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down the middle, and on each side of it is ble it to store up sap for the spring and a border composed of earth, manure, and summer campaign. For this purpose it any loose material, such as road-sand, or must be sheltered from the rains, and lime rubbish from old buildings, to keep then it is early put to rest. The additional the soil porous. The trees are grown in heat afforded by the glass at the same pots, and the pots are set on the borders. time riper's the wood which has been The roots pass through the hole at the already formed an indispensable condibottom into the soil below, which fur- tion for its bearing in perfection. nishes additional nourishment to the plant The glass-roof of the common orchardduring the growing season. In the au- house is not made to slide or to open. tumn the roots which have passed through Ventilation is effected by having one of the pots are pruned away, and the growth the boards on each side hung upon a of the plant is arrested. This has the binge. By letting down any or all of effect of dwarfing the tree and inducing these boards a current of air is kept up. the production of fruit-bearing branches, In the summer season this cannot be too instead of leafy luxuriant shoots. In for- abundant, and no fruit-tree will thrive mer days it was considered to take nearly without it. half a century to obtain a good crop of fruit from a pear, the old saying being- 'In the warmer parts of England,' says Mr.
Rivers, 'I have heard of two or three failures Plant pears
in growing peaches and nectarines, owing enFor your heirs.
tirely to the attacks of the red spider, brveght
on by the unskilfu! management of servants, By the present process a pear may be calling themselves gardeners, who would persist made to produce fruit as quickly as an
in shutting up their houses at four o'clock in
the afternoon in hot weather, and not opening apple. The operation is assisted by graft- them till nine in the morning. The poor trees ing the faster-growing fruit on a slow.
were thus suffocated, and so enfeebled as not to growing stock. Pears are grafted on be able to resist the attacks of this persevering quince stock, apples on the Paradise apple enemy. Now, let me advise any one who has from the East. These stocks make nu- such a servant to open all the shutters about the merous surface fibrous roots, which, from first week in July, and have them pailed so that their being more exposed to the influence will the first of September. The shutters should
they cannot be closed. Thus they may remain of sun and air, induce a less rapid and be open by day all through the spring and early more healthy growth than crabstocks, summer months, and open night and day as soon which strike root deeply in the ground. as the peaches begin to colour, unless the house
The protection which the orchard-house be in an exposed place and the weather cold and affords the trees from the effects of the windy, when they should be only partially frost in spring is hardly more important open.' than the protection it affords them from the wet in autumn and winter.
An orchard-house 30 feet long, 14 feet
wide, 4 feet high at the sides, and 8 feet • The principal office of the root,' observes high to the ridge in the middle, costs 277. Dr. Lindley, 'is to attract food from the ground, 10s. “This,' says Mr. Rivers, ' will hold and there is no period of the yoar when the from twenty-five to thirty trees. Thirty. roots become altogether inactive except when trees will give sixty dozen and upwards of they are actually frozen, At all other times fruit when in full bearing. A small bush during the winter they are perpetually attract of the Pitmaston orange nectarine, four ing food, and conveying it into the interior of the plant, where it is at that season stored up years old, produced, one season, four till it is required by the young shoots of the dozen of fruit, and brought them all to succeeding year. The whole tissue of a plant perfection. Still this is too many, as some will thus become distended with fluid food by of the fruit were small. Mr. Rivers lays the return of spring, and the degree of disten- great stress on the trees not being placed sion will be in proportion to the mildness and closer than three feet between stem and length of the previous winter. As the new shoots of spring are vigorous or feeble in pro- shaded, the fruit may be abundant, but
stem. If they are crowded or partially portion to the quantity of food that may be pre- the flavour will be poor. pared for them, it follows that the longer the period of rest from growth the more vigorous
A well-skilled horticulturist, who has the vegetation of the plant will become when built a house on a grander scale, gives the once renewed, if that period is not unnecessa following account of it:rily protracted.'
I am more than ever convinced of the supeIt is necessary, therefore, to stop the riority of fruit-bouses, especially in this island growth of the tree in the autumn to ena-) (Ireland), over walls. I lave adopted the opinion that glass and timber are cheaper than chard-house in February. Banksian roses, brick and stone, that is to say that a given the Mezereon, the early Dutch honeysuckle quantity of the superior fruits can be produced and many other plants may be grown in in a fruit-house, costing a less sum than walls producing the same quantity, even without pots and will bloom freely from January taking into consideration the much greater cer
to March, with only a very small quantity tainty of crops froin the trees being protected, of water. In the latter month the apricots bat assuming the walls to give fair average commence to bloom, followed by peaches crops. My new house is all timber and glass, and nectarines, and these for many weeks with a triple span roof 84 feet long and 60 wide; make the orchard-house all that can be the centre span 17 fovt higher than the two wished for as a promenade. The late Lord side ones. In this centre division is a bed 1:9 Braybrooke in his declining health found feet wide, and here I have planted my pyrami- it one of the most agreeable and beneficial dal pears, most of which are now 10 feet high
În such dry and sunny --splendid trees and full of bloom. They are 6 places of exercise. feet apart. Altogether there are 60 of these in counties as Surrey and Hampshire orthe house, and about 100 peach, nectarine, chard-house Sanatoriums will one day be plom, and apricot-trees. The effect is very formed, and a fine dry air will be secured, beautiful, all being now in bloom; some of the
more healthy and grateful than can be pears are magnificent. The sides of the house found in continental Europe—the air of are glazed down to the ground, the sashes being Nice without its cutting winds. Such hung on central pivots and all readily opened. I bave more light than I ever saw in any other places should be built on the southern side house, and the ventilation appears all I could of a hill, as appendages to lodging-houses wish; and these I take to be two cardinal for invalids; but they should not be too points for producing good fruit. I propose to large, or they will be difficult to ventilate grow vines to all the pillars inside-straw- thoroughly in warm weather. berries in the side borders—and I know not The number of trees which can be grown what else I may try, for I still have much room in an orchard-house as compared with to spare. I am keeping an account of the tem- what are grown against a garden-wall alperature, to compare with that of the open air. in February the mean height was 3 degrees lows a larger range of early and late kinds,
for above the outside, and in March 57; and it and materially extends the season will doubtless be greater during summer and peaches. This may be further prolonged autumn. One reason that induced me to erect by taking the pots from the house before · so large a structure was an almost uniform want the fruit is quite ripe and putting them of success with the pears, for, although I took out of doors in a sheltered spot. It is the great care in protecting them when in bloom,
same with apricots : vet latu frosts almost always caused the fruit to drop, so that scarcely one tree in ten gave a fair
• That very fine sort, the Peach-Apricot, genecrop. My house is handsome and weli tinished; rally ripens in the orchardl-house about the first indeed rather too well, for it has cost about 500l. week in August, but by a simple method it may There is a good deal of extra work, which be had in perfection tiil the middle of October. inight be saved, and I have little doubt the saine
The end of June some trees full of fruit sliould sized building might be erected for 18. 9d. per be selected, and those that are to be very late square foot of ground covered.'
shonld be placed under a north wall till the first Structures like these are as much for week in September, and then removed to the ornament and pleasure as for the cultiva- orchard-house to ripen their fruit. Those that tion of fruit. The dry air of a spacious sunny exposed place till the end of August, and
are to ripen in September should be placed in a orchard-house is most agreeable in the au
then be removed to the orchard-house. The tumn, winter, and spring months for in
fruit from those trees that are mucli retarded valids. An hour's sunshine sends the ther
will not always prove good, unless the weather mometer up to 60. Early spring and win- be fine and warm; but that from trees set out ter blossoming shrubs may be introduced, of doors in a sunny place and then ripened in the
Half-standard but not evergreens, for to keep the latter honse will be most excellent. in health they must be liberally watered, aprieots may be made charming ornamental and this destroys the elasticity and dry- garden; for this purpose trees with nice straight
trees for the summer decoration of the flower ness of the air which makes it so agreea- steins about three feet in height should be seble to breathe. Some plants of Chimo lected, and planted in pots or tubs. They should nanthus fragrans in large pots will give be grown in the orchard-house, and about the their sweet flowers in January. Jasmi- middle of July be removed to the lawn or any num nudiflorum and Forsythia viridissi- part of the garden where such trees would be ma, although quite leafless when in bloom, desirable. They can be pruned into round heads have a gay appearance.
The flowers are
and employed for summer ornaments just as yellow. Those of the Tartarian Honey- found equally ornamental and more useful, be
orange trees are in many gardens : they will be snckle (Lonicera Tartarica) have white or cause their fruit is valuable. They will come bright red flowers, and show in the or- in nearly at the same season as those on walls ; for it must be understood that fruits in thorough- trees for 601. We have more than once ly ventilated orchard-houses are not much for heard of failures, but on inquiry we have warded unless the season happens to be very invariably found the causes to be either sunny. It is not an early but a certain crop prejudice on the part of the gardener that must be expected. I have not named in my list any later kind than the Peach-Apricot, be against the admission of any novelty, or cause it is so easily retarded and is always of the the departure from some essential rule of highest excellence; it is also the most abundant management. One half the care bestowed bearer of all.'-Rivers's Orchard-Hlouse, p. 32. on an orchard-house which is shown in the
cultivation of the cucumber or melon will Mr. Rivers occasionally grows his trees ensure an ample crop of fine fruit to any in the form of a single stern from three to one who makes the experiment. tive feet high; this he terms 'cordon ver- For the details of pruning and cultivation ticale,' or cylindrical growth. As the We refer to the valuable little work of Mr. plants are pruned very close, they may be Rivers. He was originally led to publish set only two feet apart, and a small house it that he might devote the profits to the twenty-four feet long and fourteen feet restoration of his parish church, which was wide, with a path of two feet in the mid- in a fearfully dilapidated state. The pious dle, will well hold seventy-two trees. We feeling which prompted the action is visible have lately seen some which were trained in the charming conclusion of his book, in this manner bearing a full crop from the in which he points out the advantages and top to the bottom.
pleasures which he has himself derived There is some doubt whether the fruit from the orchard-house :— Each bud, leaf, produced in the orchard-house has as good and blossom, is brought close under the à flavour as that grown against walls. As eye of the cultivator. All the minute and regards pears, we think that the flavour is beautiful operations of Nature can be at least equal to the very best which are closely watched in a genial climate. The matured out of doors. As regards peaches silvery covering of the peach's blossomand nectarines, the flavour of some of bud, the beauty of its fully-developed flowthe early varieties of fruit against a south ers (how fresh and happy they always wall in a fine season may perhaps be supe- look!), the anthers shedding their pollen, rior; but in cases of supposed inferiority the germs gently swelling, the downy, it is still probable that the fault may rest ruddy, luscious-looking coat of its charmwith the cultivator, and not be inherent in ing fruit,-are all calculated to give pleathe mode of cultivation. Overcrowding, sure to the healthful, cheerful mind; for deficient ventilation, or too large a crop, the varied works of Nature's laboratory all deteriorate the quality of the fruit. It are brought near to the eye, near to the is notorious that when a crop is excessive, mind, near to the heart, which is instincthe flavour is weakened in the same pro- tively lifted in thankfulness to the Giver of portion. Mr. Rivers has always found all such good and beautiful things. the fruit of the orchard-house delicious when the conditions necessary to success had been complied with, and our experience coincides with his.
Mr. Rivers has a chapter on tropical orchard-houses, showing how delightful it Art. IX.-1. A Bill to extend the Right would be to grow varieties of tropical of Voting for Members of Parliament, fruits, such as the Mangosteen, the Cheri- and to amend the Laws relating to the moya (a fruit represented as spiritualised Representation of the People in Parstrawberries and cream), the Lee Chee, liament. Prepared and brought in by Grenadilla Mango, dwarf plantain, &c. Lord John Russell, Sir George Grey, All this may be very delightful; but the and the Chancellor of the Exchequer indulgence in such luxuries requires, in ad- (Sir Charles Wood), and ordered by dition to the superintendence of a skilled the House of Commons to be printed, gardener, a considerable outlay for the 12th February, 1852. house, the heating apparatus and coals to 2. A Bill further to amend the Law relatsupply the artificial sun. The orchard-house ing to the Representation of the Peoproper is a luxury •for the million. From ple in England and Wales. Prepared actual experience we have found it even less and brought in by Lord John Russell costly than it is represented in the esti- and Sir James Graham, and ordered by mates of Mr. Rivers. An orchard-house the House of Commons to be printed, capable of containing 50 trees may be built 16th February, 1854. for under 301., and one sufficient for 100 3. A Bill to amend the Laws relating to the
Representation of the People in Eng- ment in the House of Commons, observed land and Wales, and to facilitate the that, “ He had every reason to hope, from Registration and Voting of Electors. the satisfaction it had already given, that Prepared and brought in by the Chan- the change that they had proposed would cellor of the Exchequer (Mr. Disraeli), be permanent ;* and he added on another Lord Stanley, and General Peel, and occasion :ordered by the House of Commons to be printed, 28th February, 1859.
• It appears to me that the good sense of the 4. Information for Reformers respecting, see that the crying evil of the present system
people of England will be satisfied when they the Cities and Boroughs of the United will be then got rid of, and that they will have Kingdom, Classified according to the their proper influence in the representation of Schedules of the Reform Bill proposed the country. I am sure that the people of this by John Bright. Esq., M.P. Prepar country, are not so fickle as to give reason to aped, at the request of the London Parlia- prehend that when they hare no practical evil to mentary Committee, and also showing complain of, they will still wish for change, for the Results of the Government Reform that what this country requires is quiet, and a
the sake of change itself. It has been truly said Bill, by Duncan McCluer.
cessation from anxiety and agitation; and I con
sider this Bill as the most effectual means for at. In his speech at Aberdeen, Lord John taining that oluject.'t Russell assigned it as a reason for discussing the principles upon which a Reform During the discussions which followed Bill should be framed, that we were now in the House of Lords, Lord Grey rein the autumnal time, free from the heat marked :of the House of Commons' debates. It is, indeed, most desirable that the public
It has been said that a measure of a more should arrive at some definite conclusions contracted nature than this would have satisfied upon this momentous question, and not
the people. I doubt whether, in such a state of leave it to be settled according to the ac
things, this could have been reasonably expected. cidental combinations and interests which could only be proluced by a decisive and exten
It seemed to me that permanent contentment may sway the House of Commons at the sive measure ; and the object which the King's moment. If the good sense of the country Government lind in view was to produce such a is brought to bear upon the subject, we settlement of this long-agitated question as might have no fear of the result. The danger is prevent its being brought into renewed discusin the apathy which abandons legislation sion in those seasons of distress and difficulty upon this vital topic to a few hundred per- revived, calling into action all the elements of
when experience has shown that it has constantly sons, who will act according to their par political division and discontent. It surely roas ticular predilections and interests without desirable, if this question was to be entered into any effectual control from the community. at all, it should be done in such a manner as to We cannot but think that the mere fact, afford a hope that it might be effectually and that three snch bills as those mentioned at permanently adjusted.' the head of this article have been brought
into Parliament, by three different Ad- These opinions, thus strongly expressed, · ministrations, within the short period of were the declarations of statesmen who nine years, should furnish food for grave had the good of their country at heart. and serious reflection. Nor will the gravity They knew full well that this was the first and seriousness of that reflection be at all and only time in the history of this coun. diminished, rather, we should say, it will try when an attempt was made to remodel be immensely increased, by a careful con- and define our representative system by sideration of the fourth document,the statutory enactment. They believed that Information for Reformers-published un. the real justification for such an attempt der the authority of Mr. Bright.
was the existence of defects or the growth A qnarter of a century has scarcely pass of abuses, clearly acknowledged and praced away since the Reform Bill of 1832 be-tically felt, which could only be remedied came the law of the land. According to by actual legislation. They proceededthe opinions of those who framed it, the as our forefathers have always proceeded measure was both decisive and extensive -not by theorizing on the best form of in its character; more decisive and more government, but by making that which extensive than it otherwise would have they thankfully enjoyed suitable to the been, in order that it might rest, so far at wauts and wishes ofthe community. Thereleast as its principles were concerned, on something like a permanent foundation.
* Parliamentary Debate, Sept. 21, 1831. Lord Althorp, as the leader of the Govern- + Ibid., March 19, 1832.
fore they concluded, most wisely and most in its practice, but also in its theory; and justly, that when they were dealing with a with no demand for what is called Reform, prescriptive Constitution, the grafting into which has yet assumed a tangible shape it of any new and untried project must al. from any large section of the intelligent ways be uncertain and often dangerous ; part of the community, we own we feel that the policy of England has ever been not a little apprehensive lest we should to observe whether a practical evil exists, soon arrive at that state wbich Sir James and having applied a practical, not a fanci- Graham once described as the very worst ful remedy, to discourage that morbid and in which Parliament could find itself-the restless desire for change which indicates state where everybody says that something a state of feverish excitement rather than must be done, but nobody knows what a sound and healthy condition. The de- that something is to be. The fact is, that clarations made by Lord Althorp and Earl the moment Parliament shall really find Grey were plainly the result of some such itself in that condition, it can only be reasoning as this; and, if they were alive, likened to those unhappy persons who they would probably consider that the live, if they can be said to live, in the stareopening of the question of Parliamen- tical chair-who are ever feeling their tary Reform, except so far as it may at any pulse, and who do not judge of health by time be necessary to redress some practical the aptitude of the body to perform its grievance, would be little less than a severe functions, but by their ideas of what ought reflection on their want of foresight or to be the true balance between the several their want of bonesty; their want of fore- secretions.' * sight in not being able to frame a measure The healthy action, however, of the which would last beyond a quarter of a body politic, like the healthy action of the century-their want of honesty in not natural body, is not kept in order by such avowing the whole of their intentions, or quackery as this. Our history is a remarknot abiding by them when they were able one; and there is nothing for which avowed. In saying this, we do no more it is more remarkable, than for the sound than repeat what Lord John Russell has judgment and the resolute good sense with himself urged: for in his memorable Let- which the nation, as a whole, has always ter to the electors of Stroud, he announced set to work to remove or to cure any posito the country bis mature conviction that tive malady that might disturb its funcif, after the declaration made by the heads tions. At the same time, it has never of Lord Grey's Cabinet, any member of it troubled itself with imaginary evils, nor were to propose to begin the whole ques- sought to make itself speculatively better, tion anew, the obvious remark would be, when the result would probably only be to * You have either so egregiously deceived make itself practically worse. From the us that we cannot trust to your public en- earliest times down to the present—from gagements, or you have so blindly deceived our Saxon institutions to the Great Charter, yourselves that we cannot believe in the from the Great Charter to the Reformasolidity of your new scheme.' *
tion, from the Reformation to the RevoluWe refer to these facts not with the tion, from the Revolution to the Act of view of throwing out taunts or casting Settlement, from the Act of Settlement to reproaches, but to recall to the recollec- the Reform Act-the two most significant tion of our present statesmen the leading features in our political annals unquestion. principles upon which alone they can ven- ably are--first, that whenever a tnre to touch our representative system ment has been made for the purpose of with prudence. There is need of this demanding a change in the laws, or, at caution. With three Bills proposed by least, in the administration of them, that three different Administrations within the movement has always been directed last decade—that is to say, from 1850 to against some palpable wrong, some tangi1860; with the prospect of a fourth from ble grievance, some proved abuse; and a fourth Administration before that decade secondly, that the demand for which this is brought to a close; with various schenes movement was commenced has always propounded by others, especially those of been urged in a Conservative spirit. So Mr. Roebuck and Mr. Bright; with differ-much has this been the case, that it has ent principles embodied in each of them, generally been contined to a declaration some of which are positively at variance of rights which have been called in queswith, and some of which are altogether tion, or to a restoration of rights which unknown to, the Constitution, not merely have been abused, or to an extension of
See the Letter, p. 27.