who is now would not like to lose sight of the phenix when it more than eighty years of age. appears. But is it just, then, to admit manufac- The Austrians do not seek an increase of terri. tured ships free of duty, while the tax on the raw | tory, and, therefore, these victories will not render material is continued ?

European politics more complicated.

RAILWAY AND JOINT STOCK BUSINESS OF THE MONTH.

DURING the month of March we have had upwards of fifty || strength in all railway undertakings, and when a strong competirailway meetings, principally the statutory half-yearly gatheringstion existed among companies as to who should be favoured with of the proprietors of the incorporated companies--the majority, the prestige of the “railway king,” the shareholders of the however, have been minor schemes, or railways in the course of Eastern Counties Company, not being in very flourishing circumConstruction, whose meetings were confined to reporting progressistances, and imagining his majesty was a kind of railway alcheand submitting a balance sheet of accounts. We have had, mist, who could easily transmute their iron into gold, induced nevertheless, a few tritons among the minnows, though not to him to accept the office of chairman, and take an active part in the same extent as during February. The one which has occa- the management of the affairs. For a time all was coleur de rose, sioned the most commotion in the railway world, and has ex- and the lucky shareholders imagined they had made a decided hit cited greater scandal and controversy than anything which has in securing so famed a ruler. But the happened in this department of enterprise for many years, is the

“Best laid schemes of mice and men Eastern Counties meeting, which was held in London, on Feb

Gang oft agleg." mary the 28th. It will be recollected that, a few years ago, when Mr. Hadson's name was looked upon as a tower of' And so did the affairs of the Eastern Counties Railway. It is

found ont that the Hudson management, instead of extricnting | shareholders. The directors, however, managed to carry the day. the company from its difficulties, has only plunged the share- || The present low price of the shares, compared with the original holders deeper in the mire, till, what with guarantees and other amount, will indicate what the public think of the speculation. responsibilities, incurred in the progress of “annexation,” the Like the Eastern Counties, this company is likely to be swamped meeting of the 28th displayed almost an empty treasury. The by the many guarantees into which it has entered, and at high chairman was non est inventus. As may be well supposed, rates of interest. The dividend declared, however, as will be seen, the song of jubilee which ushered in the Hudson era, was was better than that of the other scheme to which we have al. changed to notes of mourning and shouts of execration when the luded, being three per cent per annum. vice-chairman announced the dividend of 5s. 6d. per £20 share, The Shrewsbury and Chester Company met on the 23d of as a little beyond one per cent. per annum on the whole capital | February. The results of the report will be found in our tabular invested. The meeting, which was exceedingly stormy through- statement which follows. This is a new line, in progress of forout, ended in the appointment of a committee to investigate the mation; and the only additional item of information important

, whole affairs of the company. A peculiar interest and impor- is the intimation that the whole line will be open in the course tance has been given to this affair, by Mr. Hudson being charged of the year. not only with mismanaging the concerns of this company, but The Oxford, Worcester, and Wolverhampton line, as stated at also with having sold 2800 shares of the Great North of Eng-| the general meeting, is rapidly approaching its completion. The land Company, to the York, Newcastle, and Berwick Company, meeting which took place at Worcester on March 20 was entirely of which he was chairman, charging them £15 a share above of a routine character. market value, and pocketing the difference. The circulation of The South Wales meeting, held on February 28, was of a simi. this statement has had a very damaging effect on Mr. Hudson's lar character. This line is progressing rapidly. character ; and until the matter is fully and satisfactorily cleared A meeting of the North Wales Company took place on February up, the public will not place much confidence in him. A com- 28, in London, at which a report to dissolve the company was mittee is at present busily engaged sifting the whole matter, and || agreed to. This was the only business transacted. it is expected to report in a few days. According to a recent A meeting of the Norfolk Company was held in London on paragraph in the Morning Herald it is likely to prove favourable February 28, the results of which will be found in the table. No to Mr. Hudson, and to give a much more modified colouring to business requiring special notice was transacted. the transaction than it at present assumes. Whatever may be The results of the meetings of the East Anglian, the Bristo! the result of this particular inquiry, the public faith in the capa- || and Exeter, the Edinburgh and Glasgow, the Glasgoto, Kilmarnock, bility of the “railway king " to keep up dividends and cut and dyr, the Lancaster and Carlisle, the Lancashire and Yorkshire, down expenses better than any other railway potentate of the the South-Eastern, the North British, the Scottish Central, and day, is for ever shaken. He may abdicate his iron throne as several other of the more important companies, will be found in soon as he pleases, for his subjects no longer owe allegiance. the tabular statement showing the original and present price per

The Caledonian meeting at Edinburgh on February 26th was, || share, the capital invested, the half-yearly income and expenditure, like the Eastern Counties, rather a noisy one, on account of the ending December 31, and the dividend, if any, declared at the last large expenditure of the company, and the small prospect for the half-yearly meeting :

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£ Bristol and Exeter www

90 Bristol, Mar. 1 52,370 Caledonian

50 Edinburgh, Feb. 26 130,968 Chester and Holyhead wim

50 London, Mar. 16 East Anglian, (£25 L. and L. and D.) www

25 London, Feb 28 18,968 Eastern Counties

20 London, Feb, 28 397.592 Edinburgh and Glasgow me

50 Glasgow, Mar. 21 93,836 Glasgow, Kilmarnock, & Ayr 100 Glasgow, Mar. 20 Lancaster and Carlisle.

50 Liverpool, Feb. 28 59,753 Lancashire & Yorkshire

86 Manchester, Mar. 7 27,120 Manchester, Buxton, and

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100 London, Feb. 28 North British

25 Edinburgh, Mar. 871,137 Oxford, Worcester, and Wolverhampton mummum

50 Worcester, Feb. 23 Scottish Centralın

25 Perth, Feb, 27 Shrewsbury and Chester 18 Chester, Feb. 23 31,938 sonth Devon འག་་་་་་

50 Plymouth, Feb. 27

40,120 South-Eastern...mmm.33 2 4 London, Mar. 8 238,130 South Wales.wwwwwww

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283,739 1,840,369 3,682,685 1,480,586 1,364,228 1,095,761 1,946,695 8,282,312 1,394,190

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This comprises nearly all the general railway business of im- || Dublin. The only feature presented by these gatherings has been portance. In addition to these, we have had meetings, since our the difficulties alleged to lie in the way of completing the une last monthly summary, of the following companies :- Taw Vale, | dertakings, on account of the impossibility of obtaining money, Birkenhead, Lancashire and Cheshire, at which a dividend of five || in the present state of Ireland, to carry on the works. per cent per annum was declared; Exeter, Yeovil, and Dorchester; The share market has undergone a considerable fall in the Swansea Valley ; Newport, Abergavenny, and Hereford ; Wear course of the month. The depreciation in all kinds of stock is Valley; West London ; Thames Haven; East and West Yorkshire; | from two to three per cent. This may be attributed to the more Wilsontoron, Morningside, and Coltness ; Wold, Cockermouth, and ansettled state of foreign affairs, and the recent news from India. Workington; West Cornwall; Whitehaven and Furness ; White- Consols have undergone a fall since the last month to about the haven Junction ; Yonklands ; Llynvi Valley; Manchester, Shef- same extent. A rally towards the close of the month, however, field, and Lincolnshire ; Nermarket ; Liverpool, Manchester, and appeared to have taken place. Newcastle Junction, and East Indian railways. The most of these There is nothing new of much importance to note in the other are schemes in progress, and the business was of the usual cha-departments of joint-stock business, unless it be the Britisk Bank, racter, to receive reports of the progress made, and to pass the under the management of Mr. M'Gregor, M.P. It is said that accounts. At the Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire Junction the shares are being rapidly subscribed, and that there is every meeting no dividend was declared. The line is, as yet, only par- prospect of this movement to transplant the Scottish system of tially opened, and the receipts were stated to be little more than | banking south of the Tweed being saccessful. sufficient to meet the guaranteed liabilities.

A few Californian gold schemes still hang out to catch flats; In the course of March we have had also meetings of the fol- || but few seem disposed to bite. John Ball, much as he worships lowing Irish companies :—Cork and Waterford; Londonderry and the golden calf, is not to be taken in and done for this time, Enniskillen; Waterford and Limerick; Waterford, Wexford, and The great Californian companies are evidently "no go."

OBITUARY NOTICES FOR MARCH.

DAVID SCOTT, R.S.A.

were returned a still yearly accumulating burden upon the unreAt his residence, Easter Dalry House, Edinburgh, on Monday, | quited hands of their gifted author, whose industry and diligent the 5th of March last, Mr. David Scott, R.S.A. Mr. Scott | enthusiasm no disappointment could repress, whose noble elevawas in the 16th year of his age. He was a native of Edinburgh, | tion of thought no cold indifference could subdne and no allureand received the rudiments of a classical education at the High

ment could entice to a divergence from its own prescribed course. School there. In his younger years he was intended for an engraver,

Ardent in pursuit of the highest excellence in his beloved art, which branch of art had been successfully carried on by his father, his whole soul seemed to expand when the first whisper was Mr. Robert Scott, for many years, in the same city; himself an

bruited abroad as to the probable adoption of pictorial decorations artist of high attainments, under whose able tuition the justly- || for the halls of Parliament, a national recognition of the claims celebrated John Burnet, the engraver of Wilkie's “ Chelsea of art to national consideration and support ; and when the royal Pensioners," and author of valuable treatises on “Light and Shade," || commissioners of the fine arts issued their invitation for comen "Colouring," and on “ Composition,” was reared; as were

peting designs on national subjects, or from the works of national also Stewart, the elegant engraver of Allan's “ Circassiau Cap- poets, to adorn the walls of the British senate house, Scott tives,” the late Williain Douglas, the generally-admired miniature-entered upon the task of preparing designs with unusual alacrity painter

, and the scarcely, if at all, less fully accomplished John and enthusiasm. In compliance with the terms of the invitation, Horsburgh, the eminent portrait-engraver. Of this distinguished || he prepared two cartoons of large dimensions, the one represchool young Scott was a promising and an ardent pupil. At an

senting the “Scottish people, under conduct of the heroic Walearly age, he was enrolled as a pupil with the late Mr. John| lace, stemming the tide of English aggression, at the Battle of Graham, in the Academy of Art in Edinburgh, conducted by that Falkirk,” the other “Sir Francis Drake, on his quarter-deck, gentleman, under the auspices of the Hon. the Board of Trustees viewing the destruction of the Spanish Armada." Both of these for the Encouragement of Arts and Manufactures in Scotland, inspiring themnes were elaborated with unusually erudite skill in where he was cotemporary with many of the most distinguished || composition—both were characterised by bold and accurate and rising Scottish artists of the present day. The active and drawing, and each was distinguished by appropriate individual creative genius of Scott, however, was ill-adapted to the pains and general character, and remarkable for truthfulness of costume taking task of translating, and reproducing in a severer form, the and incident. These two great and elaborate works were sent ideas of other artists; and after a brief but creditable and highly in and exhibited along with numerous others. They were not promising career as an engraver, he abandoned that profession, | deemed worthy of a prize. Nothing daunted by his failure, howand dedicated his energies to the study and practice of art in the ever, when the second invitation was issued by the same comhigher and more congenial walk of painting. Fully to qualify missioners, for a competition of frescoes, Mr. Scott contributed a himself, he studied anatomy in the University of Edinburgh, and

second couple of works. In this instance, however, he had just betook himself with diligence and ardour to the study of the ground for complaint. His principal production was accidentally French and Italian languages, with the best authors; in both of put aside and never shown at all, while a subordinate one was so which tongues, as well as with the classics, he made himself displayed as to indicate that it met with no favourable judgment thoroughly acquainted. After visiting the principal collections of at the hands of its exhibitors. The anguish caused by this inartistic works to be met with in Britain, he bent his footsteps justice sank deeply into the heart of poor Scott. This last, towards Rome. Amidst the artistic treasures of the Vatican coupled with other and scarcely less bitter disappointments in the philosophic mind of Scott found ample material for study / various quarters, contributed to undermine a constitution never and gratification; and in a careful examination of the best works, | of the strongest or most enduring texture, and gradually his health by the great masters, to be met with in the collections of Rome gave way to the attacks of disease, aggravated at least, if not and the other Italian states and cities, he acquired that profound occasioned, by blighted hopes; and, after a severe illness of several knowledge of the principles of art which throughout his after

weeks' duration, he sank into a premature grave, lamented by all life guided his practice and distinguished his works.

who had the happiness of knowing his worth and appreciating his Returning to his native city, he was enrolled as an early mem

talent. ber of the Royal Scottish Academy of Painting, Sculpture, and

Of his numerous works we do not intend to speak, as even a Architecture. He speedily commenced to lay before his coun

mere enumeration of them would occupy more space than we can trymen, in a succession of works, a practical application of those afford. Of the greatest of his finished oil pictures that of "The principles of art which he had derived from a minute and search

Discoverer of the Passage to India passing the Cape of Good ing study of the works of Raphael, of Da Vinci, and of Michael Hope," which constituted a leading feature in the annual exhiAngelo. Scott was no imitator, he was an artist of truly original bition of the Royal Scottish Academy, open at Edinburgh at the conceptions. He had peculiar theories, however, which in a

time of his death, an opinion has already been expressed in Tait's great measure militated against his success. He aimed at too

Magazine for last month. Like every work of genius, this great mach, and his execution generally fell short of his design. || effort has given rise to very varied, and, in some cases, conflicting With him, as with the great masters, each of his pictures had estimates of its claims to admiration ; but still the feeling of its : high moral aim, to the elimination of which everything being the best of his productions is universal. A committee has introduced into the work had immediate and ultimate refer- || been appointed by some of the admirers and friends of Mr. Scott ence, and with which conventionalities of treatment were never

to purchase this picture, for the purpose of being preserved in for a moment suffered to interfere. To illustrate human passion, the Trinity House, Leith. QT excite human sympathy—to evoke philanthropy, or awaken heroism, were his objects; and to effect these he vigorously bent

SIR ALEXANDER JOHNSTON. the whole powers of his commanding intellect. His pictures At London, on the 6th March, the Right Hon. Sir ALEXANDER were, wherever he considered the subject to admit of it, admi- || JOHNSTON, of Cornsalloch, Dumfries-shire. He was the reprerable specimens of harmonious colouring, although in numerous sentative of an ancient family in his native county, and was the instances they exhibited an unpleasing hue; but they were in eldest son of the late Mr. Alexander Johnston, of Cornsalloch, by Variably suggestive, deeply laden with thought, and at all times his wife the Hon. Hester Maria Napier, the daughter of Francis, distinguished by an intimate familiarity with the costume, man- fifth Lord Napier, and aunt of Lient.-General Sir Charles James ters, and sentiment appropriate to the scene and the subject. | Napier, the new commander-in-chief in India, and Lieut.-General Yet, with all these attributes of artistic excellence in his works, | Sir George Napier. He was born in 1775, and married Louisa, the fact is undeniable that Scott was never what may be termed only surviving daughter of the late Lord William Campbell, popular artist, and his pictures were consequently more spoken youngest son of John, fifth Duke of Argyle. Sir Alexander of, criticised, and wondered at than those of his cotemporaries. Johnston had held some of the highest and most distinguished With this species of negative homage, the public apprecia-offices under the state in the east, and was a member of the Privy tion of their merits may be said to have begun and ended. After Council. During his official career he had, in the words of the forming fertile topics of conversation, alike among the learned and late Marquis of Londonderry, “ the great glory of having given the illiterate, while the annual exhibitions were open, his pictures | freedom of conscience, of establishing trial by jury, and of abolishing the slave-trade throughout the island of Ceylon,” The ) H. Hardlake, Bart., of Wingerworth Hall, county of Derby, by late Earl Grey, in the House of Lords, also observed that “no whom (who died in 1811) he has had, amongst other issue, a son, person had ever before had the honour of introducing three such Philip, created Lord de Lisle and Dudley, who succeeds to the measures into any country, and that his conduct in the island of fainily property. The deceased, in 1793, assumed the surname Ceylon alone had immortalised his name.” Latterly Sir Alex. and arms of Sidney, to mark his descent from the Sidneys, Earls ander had resided principally on his family estate in Dumfries-shire. of Leicester. The family is one of the oldest in the empire, and

can trace an undisputed succession in a direct line from the THE KNIGHT OF KERRY.

Conqueror. At his residence, on the Island of Valentia, on the 7th March, the Right Hon. Maurice FITZGERALD, Knight of Kerry, in the

WILLIAM II., KING OF HOLLAND. 76th year of his age. He is succeeded in the ancient title of

At the IIague, on the 17th March, of inflammation of the Knight of Kerry by his son, Mr. Peter Fitzgerald, High-Sheriff lungs, His MAJESTY William II., KING OF THE NETHERLANDS. of Kerry for the current year. The late knight was a highly Ile had only completed his 57th year in October last. The late accomplished gentleman, a worthy representative of that class King was educated in England, and had been in every relation which was fashioned in the best days of Irish society. Through || intimately connected with this country. Having been driven the influence of the late Earl of Glendore, he was returned, at from Holland in 1795, with his father, on the foundation of the the close of the last century, to the Irish Parliament for the || Batavian Republic, he was placed under the charge of the late borough of Ardfert, in Kerry, and voted for the union. For | Archbishop of Canterbury, and received his education from that many years he represented his native county, Kerry, in the prelate. At the age of 19 he was appointed, as Prince of Orange, Imperial Parliament; but lost his seat on the passing of the

a lieutenant-colonel of the British army, and served as extra aideReform Act, against which he voted. Since that event he had || de-camp with the Duke of Wellington in the Peninsula from 1811 lived in retirement in the remote Island of Valentia; where he to 1814. He was present at the sieges of Ciudad Rodrigo and had contributed much, by his influence and zeal, to promote Badajoz, and the battles of Salamanca, Vittoria, Pyrenees, and habits of improvement and industry among his tenantry. The Nivelle. He commanded the Dutch troops in the campaign of slate quarries, which now supply some of the finest slates in the 1815, and the 1st Corps d'Armee at the battle of Waterloo, in empire, were originally excavated by the knight; but were after which he was severely wounded, after having taken an active wards let to an English capitalist, by whom they were worked, | part in the preceding engagements. In June, 1846, his Majesty although not so profitably as had been anticipated. The Knight | became one of the nine Field-Marshals of England. His cogwas a page in Durham Castle, with the Duchess of Portland, in duct in reference to the Belgian revolution in 1830, and the pro1785, in company with another young Irishman, “Master | tracted negotiations to which it gave rise, are well known. He Arthur Wellesley,” now the Duke of Wellington. The deceased succeeded to the throne in 1840, upon his father's abdication. was the lineal representative of the ancient Knights of Kerry- || He married, in 1816, the sister of the present Emperor of Russia. one of the three branches of the house of Fitzgerald. The others | His eldest son William, who is married to a daughter of the King are, the present Knight of Glin, or Knight of the Valley, and of Wurtemberg, succeeds him under the name of William III. the Earl of Kingston, who, by the maternal line, represents the renowned White Knights of old.

SIR CHARLES D. FERGUSSON.

At his sister's residence, Catharine Lodge, Inveresk, near Ed. DOWAGER QUEEN OF SARDINIA.

inburgh, on the 18th March, Sir CHARLES DALRYMPLE FIRAt Savona, in Italy, on the 11th March, her Majesty, MARTE GUSSON, of Kilkerran and New Hniles, Baronet. He passed CHRISTINA, Dowager Queen of Sardinia, the sister of the consort || advocate in 1822, and succeeded to the title and estates in 1838. of Louis Philippe, Ex-King of the French. She was the daugh- He possessed abilities above the average standard, and for many ter of Ferdinand IV., King of the Two Sicilies, and married years was returned as a ruling elder to the General Assembly of Charles Felix, late King of Sardinia, the 7th April, 1807, but did the Church of Scotland, in the affairs of which he always took not leave any family by that monarch, who died in 1831. Her great interest. He was in the prime of life. Majesty had completed her 70th year.

AMBROSE HUSSEY, MRS. CHARLES BULLER. At London, on the 13th March, Mrs. CHARLES BULLER, relict of Charles Buller, Esq., formerly in the East India Com- | Hussey, Esq., formerly M.P. for that city, at the early age of

At his residence, near Salisbury, on the 21st March, AMBROSE pany's Civil Service , and afterwards M.P. for Looe, in Cornwall

, || forty-two. He was first elected for Salisbury in 1843, on the and mother of the late Charles Buller, Esq., M.P. for Liskeard, || retirement of Mr. Brodie, and was returned by a large majority

, whom she survived little more than three months.

his opponent being the Hon. E. P. Bouverie, son of the Earl of WILLIAM DUNN, ESQ., OF DUNTOCHER:

Radnor, now M.P. for Kilmarnock. On general questions Mr.

Hussey was a conservative. He was one of the most uncomproAt Mountblow, on the 13th March, WILLIAM Dunn, Esq., of mising champions of the agricultural interest. He voted against Duntocher. He raised himself from an humble origin, and was

the corn-law repeal bill. At the last general election he retired the architect of his own fortune. He was born in the parish of from Parliament, owing to declining health. Kilsyth, in 1770. From early life he evinced superior mechanical skill, inventive powers, and an acute mind. He went to Glasgow a CAPTAIN JOHN LAWRENCE, R.N., C.B. journeyman blacksmith, and, in 1798, established machine-making works in High John Street there, which have long been on an

At Stonehouse, near Devonport, on the 25th March, Captain extensive scale . About the year 1811,

he entered into
the busi- | John LAWRENCE, R.N., C.B.

, in the 67th year of his age. The ness of cotton-spinning. He was also an enterprising agricul- Companionship of the Bath was conferred upon him for his gallant turist, and acquired very considerable landed property in the

and zealous services, while commanding the Fortune brig, under county of Dumbarton. He is said to have left upwards of the orders of Rear-Admiral (now Sir George) Cockburn, whose £500,000.

flag was flying on board that vessel, in April, 1813. On the 5th

of October, of the same year, Captain Lawrence captured an Ame

rican privateer schooner, of 5 guns and 45 men. He obtained SIR JOHN SHELLEY SIDNEY, BART.

post rauk, January 1, 1817; was appointed to the Eden, 26, At Penshurst, Kent, on the 14th March, Sir JOHN SHELLEY | fitting for the West Indian station, August 31, 1822, where he SIDNEY, Bart., the father of Lord de Lisle and Dudley, in the continued three years. He subsequently commanded the Hastings, 78th year of his age. He was born in 1771, being the son of || 72, during all the operations on the coast of Syria. The good Sir B. Shelley. He married, 1799, the daughter of the late Sir service pension was conferred on him in April, 1847.

LATE M.P. FOR SALISBURY,

PRINTED BY GEORGE TROUP, 29, DUNLOP STREET, GLASGOW.

TAIT'S EDINBURGH MAGAZINE.

MAY, 1849.

THE MUSIC, POETRY, AND TRADITIONS OF THE HIGHLANDS.

BY DONALD CAMPBELL.

WHEN the following melodies were selected, it was in some modern Highland songs is an unmeaning rant, my intention to translate the verses originally wedded little better than the “Derry down” of English songs to them, as specimens of Gaelic poetry; but I soon dis- || of the same age. The audience also but too frequently covered that it requires nearly twice as many English | lose sight of the bard's object in the repetition of the as Gaelic words to convey the same ideas, and hence || verse or the introduction of the chorus, and seldom that I could not do justice to the Gaelic verses in simi- || sing them in such a way as to correspond with the lar stanzas. I have, therefore, departed from my ori-|| emotion that might naturally be excited by the vocaginal intention, and contented myself by attempting || list; but some of the ancient Gaelic songs, when the merely imitations. To render these imitations as much verse is repeated, or the chorus sung with taste and as possible like the originals, I have, in most of the feeling, are exceedingly pleasing and animated. specimens, adopted the same subjects, and have not When the subject of the song was elevating, such rejected any of the ideas or similes that naturally in- as successful love, loyalty, fidelity, or magnanimous fused themselves into the new verses. Although the heroism, the repetition of the verse, or the tone of the imitations, where the original verses have been assumed chorus, became thus an enthusiastic and joyous exas a model, are not therefore wholly original, neither pression of approval from the audience ; but when the can I honestly publish them as translations.

subject was unhappy love, a clan or national disaster, The Celtic bards were the second grade of the or some affecting bereavement in private life, it became Druidal order, whose enlightened theology and beau- a subdued echo of the thoughts and feelings breathed tiful morality, as well as great knowledge of the laws | by the vocalist. of nature and the sublime properties of matter, have By their simple and sublime theology, and this been rendered, in a great measure, unavailing to pos- || system of rendering all the charms of poetry and music terity by the destruction of their manuscripts. The available in the cultivation of the hearts of the people, bards were employed by the Druids in moulding and the Druids produced a state of society of which only training the character of the people; hence it was those who are intimate with the poetry and traditions their object, by the exercise of all the charms of vocal still floating in the Highlands can form any correct and instrumental music, to make the audience identify idea. The religion of the Druids was addressed to themselves, in thought and feeling, with the singer or the common sense of the people ; and the poetry of rehearser of their songs and poems.

the bards was addressed to the cultivation of all the With the above view, the bards were in the habit better feelings and features of the hunan character. of making the audience take part in singing all songs This system of tuition, founded in nature and in reacomposed to their more simple melodies. This object son, produced the result that might be expected from they accomplished by making them repeat the verse, lit. The Celtic race were magnanimous, brave, and or a suitable chorus, generally on a different key from patriotic in their public, and hospitable, true, and affecthat assumed by the vocalist, and with an expression tionate in their private life ; and have been reduced corresponding to the emotion that would naturally be to their present condition by their inflexible adhesion excited in the hearts of the hearers by the subject of to a vital principle of the constitution of clanshipthe song. The chorus was formed of a combination “ the principle of disunited independence”—and not of appropriate sounds and exclamations, with words or by the superior knowledge, capacity, or bravery of lines introduced at intervals, to give a meaning to their opponents. Their adhesion to this principlethese sounds, and preserve the connection of the sub-1 which rendered union or combination for warlike enterject

. The repetition of the verse, or the chorus, was so prises illegal, excepting for national defence-enabled managed by the ancient bards as to have all the effect their feudal enemies to draw them into civil broils of a response to the thoughts and feelings of the vo- and raids, one after another, and thus to cut them to calist, and of a second part to the melody. But when pieces (or render them“ broken men”) in detail. the "order" of the bards became extinct, poetry sud- | The reader who will not use tradition as a key to the denly declined in the Highlands; and hence the chorus | perusal of history, little knows the fund of unnoticed VOL, XVI.-NO. CLXXIV,

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