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life they are placed, or in whatsoever spheres they move, they must be happy themselves, and, like the sun, diffuse happiness all around them. Without this divine temper no man can be happy. Though he could seat himself on the throne of the universe, though he could bring in a revenue of glory from the most diftant stars, though he should not keep from his eyes whatever they desire, neither withhold his heart from any joy, yet must he confess himself diffatisfied in his poffessions, and disappointed in his expectations. Destitute of that heaven-born temper, a universal benevolence em bracing the whole human race, he must be wretched; and, having not a hope beyond the grave, a hope full of immortality, every thought of diffolution must help to make him miferable.- When men of an ambitious mind have been taken from private life and feated on a throne, or, being seated on the throne of a limited monarchy, have been able to shake off all restraint, and wield a despotic sceptre, the sudden blaze of glory has dazzled



their imaginations, and made them happy for a day; but after having passed one night under the royal canopy, they have risen with other thoughts, for they found their pillow strewed with thorns. Cicero gives us the most striking anecdote of Dionysius, tyrant of Syracuse, which beautifully confirms this observation. From a private person he became chief magistrate at Syracuse, and by degrees assumed defpotic power. Conscious that he had incurred the hatred and abhorrence of his much-injured countrymen, he could not but look on them as his enemies, and therefore fortified himself against them in a strong citadel, where he lived as in a prison. This citadel he garrisoned with foreigners. As he could not esteem any man his friend, who either valued liberty, or deserved it, he was surrounded only by trembling slaves and sordid Aatterers. Neither his citadel nor his guard of foreigners could preserve him from the most tormenting and unremitting fears. One of his courtiers, named Damocles, was perpetually extolling with rapture


his treasures, grandeur, the number of his troops, the extent of his dominions, the magnificence of his palaces, and the universal abundance of all good things and enjoyments in his poffeffion; always repeating, that never man was happier than Dionysius. " Because you are of that opinion,” said the tyrant to him one day, " will


taste and make proof of my felicity in person ?” The offer was accepted with joy. Damocles was placed upon a golden bed, covered with carpets of ineftimable value. The sideboards were loaded with vessels of gold and silver. The most beautiful naves, in the most splendid habits, stood around, watching the least signal to serve him. The most exquisite essences and per-. fumes had not been spared. The table was spread with proportionate magnificence. Damocles was all joy, and looked upon himself as the happiest man in the world ; when, unfortunately casting up his

eyes, this happy man beheld over his head a glittering sword, which hung from the roof only by a single horse-hair. He was immediately seized with a cold

B 3

sweat ;

sweat ; every thing disappeared in an inftant; he could see nothing but the sword, nor think of any thing but his danger. In the height of his fear, he desired permission to retire, and declared he would be happy no longer *. The feelings of Dionysius were not in kind

peculiar to himself, they are in a degree the feelings of all usurpers, of all who, thirsting after despotic power, have robbed the people of their most sacred rights. Though the wise and well-established monarch has nothing to apprehend; the sovereign who has but just established his absolute dominion must have every thing to fear.

His tenure is most precarious. This day every knee may bow before him, to-morrow he may be a fugitive, or prisoner, and the next may expire on the block. Should this event however never happen, yet the possibility of it must fill his soul with terror, and embitter those very moments when trembling slaves bow down before the throne, or fordid flatterers with their adulations seek to charm . Cicero Tufc. Quest. I, 5. n. 61, 62.


the ear of majesty * -While their country's wound yet bleeds, monarchs must tremble at the name of Brutus. While the keen sense of the recent loss they have sustained is yet fresh in the people's memory, monarchs must often be revolving in their minds the fate of former monarchs. If the monarch has cause to fear, how much more the prince who aims at monarchy, while the contest yet sublifts while the event is yet uncertain ? What tumultuous thoughts must haunt him at the midnight hour ! But what is it for which kings have bid fo high, for which they have ventured all; their crown, their blood ? What is it for which they have subjected themselves to the execrations of their subje&s? What is it for which they have shed their country's blood ? Only that they may indulge their most unreasonable imaginations without controul,

• Neque fruftra præftantiffimus fapientiæ firmare folitus eft, fi recludantur tyrannorum mentes poffe aspici laniatus et i&tus ; quando ut corpora verberibus, ita fævitiâ, libidine, malis consultis, animus dilaceraretur. Tacit. Anal. 1. 6. c. 6.



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