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and rendered it necessary that she that lord William Bertinck, out should be defended by foreign new ambassador there, bad scarcely troops. But what is the fact : much landed before he found the politics of what she did, and of what she and the plans of the queen so deintended, is not publicly known. cidedly hostile to England, and faBut this is known, that the greater vourable to France, that he judged part of the subsidy which she re. it necessary to return home for ceived from us, was either not em fresh instructions; and finally, that ployed in the defence of the island, our government actually meditated or was employed in organizing and the scheme of occupying the island supporting men strongly believed as our own, as the only means of to be in the pay of Bonaparte ; defeating the purpose of the queen. that she forgot in him the enemy of If this intention should be carried her family, the despoiler of her into execution, a regard to our own throne ; and viewed him only as interests will produce that benefit related to her by his marriage with to the Sicilians, which we hesitate a princess of the house of Austria ; to confer from the very delicate that she overlooked in us, all we scruple of not interfering with a had done for her, and regarded us government not more hostile ta only as standing in the way of her us than it is prejudicial to its own design to throw herself and the subjects. island into the hands of the French;
History of the Military and Naval Operations of Great Britain during the
Year 1811-Plan and Arrangement proposed in detailing them-Island of Anholt - Importance of this Island to Britain- Rersons why the Danes were anxious to recapture i-Preparations maile by them for that PurposeParticulars of the Attack --Greal Infériority of the British Ga:-rison--The Danes completely repulsei-Circumstances which render tbis Repulse most honourable to the Garrison--Naval Action in the Mediterranean off the Island of Lissa-The French attempt to break the British Lire, but are defeated-Remarks---Gallant Naval Exploit in Corsicamcompletely successo ful-Naval Adroitness in the Mouth of the Garonne Obstinate Engagenient of the Island of Madagascar between three French and three British Frigates—The Enemy beaten-Remarks.
W E shall pursue our accus. shall confine our narrative to those
VV tomed plan in giving the insulated events in different parts detail of the naval and military of the world, which, from not be. operations of Great Britain during ing carried on upon so large a scale, the year 1811: that is, leaving out are alone not to be compared with for the present all notice of the the events of the campaign in the splendid and glorious exploits which peninsula. Of these events, the distinguished our military opera. most important and interesting, tions in Spain and Portugal, we either on account of the real and
substantial benefit which they pro. we even yet send into that sea. Our duced to the political strength or occupation of it was of course an the commercial relations of this eye-sore to the Danes, to whom it country, or from the glory which had formerly and for a great length they shed on the British character of time belonged. Very early in for skill and valour, are ---the de- the spring of 1811, the Danish fence of the island of Arholt, in government resolved, if possible, the Baltic sea ; the navai exploit to regain possession of this island; in the mouth of the river Garonne; they had been prevented from car. the naval action off the coast of Tying this design into execution the island Madagascar; and the during the fall of the year 1910, capture of the islands of Bourbon, because the Biitish ships of war Barda, and Batavia.
kep on their station in the Baltic till In detailing the particulars of the frost and ice set in, so that after some of these transactions, the rea, they left this sec! the winter was too der will notice with satisfaction and far alvanced. It would have been · pleasure a more close, constant, attacked very early in the spring and successful union of sentiment of 1811; but on account of the exand co-operation of conduct be. treme backwardness of the season, tween our military and naval com- the gun.boats destined for this sermanders than has generally hap. vice could not be got out of their pened. In others are conspicuous winter quarters in the lakes, where that cool and collected intrepidity they were frozen up. and skill which so eminently di- On the 23d of March, however, stinguish British seamen, and which, every thing having been prepared, joined to their habitual conviction the Aotilla and the transports asthat they are unconquerable, gives sembled in Gierrillo buay: the them such manifest advantage over former consisted of twelve gunthe enemy; so much so, indeed, boats, and the latter of the same that now the basilisk eye of a Brinumber, having on board nearly tish seaman is amply sufficient to 3000 men. The garrison of Andaunt and paralyse a very superior holt was very small in comparison, foe.
consisting of only 350 marines, The island of Anholt, situated and 31 marine artillery, with four in the Baltic sea, had been taken howitzers; the whole were under possession of by our troops, nearly the command of captain Maurice, on the same account, and to pro. Besides these troops, the Danes mote the object, as had induced our looked for no resistance from any government to occupy Heligoland; other quarter ; having reconnoi. namely, for the purpose of being tred the island, and found only one made a depôt for our colonial schooner lying near it. The only produce and our manufactures. part of Anholt that was fortified Besides this, the possession of it and capable of making resistance, was of great importance, in order provided the Danes effected their to secure a place of refuge (not landing, was the light-house. : very safe, indeed, either from the On the morning of the 20;h of attacks of the enemy's ships, or, in March, before the day began to all kinds, from the violence of a dawn, the signal that the enemy Baltic storm,) for the numerous were in sight was given by the outconvoys of merchantmen, which piquets on the south side of the
island. As cartain Maurice had to the fort ; captain Maurice, with received intimation sone time be- his small but intrepid band, slowly fore that the Danes were preparing reu eating before them in the best to invade and attack ile island, he possible order. In this retreat the had put cvery thing into such a British sustained ny loss, notwith. state, as to give them a most doter. standing the enemy were within mined resistance and opposition, pistol shot of the rear, and pushed Accordingly, when the signal that on apparently with an intention to the enemy were in sight was given, take the tort by storm. Such, in. the garison were immediately put deed, from the Danisi representaunder arms; and captain Murice tion, was their object. Twice himself, at the head of two liundred they attempted it; at first uninfantry and the brigue of how- der the command of a naval lieu, itzers, proceeded to oppose the tenant, and afterwarils with 650 landing of the Dancs. When, liowo men under major Melstud, aided ever, he was enabled from an ensi- by 150 more, besides the sea. nence to command it view of the men from the gun boats. While point of attack, he perceived that they were making this attempt to the enemy, having been savoured take the fort by storm, the flotilla by a thick for, (common at this lay round it and commenced a time of the year in the Baltic, carly heavy firing against it: but though in the morning,) had already ef. the Danish troops displayed the fected their landing. They were greatest bravery, and were so very now adyncing with considerable superior in point of numburs, yet rapidity and in great num DCIS, and thic troops opposed to them were apparently under a lrm prsytsion Britislı, and headed by an officer on that, having accomplished the inva- whose skill and bravery they had sion, the conquest of the island the utmost reliance and confidence, would speedily and easily be a. 'The Danes were received with chieved. It was, therefore, anso. such a heavy and well-directed fire Jutely necessary for captain Man. from Fort York and Massarene rice to like the most prudent and batteries, that they were compelled skilsulin cistures without the smallest to fall back and shelter themselves loss of time, and to carry them in- under the sand-hills. As, however, to execution the moment he had de- the garrison and fort were a good termined upon thiem; for the ene- deal incommoded by the fire of the my not only greatly out-numbered gun-boats, captain Maurice made a him, but, enubled by this circum- signal for the Tartar and Shelstance, they greatly out-flanked drake cutters to attack them : this both his wings. Their object, as they were prevented from perform: appears by the Danish account of ing for some time, on account of this transaction, (an account, it may their progress being impeded by an be terrarked, much more candid adverse wind. In the mean time and consistent with truth than a a very heavy fire was kept up by yanguished enemy generally gives, the Danish gun-boats, in order to was to force the Dricish commander, assist and conceal another attack by the danger of being outflanked by the troops. These troops, hav. and surrounded, to retreat into the ing marched to the west part of the fort. As they had gained a footing island, took up a strong position pa the island, they pushed forward on the northern store, covered with
sand-bills, and by the breaks and to such a proposal, and required inequality of the ground. At the them to surrender themselves un. same time, another column a conditionally. tempted to carry the Massarene This, to such men as the Danes, battery by storm : they also were especially when the requisition came defeated in their attempt, and from an enemy so very inferior in cbliged to retreat under the pro- number, and whom, when they left tection of the sand-hills. At one their native shore, they reckoned time, however, the enemy had ad. upon easily subduing, must have vanced so far towards the accom- been mortifying in theextreme. Acplishment of his object, as to have cordingly, they hesitated for some gained the outworks; but cartridge- time, but at length found themshot from forty pieces of cannon selves under the necessity of comdrove him back with great loss. plying with captain Maurice's proAt this time the Danish command. posal. During their hesitation, ing officer, after having fought the British commander, in order to most bravely, lost his life. This prove if possible still more the event evidently disheartened his hopelessness of escape or defence troops; for they no longer mani. in which the Danes were placed, fested that intrepidity or that de- ordered the schooners to approach termination, notwithstanding their nearer the enemy's gun-boats, for repulses, to renew the attack, which the purpose of forcing them to quit they had displayed while their com- their station, and thus leave their manding officer was alive and at countrymen cut off. This order their head. Panic-struck by the had the desired effect; the gunloss of their chief, the Dines seem- boats got under weigh: and as ed now only solicitous to cover soon as the Danish commander pertheir retreat, and protect them- ceived this, he agreed to surrender selves from our attack and fire un- unconditionally. der the sand-hills.
There was still another column At this period of the engage. of the enemy on the south side of ment lieutenant Baker of the An- the island. This column, however, holt schooner, with great skill and was speedily compelled to submit gallantry, anchored his vessel on to the same fate as their countrytheir flank, and opened against men. When the Danes first landed them a tremendous and well-dic in Anholt, they had stationed a rected fire. This fire evidently did corps of reserve on the west side great execution, and convinced the of the island; these began their enemy that the sand-hills could af- retreat as soon as they witnessed ford them no secure and effectual the unsuccessful result of the atprotection. In this situation, find. tack. As it was of the utmost coning it impossible to advance or re- sequence to cut off this reserve, if treat, and exposed to the destruc- it could possibly be accomplished, tion of all their troops if they con- captain Maurice put himself at the tinued where they were, the enemy head of the troops in order to purhung out a flag of truce and of. sue and attack it. As, however, fered to surrender upon terms. the prisoners he had already taken Captain Maurice, however, sensible were much more numerous than all that they were absolutely and en- the garrison, he was compelled to urely in his power, refused to listen leave behind him the greatest part
of of his troops, and to trust to the tempt to retake an island which had tried bravery of the few that, ac belonged to them for such a length companied him acting upon the of time, that it might as justly be dejected spirit of those he was considered as forming part of their about to attack. No doubt can be native land, as Zealand itself. This entertained that he would have suc- island too was situated in their own ceeded in increasing the number of sea, almost on their own coasts; his prisoners by the capture of the it was attacked too at a time of the whole of the reserve, had they not year when the paval superiority of been strongly protected by the guin. Great Britain could be of no avail; boats, which were drawn up close -before her powerful fleets could, to the shore tor that purpose. Un on account of the season, enter the der these circumstances, of a very Baltic. When to all these circuminferior force opposed to one not stances, which we have detailed beonly nurnerically superior, but aid. cause they may not immediately ed by fourteen gun-boats, captain occur to the reader, are joined the Maurice was reluctantly compelled more obvious circumstances of an to abandon the enterprise.
attacking force, nearly ten times as In this most splendid and suc. great in point of numbers as the cessful enterprise the British lost troops who had to defend the only two killed, while the number island; of this force being sup. of the wounded amounted only to ported by gun-boats, and of their thirty men. The enemy, as might having been able to effect their be anticipated from the account we landing before the garrison were have given of their mode of attack, aware of it; when all these cir. suffered very severely : five of their cumstances are taken into conofficers, including, as has been al. sideration and account, and the reready mentioned, their brave com- sult of the transaction is duly manding officer, were killed ; and weighed, certainly few will hesitate sixteen officers and four hundred in affording to captain Maurice and four rank and file were taken: and his brave garrison the wellbesides, there were a great number merited praise, that they are worthy both of officers and men wounded. of being natives of that land which
Perhaps, in the annals of British gave birth to Nelson. heroism and success, (and these an- Before we turn our attention to nals are not meagre or common in the naval exploit at the mouth of their details, there is not to befound the river Garonne, in which the one instance more conspicuous, in adroitness of the British sailors point ct successful bravery, than this was uncommonly conspicuous and defence of the island of Anholt by successful, we shall notice two very, captain Maurice and his brave lit- brilliant naval achievements in the tle garrison. There are many cir. Italian seas. Early in the month cumstances to be taken into the ac- of March, an English squadron, couit, before we can justly appre. consisting of the Amphion, of 32; ciate their behaviour in that degree the Active, 38; the Volage, 22; which it deserves. The assailants and the Cerberus of 32, under the were Danes ; a nation certainly command of captain Hoste of the in point of courage not unworthy Amphion, discovered off the island of being compared with Britons; of Lissa a French squadron, con. they were Danes engaged in an at- sisting of five frigates, one corvette,