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on a stone, and I lost it. In the second dream, I dreamed claims on many subjects, wrought out in the style that a cloud came down on the cathedral, and came over to adopted by “ Aura.” It is a vovelty, and the the house where I slept, and it made the whole house tremble. Then I woke, and I thought it was the hand of God

execution disparages not the idea. We have in a pointed out that I was to set fire to the cathedral; and few pages criticisms on Henry Martyn and Goethe those things which were found on me I took lest any one --on Macaulay, Dickens, and Shakspeare, followed should be blamed wrongfully. I cut the hangings from the by dissertations upon man's depravity, and other throne, or cathedrá, or whatever you call it, and tore down subjects styled abstruse, for no reason but because the curtains.” Williaro Martin, the person who called on me, was

people will not consider them, and reasoned out known in Newcastle as an exceedingly ingenious mechanic.

after the manner in which the army as a profession From the time of my purchasing the ticket for his ante.

is defended in the following passage :Newtonian lecture, he frequently visited me. He always designated himself “the Natural Philosopher and ante

“But to kill a man who has done you no harın ust the Newtonian,” and the public journalists gave him these same as murder." titles, taking care, however, to italicise the word natural Mr. Somers turned to Jemima, and said, before philosopher, the poiot of which poor Martin seemed “Do you agree with your little niece in that viewp" incapable of apprehending, for he always stood much upon

“I must confess that that is very much how I view it. the respect paid him by the conductors of the press.

But, indeed, Mr. Somers, I am not able to


you : William Martin was a rather handsome and well-built

I don't think I could convince you.” man. There was nothing repulsive in his external appear

“But perhaps I could convince you,” he replied, smiling. ance. His head was small, and presented many inequalities “I assure you it would be an act on which I should highly on its surface; in every aeuse of the word his cranium was congratulate myself, if I would bring you to feel, as I would peculiar. The vertex of the head was amazingly high, and have you feel, towards those noble fellows, who need all the his self-esteem was enormous-indeed, obviously diseased. sympathy as well as all the admiration we can afford them, Towards the lateral parts of the forehead, there was a pro.

and not to be classed with nurderers ?” minence which attracted universal observation, and which

“Of course no one accuses them, poor men, of wishing was so striking as to amount almost to deformity. It was a

deliberately to commit murder. They are only misled.” protuberance in the form of a segment of a sphere deve

You excuse them because they know no better ; but loped immediately above, but somewhat behind, the external you think it is pretty much a case of murder. To me it angle of the eye—that is, in phrenological language, behind appears very different. I consider righteous war, maintained the organ of music, and just above the organ of number. against outward invasion, as analagous to the forcible mainThis is the part assigned by phrenologists as the seat of the

tenance of internal order, and that we have the same right, talent for construction,

and are, indeed, as much bound to repel the enemy without,

as to repress the evil doer within. What does the Scripture This autobiography divested of its peculiarities say of the civil magistrate ? That he is the minister of of opinion, would be a capital lesson upon the God, a revenge to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil.' contentment that an active man may enjoy, and the

Now the soldier appears to me to be as truly a representawork that he may do, without riches and often tive of the executive power of the state without, as the maalmost without the means of subsistence. Still

gistrate within."

“But does it not make a great difference, that the mathat is no good reason why the labourer should be gistrate punishes a really guilty man, whereas, in war, one deprived of his hire. And we trust that the sale innocent being is set to attack another p” of this amusing volume may contribute more to

"Perhaps that might be set in a clearer light by an illusthe comfort of its author in bis old age than many

tration drawn from private life. Let us suppose that I

learn from an undoubted source of information that some of his public services have done.

burglars have formed a plan for robbing my house, what ought I to do?"

" You should lay your information before the police, and 80 prevent the crime.”

“Certainly; but now suppose that there are no police, Ashburn : a Tale. By Aura. London: Saunders

that I am living in an uncivilised country, it is clear I must and Ottley. 1 vol. pp. 335.

rely on myself and my servants. I must bolt and bar my This is one of the strong-minded books of the house ; I must not let the robbers catch me asleep. When day, containing the history of a courtship cer.

they come I may parley with them, try to dissuade them, tainly, but one of a very extraordinary, and, so

try to frighten them; but if, after all this, they persist in far as we remember, an out of the way character, breaking pin

, and I fire on them, and kill one of them, am I

. with broad streaks of goodness in it, and nothing “No; you could not help it ; il would be a necessary bad, only eccentric. The course of true love leads evil.” us into company with many strange, and some

“An evil, too, which perhaps prevents a greater. This vėry excellent, persons. Then we get their opinions break up the gang. On the other hand, were they allowed

man’s death may strike terror into his companions, and on authors and subjects, as we would in a good to plunder with impunity, they would soon get recruits from newspaper, but more artistically wrought up, with the ranks of the idle, but hitherto honest, and they might, lectures on doctrines, and reasonings on theology, ere long, to robbery add murder, for these crimes commonly all tending, so far as we comprehend them, in the

go together. That life forfeited may have saved the neighright direction. The young people are not, how. bourhood from a great deal of crime.”

" That is quite possible.”. erer, like the young persons we knew; and even

" Now, suppose again that my honse is attacked in my at the close they are very scrupulous on the ques. absence, would my servants be justified in defending it as I tion of marriage, from the dread respectively of would myself have done?” not being good enough for each other.

“I think they would.” We do not recollect a love story, if we may

“Yet, perhaps they have no property in the house, or

none the theives would take p” employ that vulgarism to describe a book of large

"No, but being in your service, they are bound in



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lionour to defend your house and property as if it were their want those inuendoes that abounded at or near own." • Well, if further, in the supposed case, these marauding the higher classes, and they leave the pleasant im

their supposed dates in the songs current among attacks were of frequent occurrence, I might find it convenient to employ some of my servants chiefly in the war.

pression on the inind, that the morality of the faring service, selecting for the purpose the boldest, strongest, English labourer and yeoman two centuries ago and most active, and giving them arms to keep in constant was much in advance of the court and court readiness, in case of a sudden attack, and there would be

circles of that time. Mr. Bell states that Mr. pothing to prevent such men entering my service with that

Swindells, of Manchester, supplied him with an express view p»

ancient printed copy of the song known as “Old “ And if my servants are in honour bound to defend me, Adain," and Mr. Eflingham Wilson, of London, I am equally bound to defend them, and any of my depend. gave him certain corrections from memory. The ants, whether living in my house or out of it. You will language is pure strong English of the present also allow, that if the burglars were openly to proclaim their intention of attacking me or mine, I should not be day, and we almost suspect Mr. Wilson of aiding bonnd to await their onset, but might very properly enden- it only a very little. The following two verses, vour to prevent it by seizing them in their den. Moreover, cut from the middle, miglit be brought into use should they, learning my intentions, prefer remaining within among the wife beaters of the metropolis at pretheir fastnesses, and sending on their part representatives in sent with advantage :the shape of armed servants to attack me and my retainers, might I not seek to repel these in return, as justifiably as I

She was not took out of his head, Sir, should those who employ them?”.

To reign and triumph over man I suppose you might."

Nor was she took out of his feet, Sir, “Well, call me and the robbers opposed sovereigns or

By man to be trampled upon. governments, and the armed servants on both sides soldiers, But she was took out of his side, Sir, and you have a miniature of war, with the same principles

His equal and partner to be ; involved. There may be no previous personal injury, nor But as they're united in one, Sir, any personal enmity on the part of those actually engaged in

The man is the top of the tree. the warfare; and, therefore, as regards their mutual relations they may be called innocent persons; and yet we see they

The same song often found its way to widely may be brought by necessity into a hostile position towards different localities. An old Scotch song " Jockey to each other."

the sair," seems to have been lately appropriated "Well,” said Jemima,“ your illustration of war certainly by Notes and Queries, on account of Gloucestergives a less cruel picture of it than that which, I must con

shire. Mr. Bell puts in a claim for Westmorefess, it has usnally presented to my niind, as simply an arena for all the evil passions of mankind."

land, but he says it is common in other districts, “ Not very different from a cock-figlit, I suppose, on a adding-"From the Christian names of the lovers, grand scale."

it might be supposed to be of Scotch, or Border," gin ; but · Jockey to the Fair' is not confined to

the North ; indeed, it is much better known and Ancient Poems, and Ballads, and Songs of the more frequently sung in the South and West."

Peasantry. Edited by ROBERT BELL. London : This softens the claim of Notes and Queries very

J. W. Parker and Sons. 1 vol. pp. 252. much, and “Queries " had better make a “ Note" The present volume is the best of the series pub- of his companion is he often fiods bim guilty of lished under Mr. Bell's editorship; because the this kind of appropriation. The song is very well balle ds, poems, and songs are more numerous than known in the East of Scotland where Jockey and in the other volumes. We do not say that poetry Jenny are not Gloucestershire minced names. It takes value by brevity; but the preservation of miglit be more difficult to put Westmoreland out of the songs and verses

common among the old court. peasantry is more necessary thau a new edition

One or two hundred years since, the ballads of of poems already perhaps well known, or the col

the country were used as polisical instructors. lected works of any single writer. Many of They were the press of these days. The printer these songs—the great majority indeed—are by could be caught and fined; but it was more diffinameless writers; and even the provincial di- cult to catch the ballad-singer, and especially the alect employed in some of them, especially those ballad writer. To each of the ballads and songs of west country origin, impart to them a special Mr. Bell bas attached notes, explanatory or illusinterest now. The tone of these songs, common trative; and the work of editing, in this instanao, among the old English peasantry, is healthy. They' is far from being merely nominal.

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British North American provinces; and his first published This gentleman, who recently represented Glasgow in Par. work was a statement of their commercial and other resources, liament, but retired before the dissolution of the last House, in which we think that he devoted more attention to the expired at Boulogne on the 23rd ult. Mr. MacGregor was States than to the British provinces. He subsequently born at Stornoway in 1797, and had reached his sixtieth produced other works on the same and kindred subjects. year. Part of his youth was passed in Canada, and the ! The information contained in these works is volominous,

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but not well arranged, and they bulk, therefore, largely; yet of George the Third and Queen Charlotte, and consequently, they were, and still. are, useful contributions on trans- before the birth of George the Fourth, his brother William, Atlantic subjects. Mr. MacGregor was subsequently en- or her present Majesty, and brings us almost into personal gaged in business at Liverpool with success; and he was contact with the change consequent upon the death of the afterwards employed to collect commercial information on second George, and the family disputes between him and the the continent, in which he acquitted himself so well, that Prince of Wales, and could have almost brought within her he received the appointment of Secretary to the Board of own recollection, by the stories of elder associates, Queen Trade, with a salary of £1,500 per annum.

He was un- Caroline, and the scene between her Majesty, Jeannie Deans, doubtedly oseful both to Sir Robert Peel and others, in and the Duke of Argyle, so forcibly depicted in the “Heart assisting to draw out the new tariffs adopted from 1842 to

of Mid-Lothian.” She was the eldest daughter of Mr. 1847. His evidence before the Committee on Customs duties Henry Thrale, the founder of the brewery now so well known iwas of great importance, and had no inconsiderable weight as Barclay, Perkins, and Co.'s, and of Hester Salusbury, the In the promotion of measures which have long since become heiress of an ancient family in Wales. Mr. Thrale resided aw and rule.

for many years in a house adjoining the brewery in ParkIn 1847 he looked higher than his seat at the Board of street, Southwark, on the opposite side of the road to which Trade, became a candidate for the representation of Glas.

we remeniber to have been a large garden, carefully kept, gow; and, after a severe contest, carried that town, along but which was gradually encroached upon for the erection of with Mr. Hastie, also its late member. He was compelled

store houses, as the business of the brewery increased, but to resign his secretaryship at the Board of Trade-- which which was not entirely destroyed until the dwelling-house on may be etiquette, yet seems to be a hard measure.

the west side was seriously damaged by fire, and the space For ten years, therefore, Mr. MacGregor has been a occupied by an enlargement of the general building. The member of Parliament, and a director of public companies. exact site of the house may readily be seen by the new He was for some years governor of the Royal British Bank; buildings from which the grains are now delivered, and the and in that capacity he was chargeable with a share of the

extent of the garden may be traced, from a small alley on gross 'mismanagement now in process of exposure. Mr.

the south, to the ancient red brick mansion still standing at MacGregor insisted that the Bank, or its manager, held the corner of Clink-street, the side windows of which parti. securities for all his debts; but he was never examined ; cipated in the view. Here, and at Mr. Thrale's, at Streatand, as the manager is not in the country, it is impossible ham, “the club” were accustomed to meet, and with the DOW, perhaps, to settle that point. The debt stands, and

members of which the subject of this memoir was a con. the securities bare not been found valuable.

stant associate, an especial favourite of Johnson, and fre. He became connected with a number of other compa. quently noticed by him under the name of “Queeny.” In. nies, few of which have been successful ; but since his elec-heriting great intellect from her mother, who was an author. tion for Glasgow, he has not continued those statistical pub

ess of no mean reputation, and with the assistance of the lications which bronght him into notice originally. 'He tutelage of Dr. Johnson, a firm and highly cultivated mind was not adapted for the House of Commons in any respect, resulted, which was destined to remain in full vigour for so except in the zeal with which he amassed facts, although lengthened a period. Amid the mapy friends who surrounded many worse speakers get forward in that assembly; bat the

the deathbed of the great philosopher, and they numbered leaders of his party decided to overlook him, because they among them some of the greatest characters of the time, thought he claimed the merit too openly for his services at

vieing with eachother who should most contribute to confort the Board of Trade, which they would rather have had

his last moments, none was so constant in attendance as ascribed to their own industry.

Miss Thrale, and their last interview was never forgotten by Mr. MacGregor's commercial and statistical works extend her. “My dear child,” said he, “we part for ever in this to an almost incredible number of pages, although unfortu. world, let us part as Christians should let us pray togenately for himself, their circulation was confined io a class. ther." And after a prayer full of piety and affection, she Some journals have recently stated that Mr. MacGregor left, and saw him no more alive. was, daring the present year a contributor to this Magazine.

Previously to this event, family affairs had not gone Three or fonr years since he did contribute certain articles smoothly. Mrs. Thrale, to the annoyance of her daughters, of a commercial and statistical character to the Magazine ;

had married Signor Piozzi, and had proceeded upon what but only for a short period, and they have ceased for at least proved to be a prolonged continental tour. This deprived the time we have stated. He suffered towards the close of

her of the home to which she had been so long accustomed, his life from acate disease, increased by recent events.

and her father having bequeathed hier but a comparatively

small allowance during her minority, she retired to the then VISCOUNTESS KEITH.

unknown watering place, Brighton, where there was a small

house belonging to the family, and resided there until she DIED at her residence, 110, Piccadilly, Londov, on the 31st became of age. When that period arrived, she returned to Mach, Hester Maria Viscountess Keith, in the 93rd year of London, her younger sisters living with her. On arriving

in London, Mrs. Piozzi was welcomed her daughters with Such was the short obituary notice of one of the most every affection, which existed until her death, but the family remarkable of lately living characters, whose death, and that was never again re-united. This lady and James Boswell of the poet Rogers, sever the last remaining connection were everlasting subjects for the satire of Dr. Walcot, between the present generation and the great literary pha. better known under the soubriquet of Peter Pindar, as “Bozzy lans of the last century. It requires but a small calculation and Pozzy.” to trace the short period which really elapses between histo. The dutiful attentions of her children were not, however, rical personages and existing beings; as, for example, Sir appreciated by Mrs. Piozzi, as she left her property to a Charles Napier, whose name is familiar to every reader, was nephew of her husband, a foreigner, whorc she adopted, and intimately related to the great grandson of Charles the procured to be naturalised, with the honour of knighthood, First, and even this is not a very remote consanguinity to and permission to assume the surname of Salusbury, of many living at the present day. But it is a striking fact, Brimbella, in the Vale of Clwyd. that the lady whose death we notice, was the intimate In 1808, Miss Thrale became the second wife of Admiral companion, not in her childhood but in her youth, of George Keith Elphinstone, who, by his brilliant exploits Johnson, Boswell, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Burke, Gibbon, during the French war, had been created successively Baron Garrick, and a whole host whose names do and will live in and Viscount Keith, and being a personal friend of the literature, but whose deaths occurred long before the Royal Family, the Viscountess immediately took the highest memory of most of the present generation, even of aged position in fashionable circles, which she maintained until persons.

her widowhood, in 1820, and had the honour of being one Lady Keith was born in 1761-2, shortly after the marriage of the foundresses of the most exclusive assembly in the

her age.

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world—“ Alınack's," to whichi, by the way, the late Duke of September, 1848, and having been born on the 9th of July, Wellington was once refused admittance after the prescribed 1787, had consequently nearly completed the 70th year of . hour, receiving in reply to the excuse that he had been de. his age. tained by a debate in the House of Lords, a notice, “that The decensed peer being in holy orders, lived in compara. the second branch of the legislature must adjourn earlier on tive retirement, rarely attending in his place in Parliament, their nights." Between the metropolis and Tullialau, in but confining himself chiefly to the improvement of his Clackmannanshire, her time was nearly equally divided; but estates. They are estimated at the value of about £40,000 a large portion of it at either place was engaged in works of per annum, add as he had no issue by Wilhemina, second private and unostentations charity, herself visiting the reci- daughter of the late Hon. James Murray, whom he married pients of her bounty whenever possible, and frequently on the 18th May, 1813, they descend to his niece, Countess incognita—a practice continued nearly to her death. After Home, wife of the Earl of Home, daughter of his only the death of Lord Keith, in 1820, she resided chiefly in sister, Lady Moutagu, widow of James, Lord Montagu, of London, and in comparative retirement, receiving only Baugliton. her oldest and most intimate friends, and devoting much of The Countess of Home was married in 1832, and is the hier time to continuing her benevolent acts, and to religious mother of a large family, the eldest of whom is Lord duties.

Douglas, and his father, the Earl of Home, is one of the

representative peers of Scotland. The estates enjoyed by EARL AMHERST.

the late peer were the subject of a celebrated litigation in

1701, which has been scarcely equalled in later times, eren Died at Knowle-park, Sevenoaks, in Kent, on the 13th of by the Berkeley and Townsend peerages, in romantic results. March, in his 85th year, the Right Hon. William Pitt Am. The suit lasted eight years, having been carried to the House herst, Earl Amherst, of Arracan, in the East Indies, Vis. of Lords, and was between the then Duke of Hamilton and count Holmesdale, of Holmesdale , and Baron Amherst, of the father of the subject of the foregoing notice, but was Montreal, both in the county of Kent.

popularly known by the name of the "Great Douglas case." This deceased peer was intimately connected with Indian The last Duke of Douglas dying without direct issue in politics, having been accredited, in 1816, as extraordinary 1761, the guardiaus of his nephew, Archibald Stewart, ambassador to China, and subsequently having filled the claimed the estates, both real and personal, as being pephew, high position of Governor General of India.

and next of kin; while the guardians of the Duke of HaThe same intractability towards foreigners on the part of milton disputed his title on account of illegitimacy, and the Chinese, as characterised the former embassy of Lord claimed the property for their ward, as being next heir male, Macartney, led also to the failure of that of Lord Amherst. | The evidence adduced by the former was, that his mother, It was, perhaps, unfortunate that the same individual should Lady Jane Douglas, sister to the late Duke, in 1746, pri. have been selected in both instances to receive the ambassa-vately married Mr., afterward Sir John, Stewart, of Grande dor. Soun-Tchjoun-Kau met Lord Macartney, in 1794, at tully, she being then 48 years of age. After the marriage Jeklie, and again, when prime miuister, Lord Amherst, they resided on the continent, chiefly in France, until the twenty-two years afterwards. After reaching Pekin, he re- close of 1749, when they took up their abode in London, turned to Canton without accomplishing any of the objects accompanied by lwin boys, who were stated to have beea of his mission, refusing to submit more to the Chinese E.- born in Paris, in July, 1748. The younger of these died in peror than he would have done to any other crowned head. May, 1783, and in the November following, Lady Stewart On the voyage to England his lordship and suite had a died also. The survivor was served heir to the late Dake, narrow escape, the Alceste, Captaiu Murray, afterwards Sir after a great mass of evidence as to the above facts, had Murray Maxwell, having been wrecked upon a reef off one been produced before a jury, but what was not sufficient to of the small islands in the Indian Archipelago. The vessel satisfy the guardians of the Duke of Hamilton. They acin which they re-embarked touching at St. Helena, as usual, cordingly despatched agents to France, who procured a mass his lordship visited Napoleon Buonaparte upon several of testimony to prove that Lady Stewart was not the occasions.

mother of the children, and that they were the children of Subsequently, his lordship was appointed to the imporiant two poor French families named. To rebut this statement post of Governor-General of India, and by the plans adopted witnesses were brought forward who had been acquainted under his rule, the foundation of much of the present pros personally with Lady S:cwart, and others who were actually perity of that country was laid. Upon his return he re- present at the birth of the children. After a most cantioas ceived the thanks of the proprietors; and as a reward for and minute examination of the proofs, the judges of the his services, he was raised, in 1826, by his late Majesty Court of Session in Scotland proceeded to give judgment on George the Fourth, to the dignities of Earl and Viscount in the 7th July 1767, and as each judge delivered his opinions the United Kingdom.

seriatim, eight days elapsed before the final decision was The deceased peer was the son of Lieutenant.General | arrived at. Seven judges were in favour of pronouncing William Amherst, and succeeded to the title of his uncle, Archibald Stewart legitimate, and seven on the contrary, in. Lieutenant-General Amherst, who was raised to the peerage cluding the Lord President, who had the casting vote, in 1776 for his eminent services in North America, when in against his legitimacy, by which the claimant was declared chief command of the British forces. He was twice mar. not to be entitled to the property. The case, however, was ried, singularly in each case to a Dowager Countess of Plys taken to the House of Lords, in which, after most elaborate mouth, by the first of whom he had a family; the eldest son, arguments, this decision was reversed, and Archibald Stewart late Viscount Holmesdale, succeeds to the family honours or Douglas being declared to be really the son of Lady Jaye and estates. Since the second marriage, in 1839, his lord Stewart, was put in possession of the estates. The Dukeship interfered very little in public affairs, but devoted his dom did not descend with the estates, but their owner was time to improving the condition of his poorer tenantry, who raised to the Peerage by George III., with the title of will seriously feel his loss.

Bardon Douglas, which we presume again becomes es. tinct.

Bothwell Castle, in the vale of the Clyde, 'is remarkable LORD DOUGLAS.

for its rural beauty, and the general magnificence of the

landscape. It is near the site of the battle of Bothwell, On the 8th April, died at his seat, Bothwell Castle, upon and is associated with other historic reminiscences of the the Clyde, James Douglas, Baron Douglas, fourth and last district. The family estates are chiefly, however, in the surviving son of Archibald, first Lord Douglas in the peer- Upper Ward of Lavarkshire, and they possess only a very age of Great Britain, created in 1796, and the Lady Francis limited quantity of land around Bothwell Castle. The Scott, sister of Henry, third Duke of Buccleugh. He suc. estates in the Upper Ward are very exteusive, and are ceeded his brother Charles, fourth baron, on the 10th of I susceptible of great improvements.


JUNE, 1857.



The growth of tropical produce has been attended resources ; and the landed proprietary of the sur. with inhuman evils, and the advantages of the rounding provinces determined to assist in the cotton and the sugar trades to mankind, have been construction of a line that might have some influ. greatly neutralised by the means employed to con- ence upon the value of their productions. They duct them. The same means were once used in wanted money, but they have land and serfs, and the cultivation of lands in temperate climates; but they mortgaged both, for the serfs cannot be for a long period slavery has been confined to sold from the soil, except by a circuitous process. tropical regions, with the exception of Russia and The lenders took these serfs as security for nearly some parts of the Austrian empire. In both it is i twenty pounds each, and thus the price of a serfship and not slavery—a distinction of ex. Russian peasant, even in the provinces of the tremely little importance to the unhappy subjects Euxine, appears to be no more than a tithe of of the curse. The serfs, in all parts of the the value attached to an American negro on the Austrian dominions have lately obtained great Mississippi. improvements in their circumstances, and the The Russian land and serf owner can license domestic institution dies gradually out. The his serfs to labour for their own benefit in any part Russian serfs are in a more hopeless and miserable of the Russian dominions, upon the payment of an condition, and serious work has to be got through annual rent for their bodies and souls; and for those before they obtain freedom. Their number is far of each member of their families. The law permits greater than that of all the slaves in tropical but does not recognise these arrangements. The countries. The latter are an unimportant race serf may pay regularly, but the owner cau resume when contrasted with the millions of Russian his immediate superiority at his pleasure, with serfs. It is ever a strange matter that the latter all the accumulations of the serf's success in life. excite little sympathy in central and southern The latter cannot emigrate. Nobody can emigrate Europe, although they exist within a thousand from Russia without permission from the governmiles of our shores. We never have a Russian ment. Thus the empire is a large prison, in which "Uncle Tom's Cabin," although materials abound; three-fourths of the people are confined for the and we have no societies formed at home to eman- benefit of the remaining fourth. A population of cipate the “ men and brothers, who are bought from forty to fifty millions of individuals are suband sold like the producers of tallow, from the jected to this mode of slavery, and yet they have Baltic to the Caspian, if not to the Pacific. made few efforts to emancipate themselves. The

The abundance of serfs in Russia keeps the Russian system employs religion in a complete price low. A short time since some gentlemen of and masterly manner, for Satan is "master of his Odessa endeavoured to form a railway company, art,” to subdue the human heart. The planters of to link their port on to the general system of the southern states have only recently endeavoured Russian railways. The government declined to to inculcate bondage as a rule of faith. Their efguarantee a line for commercial purposes, as only fort is an imitation of Russian wiles, and will not be their military roads were to be lined with rails, equally successful. Even the wars of the empire, at the cost of persons in Britain and France, more which have drawn so many serfs beyond the fronendowed with wealth than wisdom, The local tiers, and necessarily allowed them to see a su. enterprise of Odessa was left, therefore, to its own perior mode of life to their own, lave done little


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