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to cover them are piled up, and Ihe flames of hell aro wreathed in among the Flamboyant mouldings of the areh; and one active devil, impatient of the preparations which threaten to overwhelm him, together with his victims, in everlasting torment, seems to bo making a violent effort to escape, and the cunning of his purpose is well expressed by the leer in his ugly and grotesque visage. The hurry-scurry of his furtive but abortive attempt is shown by the intense action in every limb as he emerges from the conventional band of clouds in the tympanum, and stretches over three of the mouldings beyond. Swift, however, as he has been, ho is too late, for, swifter still, an avenging angel is sweeping down from above to drive him back to his own place. The drapery of this figure seems to show the force with which it is driven through the air, but the attitude of the angel is calm and dignified, and the right hand is raised as if about to strike, while the left arm, which is broken, rests upon one of the roll mouldings. The head has been unfortunately destroyed, knocked off, maybe, by the Turk's-head broom with which I once saw an industrious official scrubbing this very piece of sculpture. Part of a sort of hood to the dress is, as it were, blown up behind where the head should be. One wing is likewise broken, but the other is intact, and is a curious example of the Flamboyant fondness for interpenetrations, as it seems to pass right through the moulding, the projecting fillet of which is carried down in front of it, and loses itself against the body of the angel. To my mind this—not intentional on the part of the sculptor—seems to add a feeling of vigour and irresistible power to the action of the figure; a portion of carved foliage in one of the hollows of the mouldings has also an evident purpose in connecting the two figures, and it is obvious could not have been omitted from the composition without detriment. John P. Seddon.


rr^HE Railway News suggests certain alteraX tions in connection with the Ludgate-hill and Victoria Stations of the Chatham and Dover Railway, which would (in onr contemporary's opinion), if carried out, not only be of great public convenience, but would lift that unfortunate undertaking out of the financial mire in which it has so long been placed. The Ludgate Station is beginning to be felt too small for the constantly-increasing traffic, and there aro no means of improving or extending it except at a fabulous cost, as Apothecaries' Hall, the Times office, and other valuable property, would be required. Seeing this to be the case, our contemporary advocates the construction of a new station at and on a levol with the Holborn Viaduct, as at the point where the line at present passes beneath that structure the company has a large amount of surplus property, and upon this a commodious station could be constructed without difficulty and at a very moderate cost. The railway has four lines of rails to within a few yards of the Holborn Viadnct. All that is required is to raise cither the two outer or the two inner of Ihe existing rails, and lead them at a higher level into the proposed new station on the south side of the eastern half of the Holborn Viaduct. These two lines of rail wonld then form up and down lines for the passenger traffic on the main line of tho railway, terminating at the new terminus on tho Holborn Viadnct, the lower and remaining two lines of rail being still used for the short or omnibus route in connection with the Metropolitan Railway, nnd passing to the right or left of the proposed new terminus. The situation of the station on the Holborn Viaduct, levol with the roadway, would certainly be greatly advantageous when compared with tho Ludgate-hill (•ite, and the alteration will involve no wholesale demolition of proporty and no compensation. It is suggested that half of the sum to be paid by Government for the telegraphic system of the company (£100,000)—or, say, £50,000—could not be better employed.

The alteration suggested in connection with tho Victoria Terminus, though minor in its extent

compared with the foregoing, is one which, if carried out, would be productive of great benefit to the Chatham and Dover line. It is simply to construct a few yards of tunnel under the station yard at Victoria, to connect the lino with the Victoria Station of the Metropolitan District Railway, which, running eastward from Kensington, will next year pass beneath the Thames Embankment to the Temple, Blackfriars, and the Mansion House (or near thereto). This wonld bring the Chatham and Dover line into the heart of the City, and seeing that the short piece of tunnel required will involve no demolitions or compensations, that also is thought likely to be carried out.


Crystal Palace School Op Art, Science, And Literature.—It was, in the first instance, with a view to utilise their most valuable resources for educational purposes that the directors, some ten years ago, established the above institute, and we are glad to be able to record the success which has year by year attended it. Its operations are confined to female education, and comprise lessons and lectures by eminent professors and teachers on all subjects which are embraced in a liberal education, and tho courts and collections of the Palace are made available by way of examples and illustrations. The new session (1869-70) will commence on the 18th instant, when the various classes will be resumed. According to the prospectus, which is already issued, there are many priv'leges accorded to registered pupils, such as the free use of a good reading-room and library, and an opportunity of purchasing a season ticket to the Crystal Palace, at half-price. These arrangements indicate great liberality on the part of the executive, and, being in keeping with the original aim of the promoters of the Crystal Palace, we arc the more pleased to find they are appreciated.

Maidstone.—The distribution of prizes to those students of tho Maidstone School of Art who successfully passed the Government examination, took place on the evening of Monday week, James Whatman, Esq., M.P., in the chair. The report, read by the Rev. H. Collis, said the progress of the school was satisfactory. Since the commencement of the present year 73 middleclass students and 30 artisans have been under instruction. The following numbers passed at the Government examination in March last:— Freehand, 12; geometry, 11; perspective, 2; models, 10. At this examination 7 students were awardf-d prizes; 313 drawings were sent from the school for the approval of the Science and Art Department.

Preparations For The Council At Roue.—The preparations in the transept of S. Peter's are (says a Roman correspondent) going on apace. So are those in the Cortile of Santa Maria degli Angoli. It is intended now to cover in the Cortile with a glass roof, and run a series of galleries round it, and thus create more space for the purposos of the oxhibition of ecclesiastical art which will be held simultaneously with the sitting of the Council, the number of applications for space already received rendering it probable that the area already marked out would have proved insufficient. A paragraph has been going the round of the papers to the effect that tho order for the carpets and hangings required in S. Peter's for the Council having been sent first to Paris, then to Lyons, and then to Aubnsson, everywhere met with tho answer that it was not possible to execute it within the required time. It was next sent to Berlin, where the manufacture of such articles has taken a rapid development of late years, and a telegram immediately was returned thence undertaking the work at the required time.

Payment Of Wages At Public-houses.— A correspondent calls for a few lines in reprobation of a custom which some M.P. should bring in a Bill to abolish. It is this:—The clork of the works or foreman, in league, it may be, with the publican, pays his men at a public-house, and the men, out of good temper, weakness, or shamefacedness, stand treat and drink at the bar. One glass acts as a slipper to another, and the man often finds himself "cleaned out" of a goodly proportion of his hard-earned cash. The clerk of tho works or foreman must be either a fool or a rogue to thus increase tho already existing numerous temptations to drink, and a short Act would render illegal a custom which is as bad as it is old.

Churches Axd Chapels.

Cleator.—On tho 3rd inst. the foundationstone of a new (Roman) Catholic Church was laid at Cleator, near Whitehaven. The building, which is cruciform, will accommodate abont a thousand worshippers, and is expected to cost something like £4,000. The internal dimensions of the building are 130 feet by 50 feet and 75 feet across the transepts; its height being about 65 feet. The foundations have been put in of slag concrete from the iron furnaces at Cleator Moor. The slag is laid about three feet deep, and is now as hard as rock. Mr. Edwards, of Whitehaven, is the builder, and Mr. E. W. Pugin, is the architect.

Bridlington Quay.—Anew church, dedicated to S. Anne, has been consecrated. Tho church is designed to accommodate, on ordinary occasions, 200 people. The ground plan consists of a nave, 57 feet long and 28 feet wide, with a western porch ; chancel, terminating in an octagonal apse, 30 feet long and 20 feet wide ; with organ chamber and vestry. Mr. C. Toft Newstcad, of York, is the architect, and Mr. John Brown, of Monkgate, the contractor.

Shrewsbury.—St. George's.—This church, erected in 1832, h:is been re-opened, after undergoing considerable alteration. The high pews have been removed, and new and uniform open seats are now provided, with stalls for the choir. The organ has also been repaired and removed from the west gallery to the south side of the chancel. The pulpit, altar-rails, &c, are new, and an improved system of warming has been adopted. There are now wide central passages in nave and transepts. The work has been carried out by Messrs. Nevett, of Ironbridge, from the designs of Mr. E. Haycock, jun., architect, Shrewsbury.

Sheffield.—The memorial stone of a new Baptist chapel was laidatGlossop-road, Sheffield, on Monday. The style is Geometric Gothic, and the building will seat 820 persons, at a cost of £5,000. Messrs. Innocent and Brown, of Sheffield, are the architects, and Mr. W. Dickinson the clerk of the works.

Leigh.—The ancient pile known as Leigh parish chorch, Lancashire, is, after many years of dilapidation, made the subject of a " restoration" scheme. The date of the edifice is unknown. Tho parish church of Leigh was mentioned in the Valor of Pope Nicholas, A.d. 1201, but it is probably of much earlier date. It was tho only church in the parish till 1633, when S. Stephen's, Astley, was built by Adam Mort, the lord of the manor of Astley. The organ, which is one of the finest in Lancashire (it was bnilt by Samuel Green, of London, in 1777), has recently been thoroughly repaired and restored by Mr. W. B. Parvin.of Bridge-street, Bolton, and was re-oponed on Sunday last, when collections in aid of the church restoration fund wero made.

Totnbs, Devon.—The north aisle of the parish church, dedicated to St. Mary, has been rebuilt from tho designs of Mr. G. G. Scott, R.A., and will be available for uso at the end of tho present month. Built in tho Perpendicular style, it was not until 1800 that any certainty existed as to the exact date of the whole church; in that year the south-east pinnacle being struck down by lightning, fell through the roof of a small room over the porch, in which were found two chests full of ancient records, from which it appeared the church was rebuilt in 1250, and again in 1432. The ancient rood-screen, which is exceedingly handsome, and bears many traces of very rich decoration, is the chief glory of this chnrch. It is of Beer stone, the old pulpit being also of the same material. A gallery has been erected in the restored aisle, which, together with the roof and open benches, is of deal. The walling of the new part is limestone raised from the Darlington estate, the parapet of red sandstone from Stoke Gabriel, aud the windows, piers, arcades and all dressings are of Doulting stone from quarries in tho neighbourhood of Ilminstcr. Mr. Reeves, of Totnes, is the contractor, and the wood and stone carving has been executed by Mr. Hems, of Exeter. The entire cost will be about £1,600.

Monkton, Devon.—Tho church of St. Mary Magdalene, rebuilt some years ago from the designs of Mr. J. Hayward, of Exeter, has been rendered complete by the restoration and heightening of the old tower, the only remaining portion left of the ancient structuie. This has taken place under the direction of the same architect, and the effect is very satisfactory. The gurgoyles and other carving are the work of Mr. Harry Hems, of Exeter; and Mr. Goldsworthy.of Honiton, was the mason employed. The whole of the cost has been bore by Mrs. R. S. Gard, upon whose manor the church stands.

Launceston, Cornwall.—A new chapel for the Wesleyan denomination has been commenced in this town from designs (selected in competition) by Messrs. James Hine and Alfred Norman, architects, Plymouth. The building, which is to scat about 700 persons, will be in the Early Decorated style, and will consist of nave, with clerestory, aisles, transepts, and apsidal chancel. It is proposed also to add a tower and spire at the south-west angle, and adjoining the church will be school and class rooms. The buildings will be erected chiefly of local stone, with Bath stone and granite dressings. Mr. Blatchford, of Tavistock, is the builder, the contract snm being £3,008.


Finsbury.—The new building in Cowperstrcet, Finsbury, for tho Middle-Class Schools Corporation, is now nearly completed, and is to a large extent in occupation. It is destined to accommodate 1,000 buys, and alrea'lv contains 850. The cost of the land was £30,000", and that of the building will bo £16,000. Tho building has very little architectural pretensions. Broad corridors, accessible by wide stone staircases at each end, traverse the whole length of the building on each floor.

Truro.—On Monday last the new Public Rooms were opened at Truro. The edifice con" sists of a central block, with two small wingsIts exterior is not impressive. The style adopted is Tudor. The architects are Messrs. Habershon and Pite, of London. The walls are of stone from Mylor, the greenish drab of which is boldly relieved by the cream-coloured Bath stone dressings. The main doorway and the windows over are well-designed, and there is a well-proportioned oriel in the Green front. The building will cost about £900, and contains a large hall capable of seating 800 persons.

Poht-glasgow.—On Tuesday the foundation stone of a Town Hnll for the burgh of Port-Glasgow was laid with full masonic honours by tho Provincial Grand Master for Renfrewshire West, Sir M. R. Shaw Stewart, Bart. The design is a mixed Italian, and the facade bold wi'hout any elaborate details. It is divided into three compartments, tho centre projecting beyond the two sides. The principal entrance is placed in the centre, having a carved opening surmounted by a trussed cornice and pediment. The entrance hall is 14ft. square. The length of tho hall is 85ft. and the breadth 55ft., and it will he seated for 1,000 persons. The front gallery is placed above the entrance hall and waiting rooms; the platform, which will seat 100 persons, faces it. There is a committee room behind the platform capable of accommodating 200 persons.

Wharton.—On Sunday week new Presbyterian Schools at Wharton, Lancashire, were opened. The building is ^-shaped on plan, the cross portion, 60ft. long by 18ft. broad, being the boys' school-room ; the other pirt (42ft. by 18ft.), separated from tho boys' school by a movable screen, being devoted for tho purposo of a girls' school-room. Messrs. Corson and Aitkin, of Manchester, are the architects, acd Messrs. Smith and Asbton were tho builders, the desks and seats being fitted up by Messrs. Banks and Co.,of Manchester.

White Colnk.—The new vicarage house at White Colne, in the county of Essex, hud just bocn completed from the designs und under the superintendence of the architect, Mr. Charles J. Moxon, A.R.I.B. A., of 48, Albany-street, Regent's Park, London. The material used is the best red brick which the neighbourhood affords, with black bricks used in bands and also in tho arches of all window and door openings. Tho roofs are covered with red flat tiles, with an ornamental crested ridge. In addition to the house, stables have also been built. The whole of the works have been mo>t satisfactorily carried out by Mr. Z. Rogers, buildor, of Enrls-Colne, near Halstoad, at a total cost of £1,354.

Stibbard.—An entirely new rectory house has been erected on the Bite of the former old one (which was in a dilapidated condition) at Stibb ird, in tho county of Norfolk. The house, which is a small one, is built of red brick. The

works have been carried out by the builder, Mr. Robinson Cornish, of North Walsham, Norfolk, from the designs and under tho superintendence of the architect, Mr. Chnrlcs J. Moxon, A.R.I.B.A., of 48, Albany-street, Regent's Park, London, at a total cost of £952 13s. HI.


[We do not hold ourBelves responsible for the opinions

of our correspondents. The Editor respectfully requests that all communications should be drawn up as briefly as possible, as there are many claimants upon the space allotted to corrcspondeuce.] P. O. O'a. to be made payable to J. Passmorc Edwards, at the Strand 'juice. All cheques to bo crossed on the Union Bank.

Received.—J. L. It., sketch returned—IT. IT. 8.— W. II. C—J. It. V.—C. B. A.—J. P. S.—C. H. J. K. C. — II. II. V. willi photo, (can't promise to insert it).— R. S.

A Constant Reader.—Questions answered last week.

Student must bo very sensitive. Ho must try and take the good with the bad in " Intercommunication," or leuvo it all alone if he likes.

Edward H. Smales.—Your sketch of Whitby Abbey will appear; please send description.

Robert Tonge.—Thanks for the report.

Architectural Studest.—Read The Building News, and write to the Secretary of the Institute, D, Conduit-street, Regent-Btrcet, London.


(To the Editor of The Building News.)

Sir,—A letter addressed to yon in The BuildIng News will probably attract attention elsewhere. It is at anonymously signed, but it is easy to guess who is most likely at the bottom of it. What he finds in yonr particular condition to need amelioration scarcely appears, and architects in general will be slow to thank him for his chivalrous anxiety on their behalf. Should ho even help " the young architects of this country" to hold tho high place among their fellow citizens that, in their own estimation very possibly, ought to be theirs, the gratitude most be very uncertain of people whom ho himself paints as incapable of any sentiment except an inordinate thirst for money, nnd whom he strives to allure by the image of monopoly. Has monopoly taught the sculptor to produce more exquisite forms? Has it given the painter a higher power of design? Has poetry drawn from it more elevated inspirations? or does music by its aid more rapturously express proportioned sound? I say emphatically, No ] Neither will architecture flourish under its influence. The writer of that letter, however, is the champion, not of architecture, but architects; still, their interests should be inseparable. Granting that the '' accomplished" architect ought to know a good deal, it is certain that his knowledge must be to a large extent specific—personally and practically obtained among workers in wood and brick, and stone and metal. Knowing the true source of professional power, the civil engineer makes a residence among works and workers the preliminary to business as principal; but the architect too commonly begins only after the commencement of practice that extensive observance of works in all stylos, in all materials, of all forms, and of all ages, that constitutes his proper store of information—his own distinctive treasury. Here we can see and understand that "the necessary qualifications of an accomplished architect arc many and difficult of attainment." To one the conditions of time and opportunity may come easily and plentifully, to another sparingly and late; but who shall prevent their appropriate exercise, come when they may? Shall intellects, dovotod wiih life-long patience, and lovingly, to the noblest of the arts, be denied their proper application, that those who will not learn for learning's sake, who limit their sordid aims to ready cash, and see tho food of avarice in monopoly, may bo pampered and fenced about by rules and schools, degrees, nnd money down? You are asked to concern yourself with tho question, "What is an architect?" Will you also consider what nn architect after this sort, coined at " University " or " King's," and, do listen, an apprenticeship to " the trade, mystery, and calling of an architect and surveyor" into the bargain would be? The project for shutting up the Institute, and the liberal treatment of professors

of a liberal art with which you, a liberal President, are invited to sympathise, is equally fine, and, should it succeed with architects, there is no reason why painters should Hot make Academicians for " a round sum paid down." At any rate, the "nobodies," those unsufferable gentlemen amongst the Fellows of whom nobody knows anything " but that they have been seven years in practice, doing little or nothing, alas! but regularly paying all that time four guineas a year," are to be extinguished out of hand. The pecuniary benefits of medals are to be shown by tariff, and the marketable value of those absurd examinations, that were so clamorously asked for and so signally shirked when granted, is to be declared and guaranteed. This reminds one of a good-for-nothing boy who thonght it too much to be even good for nothing. The A and B story, upon the strength of which the Institute is denounced as the "house of refuge for the incompetent," simply supports a not uncommon notion that the student, who by aint of cramming gets through an examination, and thenceforward thinks himself a hero, will often suffer by fair and and steady comparison with the owner of more sterling but less showy qualijies. The noxt financial project is a sort of Stock Exchange manoeuvre for bringing existing fellowships to a premium by means of a new class—a hj brid of the genuine architect and the Oxford B.A. All this is calculated to deceive. The fault lies rather with the law than with the Institute, and the first upward step for architecture and architects must be a change in the exocntive system of the Building Act. Here, Sir William, is the Augean stable. Your foot is on the tlireshhold, and the companion of Hercules, Resolution, can make the cleansing, as of yore, practicable, if not light—Yours &o., Anti-monopoly.


Sir,—If the "Sculptor of the Figures" carefully reads again my article on Salisbury Cathedral, he will find there is not such a variance between my statement, which he quotes, and his own, as he imagines. As to the west front having been restored to its present completeness "a year and a half ago,"I do not oven question it in my notice ; and I should be sorry if my rematks are calculated to interfere cither with the efforts of the Dean and others to restore the figures to the vacant niches, or the sculptor in completing his labours. I think, however, there are many other parts of this noble building that require more immediate attention.—I am, Sir, &c, The Writer Op The Article.


Sir,—I fear some collusion has again been exercised in the case of the above competition, as three Bradford men have been placed the winners, which is very extraordinary, to say the least of it, as we have yet to learn that the architectural talent of that town is of such a very high order as to eclip-e all others in a public competition.

There Bccms to be no doubt that architects must soon do something positive if they wi«h to keep their proper professional ttatim, inste id of being dragged through tho mire, which is s > frequently the case—talent and merit being cast aside through the unprofessional touting of some wellknown local man, who, with a mariter in modo style, manages to worm himself into the good graces of sure of the m. re important members of the building committee. I think the best thing we can do is to insist upon either one or two firstclass architects being called in to decide, and that we should demand that this should be stated in the conditions before sending in.

From all I can hear, the plans to which the second and third premiums have been awarded are greatly inferior to several sent in, and that there is no doubt most sh ame f ul favouritism has been shown. I think that something ought to bo done in this case, and that the unsuccessful competitors, as a body, should sign a document protesting against this unjust decision. Could not such a protest be got up, signed by those competitors, nnd sent to the mayor or town clerk of Bradford, proclaiming against such unfair proceedings, and asking them, for the credit of the town, to re-consider the matter? It would at any rate show what architects think of the affair, and might possibly cause the pe pie of Bradford some degree of shame.—I am. Sir,



Sib,—I lmve seen the correspondence on this subject in yonr valuable paper and some of your contemporaries, and have been much interested in the form the discussion has taken, but, like Elihu in Job, I would also show mine opinion. I have been practically engaged in the supply, and sometimes in the quarrying, of building stone for more than thirty years, and the late Thomas Chappie (for so many years foreman to the eminent firm of Messrs. Cuhitt and Go.) paid me the compliment of stating that he know no one so well acquainted with the various Yorkshire stones as Myself, and no one had a better judgment of good building sione and the practical working of the same than Mr. Cliapple.

The scientific commission appointed to visit quarries and examine the qualities of stones to be used in building the new Houses of Parliament made a chemical analysis of several specimens of sandstone, and it is to be regretted they did not make choice of a sandstone somewhat similar to the Darley Dale in Derbyshire, bnt not so hard and expensive in working, or, on the other hand, one too soft or porons.

Dr. George Wilson, in hispaperon the " Chemis try of Building Materials," see the Builder, Vol XIII. page 506, says. "Pine grained, hard, compact i-andstoncs are superior to every other building material for the construction of edifices where delicate tracery and minute carving are exposed to the destructive meteoric agencies of a variable northern climate and a cityatmosphere."

Had the costly work on the exterior of the noble pile of building with which Sir Charles Barry has enriched the nation been executed in such a stone the " ihingof beauty" would have been a "joy for ever," instead of which a great mistake wns committed, and the work of decay commenced before the workmen left the building. It is to be hoped the result of the free discussion that has taken place on the qualities of a good building stone, wkh properties to withstand the action of the weather, and at the same time suitable for carving, moulding, projections, aud first-cluss masonry, will be that some such stone will be introduced for the Law Courts, and other new and important buildings about to be erected in London. The palatial edifices at Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds, Bradford, Halifax, and Huddersficld, which are built of good weather sandstone, I venture to recommend to the notice of those who are directly interested in those matters, as a stone eminently adapted for use in London.

Sir Titus Salt, Bart., is now having carved lions of large size put in front of his public buildings at Saltaire, in stone possessing all the qualities enumerated above. Thcso quarries, with the facilities given by railways, can supply the London market in any quantity or size at a reasonable price.—I am, &c, JOHN TRICKETT.

Dacre Bank, Ripley, Leeds.


[1621.1-CURVED CHIMNEY FLUES. — Some smoke flue, lined with In* socketed earthenware drain pipes are curved soqulckly that the ordinary sweeping machine cannot be passed up. Is any pliable material ever adopted instead of the usual Btiff rods, by which such flues can be swept from tbe flroploce opening ?—

ri5S8J-LENGTH OF HIPS. - " F." thanks "W. a.," "H. D. C," and Robey Carpenter, tor their solution of his question, and confirmation of his opinion thereon. "Win. C.'s " attempted solution is mainly noticeable for its pseudo " Wm. C"-callty.—F.

Sir, Mtfe


-I have read with pleasure your able article on the last number, but I think you have

fallen iuto an error in your account of the discovery by Mr. Milner of the use of alum os a fireproof composition. 1 have always lielleved that the composition oi which alum lorznfl Bo large a portion was invented and patented by Tann. the safe maker. This invention was the subject of litigation between Milner and Tann's ygent, in which Milner was successful, he having in Ids patent claimed the principle of protecting safes and boxes from destruction by lire, while Tann's invention was only another method of doing it. From the time of this trial until the termination of M ilner's patent, he always used this alum composition instead of the tubes containing water. Messrs. Tann and Son may probably reply to your article. J. W,


Sir,—Oho of your correspondents was iuquirlng about Plymouth Guildhall competition. Mr. Waterhouse was selected to adjudicate on the designs, which he examined at Plymouth about three weeks ago. Several meetings have been held throughout the town, nt the whole of which resolutions have been passed, declaring that the town is already too heavily involved in debt; that it is undesirable to increase the burden for the purpose of building a new Guildhall; and that they support those candidates for the Town Council who are in favour of reduced taxation. J. H.


Amunificent Gift.—The Manchester papers record a noble act of munificence on tho part of Air. Robert Barnes, of that city. The Cheadle Hall estate has for some time been occupied by the trustees of the Manchester Royal Infirmary as a convalescent hospital. Mr. Barnes has now signified his iutcntiou to purchase the estate for tbe ti ustees, and further, to devote £10,000 to the extension of the charity.

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Also what is the meaning ot the sign i/. "To find the strength of girders of wood with W. I. fletches.K Thus:—B = breadth of wood in inches; D = depth iu inches; t = thickness of iron fietch in Inches; L = length of bearing in feet; W = breaking weight in cwts. in middle. Formula—


W = — (CB + 30t)

C = 4 0 teak = 30 oak, and so on Is the sign if intended to convey the same meaning as «/, which usually has 2 or 3 placed against it denoting square or cube root? the former sign I flud both with and without the root figure in the work mentioned.— Formula.

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[1681.]—CONTENTS would kindly furnish

pond, Robey Carpenter and " It. P.," who both work upon assumed premises. Incorrectly—might adjust their difference of (1110—1245), 105 cubic feet. Other correspondents might acquire a kuowle.dgc as to method of correct admeasurement, and " S. It. T." might also be iu receipt of a solution of his mystery— F.

[1600.]—ARCHITECTS' ESTIMATES.—It would be absurd to suppose a job for which an architect's estimate of £5,000 was backed by a contractor's estimate for £6,300 could ever reach £11,000 without his desigus were deviated from or extras incurred in additional work. The commission, of course, is charged upon the amount of the contractor's account. I of course assume the extras are incurred with the knowledge of the client; if not, it would be a question ol law how far the architect was a responsible agent Contractors have often had difficulty in obtaining payment for work done when the architect has exceeded his instructions. Should an architect have misled his client to the tune of £4,M» in a job of the above magnitude, he can hardly expect his commission on that amount in equity, however successfully he may be enabled to enforce his claims by law.—Formula.

[1602.1—A NICE QUESTION—I consider "An Assistant" has an undoubted right to give evening assistance to another architect, unless he has an agreement with his employer to the contrary, but ho should be careful he docs not in any way allow it to interfere with his dally duties by overworking himself at night, and thus prevent the development of his energy in the day time. Neither, in my opinion, should be give either architect the benefit of any good points that legitimately bolong to the other, and which he may have become possessed of while in their employ, but this, I presume, it would be difficult to avoid, if employed to design.—Formula.

[1007.]—SURVEYORS' FEES.—The fees due to district surveyors, if not paid by the builder, nie recoverable against either the owner or occupier.—Formula.

[1620.]—CEMENT FOR TANKS.—I should think your correspondent "Kappa" would find Portland cement, mixed with sharp sand iuequal proportions, answer his purpose.—J. S.

[162a]—CEMENT FOR TANKS.—I should advise "Kappa" to renew the portions of tho stone gutters that have the faces broken off either wholly or partially ; if partially, the new portions ought to be dovetailed into the old. I should not recommend cement for the purpose, as frost is liable to lift it. A good way to make the joints of stone gutters watertight Is to have the faces of the joints cut in the form of the letter V, stopping the same with tow aud whitelead. 1 have seen joints severed, in consequence of alterations, that have stood twenty winters, and which appeared upon separation to be iu as good condition as the first day they were stopped.—T. L. P. H*


Morpeth Church.—A window of stained glass lias this week been erected in the parish church, Morpeth, to the memory of George, sixth Karl of Carlisle, and his wife. It is in the north side of the chancel, and the subjects are the Crucifixion of our Lord, and S. John taking- the Virgin home after that event. The window is tho work of Mr. Baguley, of Newcastle, The tracery, which is mostly old glass of the fourteenth century, has been restored by the same artist.


A Monument To No AH t—The inhabitants of the Grand Duchy of Ohnchoseu assembled recently to inaugurate a monument recently erected to Noah 1 The memorial has been sometime in abeyance —iu fact, since IfcoG—but is at last completed. The monumcut is of the character of a baronial tower, ^0 leet high aud :iti feet square. Above the gateway is the figure of the ark. A spiral staircase leads to the spacious chambers, in which it was proposed to place collections of antediluvian remains. On the summit isa short pedestal, on which is placed a bronze figure of Noah: at each corner oi the pedestal'la a large and beautiful cabbage, the emblem of Ohuehoscn.

The Lions At Saltaire.—Tho history of those lions, now placed in front^of the Mechanics' Institute at Saltaire, is a little remarkable. They were llrst designed by the sculptor, Mr. Thomas Milncs, of Loudon, for the base of the Nelson column in Trafalgar square ; but, after he had completed the models and made all preparations for proceeding with the work, the commission was taken out of his hands aud given to Sir Edwin Landseer. In the meantime, tho models remained in Mr. Milnes's studio, where they attracted the notice of Sir Titus Salt. Sir Titus was desirous of having the lioDB at Saltairo, and after a consultation with Mr. Lockwood, his architect, it was decided to place them in front of the building named, two on each side of the road. The lions are four in number, and are intended to represent Vigilance aud Determination—qualities which none will deny were possessed in a high degree by England's famous admiral—and Peace and W ar. Two ot them have just arrived, and one has been setup on its pedestal. The figures aie each eight feet long, three feet wide, and five feet high. They have been sculptured in Pateley Bridge stone, and the weight of each is nearly three tons. The stone is a beautiful rich coloured sandstone, now being introduced into the London market by Mr. Samuel Trickett, of ^, Gresham Buildings, Basinghall-street.

WATER SUPPLY AND SANITARY MATTERS. The Feasibility Of Making Gar From Sr.Wage. —Sir Johu Thwaitcs, at a recent meeting of the Metro

olltan Board of Works, alluded to a paragraph which ad appeared in a newspaper to the effect that gas was being made in India from sewage, and leading to the inference that the same results might be obtained from metropolitan sewage. The writer appeared to have ignored the fact that Indian sewage consisted principally of solid matter, whilst London sewage contained , 94 or 95 per cent of liquid matter, which would render the cost of extraction too heavy to be of any practical utility. At the same time, on the part of the Board, he wished to state that they would give every facility to persons who wished to experiment with a view of arriving at any results not hitherto attained.


Richmond.—The third annual meeting of the Richmond (100th) Starr-Bowkett Building Society was held on the 2.1rd ult. The income for the year from subscriptions alone was £2,172; £8,700 has been advanced on property mortgaged to the Society, £792 of which has been returned. The profits were increased by £70. The report, which was of a satisfactory nature, was approved and adopted, and the directors for the past year re-elected.

Bristol.—On Wednesday week the fourteenth annual general meeting of the Union Building and Investment Society was held at Bristol. The report showed a considerable increase in the society's business on that of the preceding year; that 78 new members had joined the society sinoe the issue of the previous year's report; that 426 2-10 new shares had been issued; and that there were in force on the 81st August last— the date to which the society's accounts were made up —1847 3-10 shares, representing an invested capital of £33,500; also that there were on the register 375 shareholders. The aggregate amount of advances to shareholders on mortgage security of freehold and household properties was shown to be £66,326 16s. 6d.

The Conservative Land Society.—At the sixtyeighth quarterly meeting of the members, held on the 4th Inst., the report of the executive committee stated that the receipts for the four quarters of the past year were £161,136 12s., and the grand total to Michaelmas, 1869, is £1,450,( 82 19s. 3d. The total withdrawals to Michaelmas, 1869, are £356,880 0s. 4d., and the reserve fund to Michaelmas, 1869 (exclusive of office premises and furniture account), is £10,464 8s. Id. As the annual meeting will take place early In December, the eriod has arrived for the members to elect two shareolders, who, with two nominated by the executive committee, will have to audit the accounts of the Conservative Land Society. The auditors were duly elected to audit and report as to the account and balance-sheet for the financial year ending the 30th September last Tho directors further reported that the United Land Company (Limited) having announced that they will submit four estates for sale under the allotment system in tho course of this month (October), tho executive committee remind the members who hold rights of choice on the register of the Conservative Land Society that by mutual arrangement they will have priority of selection on the days of allotment, viz. .-—The 20th (Portsmouth No. 2), the 22nd (Westhill, Putney-heath), and the 27th inst. (Shccrness Xu. 2, and Hammersmith).


A Conflicting Decision.—A correspondent of the Solicitors' Journal calls attention to the decision of the Hou se of Lords in the case of " The Hammersmith Railway Company v. Brand" (L. R. 4 Eq., and Ir. App. 171.) It declares the law to be that a person is not entitled to compensation nnder the Lands Clauses Act and the Railway ClanseB Act for depreciation in the valne of his house by reason of the vibration ransed by a railway train. This is the opinion of Lords Chelmsford and Colonsay, Justices Blackburn and Mellor, and Baron Channel 1. The contrary opinion is held by Lord Cairns, Justices Willes, Keating, Lush, and Montague Smith, and by Barons Bramwell and Pigott. Can any decision be more unsatisfactory?

Important To Builders' Carmen.Heley v. Hill And Others.—-The defendants, Mefssrs. Hill, Keddell, and Waldram, the extensive builders, of 38, Kingsland-road,| were summoned at the Shoreditch Court on the 11th inst., by the plaintiff, one of their carmen, for a debt of 16s. 8d., alleged to be due from the defendants to tho plaintiff for wages. The plaintiff said that he had been employed by the defendants as carman, and as a weekly servant, at a salary of £ 1 per week, and that he was discharged from their service on the first day of the week, withont any notice, and was, consequently, entitled to a week's wages, less 3s. 4d., which they had paid him for one day's work. The defendants, on the other hand, maintained that the plaintiff was not a weekly servant. Thoy reserved to themselves the right to dischargo any of their carmen at any time on payment of a day's wages, at the same time, however, thej made it a rnle not to do so except in a case like the present, where the plaintiff was discharged for insolence to one of their foremen and refusing to obey orders His Honour immediately decided in favour of the defendants.

Decay Of A Fresco At Lincoln's Inn. —The Atlienwum regrets to observe that the progress of decay in Mr. Watts's great fresco which illustrates the History of Law, in the Hall of Lincoln's Inn—an injury which attracted some attention a few months since—does not seem to have been arrested; at least, the defects have not been at present repaired. Mr. Watts's generosity in producing, with a patriotic view, this admirable work, would be aptly supplemented by the execution of such repairs as are now obviously needed. This painting, which was produced about ten years since, general signs of decay; its surface remains as rich and clear in tone and colouring as ever ;but some of the more important parts have materially changed. Thus, the faces of Justinian and Theodora—that of the latter fignre especially ; those of the scribes who sit at their feet, particularly that of the man on onr right; parts of the figure of Charlemagne; the face of Ina, King of the West Saxons, for which Mr. Holman Hunt sat as the model, are almost faded out of sight. The figure of the Earl of Pembroke, for the face of which Sir John Lawrence sat, and other less important parts, show great deterioration.

Plymouth Guildhall Competition.— Some time alter these drawings were received the committee deemed it well to ask for a sum of money to be placed at its disposal for the purpose of obtaining professional advice. The request was granted by the council, and Mr. Waterhouse's services were secured. This gentleman selected seven designs, out of the twenty-six submitted, as the best, and reported on these to the committee. Although two or three weeks have elapsed Bince Mr. Waterhouse's visit, we do not understand the committee has yet made its award. Within the last week or two several meetings of the ratepayers have been held, at the instigation of the Ratepayers' Association, and at each meeting a resolution in opposition to the erection of a Guildhall at present has been passed.

The Arms Of The City.—Mr. Charles Bouiell, writing with respect to the arms of the City on the bridge spanning Farringdon-strcet, I egrets that the able architect and engineer of the viaduct has overlooked the fact that colour is not an arbitrary accessory, but an essential clement of, true heraldry. At present the honourable and time-honoured ensigns of the City appear conspicuously upon tho noble bridge, painted brown, and heightened with ad libitum gilding, in strict conformity with the treatment of the rest of the metal-work of the structure. This completely destroys the true heraldic character, and consequently the significance, of both the arms, the supporters, and the crest. The general effect of the whole composition, in which these heraldic devices take no unimportant parts, would be greatly improved by the introduction of the true blazonry, instead of the present unmeaning brown and gold. I need scarcely add (says Mr. Boutell) that the shield is silver or white, charged with the red cross of St George of England, and with the erect sword (red also) of the great patron Apostle of the good city, St. Paul; and further, that the dragon supporters, and the dragon's wing crest, are of a thoroughly dragonish green and pink, with touches of gold upon their scales and membranes, and on every wing the red cross of St. George.

Bunhill Fields Burial-ground.—This celebrated burial-ground, where lie the mortal remains of some of tho wisest and best of England's sons, was re-opened yesterday (Thursday). It has been re-laid out and planted at the expense of the Corporation of tho City of London, and a considerable amount has been expended upon it. The tombs have been set up where required, paths laid out, trees and shrubs planted, and a new railing provided on tho Cityroad sido. On the granite piers of these railings will be inscribed the names of the most distinguished men who are buried in this " Campo Santa" of Dissenters.

The New Route From Islington To The City.—The preliminaries to the completion of this line and thoroughfare would seem at length to have arrived at the beginning of the end. The new route will start at Essex-road, not far past Islington-green, utilising Packington-street, Shcpperdess-walk, Bath-street (City-road), and Bunhill-row. The City-road and Old-street, St. Luke's, will both bo crossed at right angle0, and on

arriving at Chiswell-street, Finsbury-square, the new thoroughfare will be continued via one of the small streets leading southwards from Chiswell-street, which will be opened out at the southern end so as to debouch by the Moorgate-street station, Finsbnry Pavement. The thoroughfaro is complete, with the exception of this its most cityward portion, and a small length of Shepherdess-walk adjoining the St. Lnke's workhouse. The narrowness of this latter portion will necessitate the setting back of the workhouse premises, and we now hear that all the deeds in connection with the sale of the parochial property have been signed and sealed. These deeds bind all parties to the decision of the umpire, E. N. Clifton, Esq., by whom the price is to be settled, and on the return of the parties to town the negotiations will be completed. It is therefore probable that by the close of the year the new route ( with the exception of the small piece at the City end) will be opened for traffic.

London Association Of Foremen EnGineers.—It has been arranged, thanks to tho kindness of Mr. J. W. Bazalgette, engineer to the Metropolitan Board of Works, that the members of this institution, honorary and ordinary, will visit, on Saturday (to-morrow), the Abbey Mills pumping station of the great main drainago works at Stratford, and inspect the whole of its mechanical and other arrangements. Diagrams and drawings on a large scale will be exhibited in the engine rooms, and every preparation is to be made for the information and edification of the practical men who form the mass of the members of the association. After the visit of inspection, a collation will be served at the Royal Hotel, Bowroad, at which Mr. Joseph Newton, Royal Mint, will preside, and several officers ot the Board of Works will be present. The time of the meeting at Stratford on Saturday is 3 p.m.

The Tesselated Roman Pavement.—At the meeting of the Common Council at Guildhall on Wednesday, Dr. Sedgwick Saunders brought up a report from the Library Committee, recommending that a detailed description of the tesselated Roman pavement recently discovered at the back of the Poultry and of similar remains found in the City be obtained, and that the drawings of the pavement be chromo-lithographed, at an expense not exceeding £135, and a copy be sent to every member of tho Court, the Metropolitan Board, and the various learned societies. Ho moved accordingly. Tho recommendation was seconded by Mr. R. N. Phillips, and adopted.

Death Of The Queen's Librarian.—Mr. Woodward, librarian in ordinary to the Queen at Windsor Castle, died on Tuesday night. Mr. Woodward was a man of considerable literary and artistic culture. He wrote a history of Wales, and a history of America, and a local history of Hampshire, was editor of the Fine Arts Quarterly Review, and was lately engaged on a life of "Leonardo da Vinci." Mr. Woodward was born at Norwich in 1816, and graduated at London University.

State Of Trade Among The Carpenters. —The state of trade is returned by fifteen lodges of the general union of operative carpenters and joiners in the September trade report as good, by fifty-nine as middling, and by fifty-four as bail. Two a re on strike, and sixteen make no return, seventy-one lodges are woiking under the hour system, and the same number under the day, and four make no returns on the subject.

Slates Superseded.—The continually extending use of enamelled iron plates for advertising purposes having tended materially to diminish the cost at which they can be brought into the market, has led to the suggestion to employ them as a substitute for roofing slates and tiles. They world bo fixed precisely as the galvanised tiles recently introduced. They are to bo fastened by a single nail of galvanised iron, with which is used a small leaden washer, to render the nail-hole perfectly tight. The advantages of such tiles are numerous. In the first place, they aro not affected by fire like zinc, they do not oxidise, and thoir dilatation and contraction havo not the least effect on the roof.

Byzantine Cameo. — We hear that nn interesting discovery has just been made in Russia—namely, of a Byzantine cameo in onyx, dating from the seventh century. The gem, which is embedded in a jolden cup, presented to the Cathedral of Ouspcnski by Catherine II., is two inches in length, and of an oval form. The relief represents a cross surmounted by a medallion bearing the effigy of the Saviour, accompanied by two figures of angels. An inscription in Greek

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