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[And for we think the eagle-winged pride
Of sky-aspiring and ambitious thoughts,
With rival-hating envy, set you on
To wake our peace, which in our country's cradle
Draws the sweet infant breath of gentle sleep ;]
Which so rous'd up with boisterous untun'd drums,
With harsh resounding trumpets' dreadful bray,
And grating shock of wrathful iron arms *,
Might from our quiet confines fright fair peace,

* Quarto 1597, harsh resounding arms.


made while the play was working off, and therefore I imagine was made in conformity to the manuscript. However, the very contrary may have been the case; and the printer, after having worked off Mr. Capell's copy, might have discovered his mistake, and printed civil in all the subsequent copies, on finding that to be the author's word. As I have never seen another copy but these two, I have no means of ascertaining this point. However, as the word cruel furnishes a new idea, I have adopted it : “Wounds made by neighbour's swords,” were necessarily civil wounds. The folio gives no additional strength to this reading ; for that copy merely followed the quarto of 1608, where the reading is civil.

Swords is the reading of the folio. The original quarto hassword. MALONE.

s And for we think the eagle-winged pride, &c.) These five verses are omitted in the other editions, and restored from the first of 1598. Pope.

Mr. Pope is not quite correct. The first quarto was in 1597; the five lines in question are in that copy, and in all the other quartos, 1598, 1608, and 1615. They were omitted in the folio, doubtless merely for the purpose of shortening the speech.

By the omission, the speech was rendered unintelligible for the words>“ Which so rous'd up,” &c. are immediately connected with “gentle sleep," in the preceding line, and do not afford any meaning when connected with “ civil wounds,” above.

Malone. set you on-] The old copy reads-on you. Corrected by Mr. Pope. Malone.

I see no necessity for any alteration. Boswell. ? To wake our peace,

Which so rous'd up

Might-fright fair peace,] Thus the sentence stands in the common reading absurdly enough ; which made the Oxford editor, instead of " fright fair peace," read, be affrighted; as if


And make us wade even in our kindred's blood;
Therefore, we banish you our territories :-
You, cousin Hereford, upon pain of death,
Till twice five summers have enrich'd our fields,
Shall not regreet our fair dominions,
But tread the stranger paths of banishment.

these latter words could ever, possibly, have been blundered into
the former by transcribers. But his business is to alter as his
fancy leads him, not to reform errors, as the text and rules of
criticism direct. In a word then, the true original of the blunder
was this : the editors, before Mr. Pope, had taken their editions
from the folios, in which the text stood thus :

- the dire aspect
“Of civil wounds plough'd up with neighbour swords ;
“ Which so rouz'd up-

fright fair peace. This is sense.

But Mr. Pope, who carefully examined the first printed plays in quarto, (very much to the advantage of his edition,) coming to this place, found five lines, in the first edition of this play, printed in 1598, omitted in the first general collection of the poet's works; and, not enough attending to their agreement with the common text, put them into their place.. Whereas, in truth, the five lines were omitted by Shakspeare himself, as not agreeing to the rest of the context; which, on revise, he thought fit to alter. On this account I have put them into hooks, not as spurious, but as rejected on the author's revise; and, indeed, with great judgment; form

“ To wake our peace which in our country's cradle

“ Draws the sweet infant breath of gentle sleep," as pretty as it is in the image, is absurd in the sense: for peace awake is still peace, as well as when sleep. The difference is, that peace asleep gives one the notion of a happy people sunk in sloth and luxury, which is not the idea the speaker would raise, and from which state the sooner it was awaked the better.

WARBURTON. To this note, written with such an appearance of taste and judgement, I am afraid every reader will not subscribe. It is true, that peace awake is still peace, as well as when asleep;" but peace awakened by the tumults of these jarring nobles, and peace indulging in profound tranquillity, convey images suficiently opposed to each other for the poet's purpose. " To wake peace," is to introduce discord. “Peace asleep,” is peace exerting its natural influence, from which it would be frighted by the clamours of war.




Boling. Your will be done : This must my com

fort be,
That sun, that warms you here, shall shine on me;
And those his golden beams, to you here lent,
Shall point on me, and gild my banishment.
K. Rich. Norfolk, for thee remains a heavier

Which I with some unwillingness pronounce:
The sly-slow hours ? shall not determinate
The dateless limit of thy dear exíle ;-
The hopeless word of-never to return
Breathe I against thee, upon pain of life.
Nor. A heavy sentence, my most sovereign

And all unlook'd for from your highness' mouth:
A dearer merit, not so deep a maim
As to be cast forth in the common air,
Have I deserved 8 at your highness' hand.

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7 The fly-slow hours ] The old copies read" The slyslow hours.” Mr. Pope made the change; whether it was necessary or not, let the poetical reader determine.

In Chapman's version of the second book of Homer's Odyssey, we have :

and those slie hours “That still surprise at length." It is remarkable, that Pope, in the 4th book of his Essay on Man, v. 226, has employed the epithet which, in the present instance, he has rejected :

“ All sly slow things, with circumspective eyes." See Warton's edit. of Pope's Works, vol. iii. p. 145.

Steevens. The latter word appears to me more intelligible:-"the thievish minutes as they pass." Malone. 8 A dearer Merit, not so deep a maim

Have I deserved --] To deserve a merit is a phrase of which I know not any example. I wish some copy would exhibit :

A dearer meed, and not so deep a maim.” To deserve a meed or reward, is regular and easy. Johnson.

As Shakspeare uses merit in this place, in the sense of reward, he frequently uses the word meed, which properly signifies reward, to express merit. So, in Timon of Athens, Lucullus says: VOL. XVI.


The language I have learn’d these forty years,
My native English, now I must forego:
And now my tongue's use is to me no more,
Than an unstringed viol or a harp;
Or like a cunning instrument cas'd up,
Or, being open, put into his hands
That knows no touch to tune the harmony.
Within my mouth you have engaold my tongue,
Doubly portcullis'd, with my teeth, and lips;
And dull, unfeeling, barren ignorance
Is made my gaoler to attend on me.
I am too old to fawn upon a nurse,
Too far in years to be a pupil now;
What is thy sentence then, but speechless death,
Which robs my tongue from breathing native

breath ?
K. Rich. It boots thee not to be compassionate';
After our sentence plaining comes too late.
Nor. Then thus I turn me from my country's

light, To dwell in solemn shades of endless night.

(Retiring K. Rich. Return again, and take an oath with

thee. Lay on our royal sword your banish'd hands; Swear by the duty that you owe to heaven, (Our part therein we banish with yourselves ',)

no meed but he repays

Seven fold above itself." And in The Third Part of King Henry VI. Prince Edward says :

“ We are the sons of brave Plantagenet,

“Each one already blazing by our meeds." And again, in the same play, King Henry says : That's not my fear, my meed hath got me fame."

M. Mason. 9 - compassionate ;] For plaintive. WARBURTON.

' (Our part, &c.)] It is a question much debated amongst the writers of the law of nations, whether a banished man may be still tied in his allegiance to the state which sent him into exile.

To keep the oath that we administer :-
You never shall (so help you truth and heaven !)
Embrace each other's love in banishment;
Nor never look upon each other's face;
Nor never write, regreet, nor reconcile
This lowering tempest of your home-bred hate;
Nor never by advised ’ purpose meet,
To plot, contrive, or complot any ill,
'Gainst us, our state, our subjects, or our land.

Boling. I swear.
Nor. And I, to keep all this.

Boling. Norfolk, so far as to mine enemy" ;
By this time, had the king permitted us,
One of our souls had wander'd in the air,


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Tully and Lord Chancellor Clarendon declare for the affirmative; Hobbes and Puffendorf hold the negative. Our author, by this line, seems to be of the same opinion. WARBURTON.

2 — advised -] 1. e. concerted, deliberated. So, in The Merchant of Venice :

with more advised watch." STEEVENS. 3 Norfolk, so far, &c.] I do not clearly see what is the sense of this abrupt line; but suppose the meaning to be this : Hereford immediately after his oath of perpetual enmity, addresses Norfolk, and, fearing some misconstruction, turns to the King, and says-“ so far as to mine enemy,"—that is, 'I should say nothing to him but what enemies may say to each other.'

Reviewing this passage, I rather think it should be understood thus. Norfolk, so far I have addressed myself to thee as to mine enemy; I now utter my last words with kindness and tenderness ; Confess thy treasons.' 'Johnson.

so fare, as to mine enemy." i. e. he only wishes him to fare like his enemy, and he disdains to say fare well as Aumerle does in the next scene. Tollet.

Surely fare was a misprint for farre, the old spelling of the word now placed in the text.-Perhaps the author intended that Hereford in speaking this line should show some courtesy to Mowbray ;-and the meaning may be: 'So much civility as an enemy has a right to, I am willing to offer to thee.' Malone. Sir T. Hanmer's marginal direction is--In salutation.

Steevens. The first folio reads fare; the second farre. Bolingbroke only uses the phrase by way of caution, lest Mowbray should think he was about to address him as a friend. Norfolk, says he, so far as a man may speak to his enemy, &c. Ritson.

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