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benevolence of succeeding times to supply that comfortable subsistence, and tender care, which have restored so many distracted objects to their families, and to society.
About the year 1644, it was under consideration to enlarge the old hospital ; but the situation was too close and confined to allow of its being rendered a commodious asy. lum for the numerous distracted persons of both sexes that claimed its protection : after the Restoration, it became a matter of serious deliberation to build a new hospital.
In April 1675, the lord mayor, aldermen, and common council of the city of London, allotted to the governors a large piece of ground near London Wall, on the south side of the lower quarter of Moorfields, where the hospital of Bethlem now stands. The expedition, with which this stately fabric was completed, challenges our admiration. Por, from an inscription over the arch facing the entrance into the hospital, it appears that it was finished in July, in the following year. So active was the zeal that quickened the growth of this noble structure! The generosity of the contributors must have been equal to their attention, for the charge of the building amounted to no less a sum than 17,0001. The hospital of Bethlem stands an illustrious monument of British charity; and, whether we consider the becoming magnificence of the building, the commodious arrangement of the interior apartments, or the effectual relief which it reaches out to the poor objects whom it shel. ters, we may safely pronounce, that it is not to be paralleled in the whole world.
The design of the building was taken from the Thuila leries in Paris. Louis XIV. it is said, was so much of fended that his palace should be made a model for an hospital, that, in revenge, he ordered a plan of St. James's to be taken for offices of a very inferior nature. The figures of the two lunatics over the gates of the hospital, were the work of Cibber, the father of the comedian. “ My father Caius Gabriel Cibber was a native of Holstein, who came into England, some time before the restoration of king Charles II. to follow his profession, which was that of a sta.
tuary. * Cibber's Apology for his own Lise.
tuary. The basso relievo on the pedestal of the great cos lumn in the city, and the two figures of the lunatics, the Raving, and the Melancholy, over the gates of Bethlem Hospital, are no ill monuments of his fame as an artist *.”
There is a tradition that the person represented by the figure of the melancholy lunatic, was porter to Oliver Cromwell;
In the close limits within which the old hospital was confined, was impracticable to reserve room for those forlorn beings, of whose return to the comforts of a sound mind there were no hopes. The increasing multitude of curable objects justly demanded admittance; nor did it seem reasonable that they should be excluded from the prospect of enjoying a blessing which the former could not attain. When the new house was erected, it was hoped that some provision might be made for such as were deemed incurable, and at the same time dangerous to the public. But the great influx of insane persons, from all parts of the kingdom, into the hospital, frustrated these expectations, and gave reason to suppose, that few, if any, of its numerous apartments, would, at any time, be vacant. therefore found necessary to enlarge the building; a particular subscription was set on foot for the purpose, and, in the year 1734, two wings were added to the hospital. This addition of room enabled the governors, in some degree, to answer the wishes of the public; and there are now maintained one hundred incurable patients, fifty of cach sex, who enjoy every advantage which their deplorable state can admit. The number of patients in the house, who are supposed capable of being relieved, commonly amounts to about one hundred and seventy, and of these, it has been found
upon an average, that nearly two out of three are re. stored to their understanding. To such a degree of perfection have the liberal benefactions of the well-disposed (for it is by benefactions that the deficient revenues of this hospital have been, and must be supplied) advanced this
noble institution! And such is the solid and substantial good, which it derives to individuals and to the community!* :
It may not be improper here to rectify a mistaken notion that has gone forth into the world. It has been presumed
The mode of admission and treatment of patients are more particularly expressed in the following. GENERAL ORDERS of the Committee :
“ When a patient, after sufficient trial, is judged incurable, he is dismissed from the hospital; and if he is pronounced dangerous, either to himself or others, his name is entered into a book, that he may be received in turn among the incurables maintained in the house, whenever a vacancy shall happen.
* All poor lunatics are to be admitted, except such as are afflicted with the palsy, or subject to convulsive or epileptic fits, or such as are become weak through age or long illness, such as are mopes or idiots, such as are infected with the venereal disease, and women with child. All admissible patients (except those from parishes and public offices), upon giving security to be taken away when required, and finding their own clothes, are to be admitted without any fee or expence. Parishes and public offices are to pay 11. 11s.6d. for each, and enter into the same engagements; and incurables are to pay 31. 10s. deposit, and 5s. a week, besides their clothing. Those incurables who are sent by poor friends, are to pay the same deposit, and 25. 6d. a week, besides their clothing.
“ Patients who have not been disordered more than one year before admission, are to be admitted at all seasons, and remain till cured, pro.. vided the same be effected within twelve months; and all such as have been disordered longer than that time may be admitted (at the discretion of the sub-committee) from Lady Day to Michaelmas only, when they are to be discharged, unless there be then a prospect of cure.
“ No governor is to be a security for any patient.
“ A list is to be kept of all patients discharged as incurable who may be deemed, hy the physician and the sub-committee, fit objects for the incurable lists and as there may be room, notice thereof is to be sent to their friends, and they are to be admitted in rotation without favour or preference.
“ No patient who hạs been once discharged as incurable is to be again admitted into the hospital as a curable patient, without good proof that such person has been well for twelve months previous to the application.
* All patients, on admission, are to be stripped and examined in the presence of their friends, and, if necessary, of the surgeon : they are VOL. III. No: 51.
by many, that the hospitals of Bethlem, and St. Luke, are connected: the latter, it has been thought, is appointed for the reception of incurables discharged by the former; and so prevalent bas been this opinion, that the steward of
not to be allowed any box with a lock and key, or any razors, knives, scissars, or dangerous instruments of any kind.
“ No patient is to be allowed tea, sugar, wine, strong beer, or any other provision, unless by the particular direction of the physician, surgeon, or apothecary, first given in writing.
“ No patient is to be confined in chains without the previous knowledge and approbation of the apothecary, nor released from such cona finement without his consent.
“ The feet of every patient in chains or straw are to be carefully examined, well rubbed, and covered with flannel, every night and morna. ing during the winter months : and the surgeon is to be immediately informed if there be any complaints which require his attendance.
“ All the patients are to be washed and combed every morning, the men patients shared every Monday, and the feet of all patients washed, at least one day in every week. ." If a patient escape through the negligence of any servant, the whole expence of retaking such patient is to be first paid by the steward, and by him deducted from the salary of the servant iu fault.
“ No person whatsoever, except governors, or those in company with a governor or the physician, is to be permitted to view the hospital and patients.
.. The securities for any patient, upon the admission of such patient, are to have a ticket delivered to them, which will entitle two persons, friends of the patients, to admission on Monday, froin the hour of ten to twelve.
“ If any man, related to a woman patient, or employed by her relations, is desirous of seeing such patient, she is to be brought down to the committee room, attended by one of the nurses, any time from ten to twelve, on Mondays, unless such visits are forbidden by the physician or apothecary.
“ One of the keepers or gallery maids is to attend all persons who may come to view the hospital; they are not to ask, demand, or receive any benefaction or gratuity, on behalf of the hospital or themselves, on pain of dismission; but whatever any persons may be inclined to give, they are to be desired to put into the poor's box with their own hands.
“ If any persons have a complaint to make which respects the management, or the servants of the hospital, they are to be desired to enter