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it ; but on the 28th at night, while with this CHAP, view they were turning to windward, the Gui- II. puscoa, Hermiona, and Esperanza, were fepam rated from the admiral; and on the 7th of 1741. March, being the same day the British squadron had passed Streights le Maire, the whole fquam dron was drove to the eastward, and dispersed by a most furious storm at N. W. They were i afterwards, by their long detention in such a turbulent fea, reduced to the most infinite diltress, by fatigue, and the devastation of famine; which occafioned a moft shocking mortality. On their departure from Spain they were furnished with only four months provisions at short allowance; fo that when, by the storms they encoudtered with off Cape Horn, their continuance at fea was prolonged a month beyond their expectation, it is inconceivable what difficulties they suffered, and the dreadful havock that ravaged amongit them, daily sweeping off numbers of their ablest and most hardy men: their calamity was even fo great, that rats, when they could be caught, were sold for four dollars a piece. This terrible situation produced a conspiracy among the marines, on board the Asia, who proposed to massacre the officers and crew; prompted to this bloody resolution, merely through the motive of relieving their famifhing bodies, by appropriating the whole ship's provisions to themfelves: but the confpirators were discovered, and prevented in their fatal purpose. This separated {quadron, after sustaining a variety of misfortunes, and after several ineffectual attempts to get round Cape Horn, were obliged to bear away for the river of Plate ; where Pizarro, in the Alia, arrived at Monte Vedio about the middle of May, after the loss of half her crew; Vol. I.



PART the St Estevan was also enfeebled by the dimi. .II. nution of 175 men, when she anchored in the ar bay of Barragan; the Esperanza, a fifty gun 1741. fhip, was still more unfortunate, for out of 450,

only 58 were left alive : while the Guipuscoa was driven alhore, and funk on the coast of Brazil, having, out of 700, lost above 300 of her men ; the Hermiona foundered at sea, and her whole crew, consisting of 500 men, were every one drowned; and the regiment of foot was reduced to sixty men ; so that their whole lofs, in this fatal attempt, was upwards of 2,000 men. The Alia, Esperanza, and St Estevan, after their ar-rival, were in great want of mafts, yards, rig.

ging, and all kind of naval stores; and having .no supply at Buenos Ayres, nor in any of their neighbouring settlements, Pizarro obtained a remittance of 100,000 dollars from the Vice Roy of Peru, and a considerable quantity of pitch, tar, and cordage, from the Portuguese at Rio Janeiro ; but could procure neither masts nor yards. The Spanish admiral was still very in.tent of putting to sea in pursuit of the British squadron, which he did not question had been -as severely handled as his own; and to facili.tate his design, by removing the masts of the

Esperanza into the Asia, and making use of what spare masts and yards they had on board, they made a shift to refit the Asia, and St Eftevan: and in the October following they were preparing to put to fea, with these two ships, to attempt the passage round Cape Horn a second time, but the St Eftevan, in coming down the river Plate, ran on a shoal, and being disabled, the admiral proceeded to lea in the Asia without her. Having the summer before him, and favourable winds, he expected a fortunate and

speedy speedy passage ; but being off Cape Horn, and Chap. ' going right before the wind in very moderate II. weather, though in a swelling sea, by some milconduct of the officer of the watch, the ship roll- 1741. ed away her masts, and was a second time constrained to return, in great distress, to the river of Place. Thus was this well appointed squadron, composed of the flower of the Spanish navy, defeated by the inclemency of the winds and seas; while the ships they were pursuing, rode triumphant in the southern ocean, enriched with the plunder of the Spanish provinces, and waiting for that immense treasure they afterwards obtained in the Manila galleon, enjoying an ample compensation for their toil and bravery.


Naval transactions in EUROPE,

in 1741.


To Thew the world the potency of the naval Curso

strength of Britain, the British ministry concerted a second secret expedition, under the command of Sir John Norris : a great armament was appointed to assemble for this purpose, and to facilitate the design, on the 2d of June, a vigorous press was made on the river Thames, whic.., in thirty-six hours, by the number taken

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PART and enrolled in the navy books, was 2,370 menz

II. and the press was continued with the same vigicar lance, the fooner to mann the squadron defigned 1741. for this expedition.

On the 2 ift of July, Sir John Norris hoisted his fag on board the Victory, and on the 27th failed from St Helen's with a grand fleet, con. sifting of fixteen ships of the line; the Victory, Royal Sovereign, and Royal George, of 100 guns each; St George, in which was Admiral Cavendish, and Duke of go; Cambridge of 80; Buckingham, Bedford, Naffait, Lenox, Eflex, and Elizabeth, of 70; Argyle, Affiftance, and Ruby, ot 50; Gofport of 44 guns; and the Blaze and Lightning fire-fhips; having on board upwards of 8,000 sailors. With this formidable armament the admiral failed to the coast of Spain; and great were the expectations of the British nation, on an enterprize commenced in so nagnificent a manner.

On the 5th of August the admiral, with the whole fleet, entered the bay of Biscay; and ordered Capt. Harrison, with the Argyle, to look into Ferrol, Corunna, and Redondella, which he performed in four days, taking a Spanish brigantine, and putting four others on Tore. The captain being informed by the master of ą Portuguese veffel, that a Noop from New Eng. land had been carried into Camirina by a Spanish privateer, on the 17th he got off this harbour and sent his boats in ; on sight of them the floop run on shore; but, after a sharp dispute, the English boarded and burnt her. The 18th, Capt. Harrison being informed by the master of another Portuguese yesfél, that the Spaniards had brought into Redondella a very rich ship with bale goods from London, and three or



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four other prizes : he immediately fent for the CHAP. Gibraltar and Grampus, and came to a resoluti. III. on, at all events, to make for this place, which im is a small town and port of Gallicia, in the gulph 1741. of Vigo. At day-light, the next morning, he took a Spanish bark of about forty ton, and another about thirty, and setting the largest on fire, this discovered the English to the whole country, and prevented their project of running up with French colours. About ten came in a fresh sea breeze, the captain weighed, and with English colours proceeded up the river, having given orders to take no notice of Vigo, but push on: accordingly, at four in the afternoon, they got into the harbour or balon of Redondello, anchored within pistol shot of the ships, and took them all, being four, by twelve o'clock that niglit: the English got all their prizes off under their fterns, failed out of the harbour, and joined the admiral. This plainly shews that the Spaniards had made little preparations to defend thensfelyes , and had the English admiral been as active wich the whole fleet, what noble actions might have been atchieved? The Spaniards were far from being invulnerable in Old Spain, nor had they made the least preparations to give the English any reception : there are very few harbours in Spain, if any, which the English might not have entered, and burnt every fhip in the port; and with regard to their extensive sea coasts, except just in the neighbourhood of their forcified towns or camps, the British failors might have landed wherever they pleased, and plundered and laid waste the country for several miles together, before the Spaniards could have brought a superior force to oppose them. Though ghe British nation could not have got any imme

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