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So in Hamlet.
us Would I had met my dearest foe in heav'n." Perhaps from the Latin dirus, dire, dear. In the translation of Virgil by Douglas 'tis spelt dere, which the Gloffary thus explains, “ Dere,
(Horman's vulgaria, printed An. 1519. Fol. 21. STRIX vel LAMIA pro meo fuum paruulum fuppofuit : The FAYRE hath chaunged my childe.) And so the word is used in Cym. beline, A& II.
“ Guard me, beseech ye, “ From Fairies, and the tempters of the night." These Fairies I find in our old poets sometimes to have been mischievous bugs and furies, at other times fair and benign beings of a superior race. They were Farefolhis as Douglas, in his version of Virgil, calls them, from their fairness ; or if of a lower kind, and employ'd in servile offices, Browniş, from their swarthy countenance : fometimes again they were Satyrs and Fawns, or Centaurs, OHPEE as Homer [11. , 268.] and Euripides in his Cyclops (34.620.] names them. In short their characters were as various, as the characters of us mortals. And this ac. count here given will explain many passages in Spencer, and our old pocts, particularly Chaucer in the Merchant's tale, 1259. where he plainly alludes to the same etymology, as afterwards Douglas
" That her to behold it seemed a Feirie."
And Shakespeare in Antony and Cleopatra, A& IV.
* To this great Faiery I'll commend thy acts."
s to hurt, trouble : Belg. Deeren, Deren. F. “ Theut. Deran. AS. Derian, nocere. It. hurt,
injury.” How near to the Greek, smoos, contentio, pugna : dngrów, rixor, prælior : or to, Teigw, vexo, infefto? And should it not be thus spelt in Shakespeare? But instances of our poet's using words contrary to the modern acceptation of them are numberless.
RULE III. He sometimss omits the primary and proper fense, and uses wozds in their secondary and impzoper lignification.
Changes of garments, for different dresses, is a common expression: and we say, to change, for to dress : properly to change one dress and put on another. But Shakespeare uses to change, only for to new dress and adorn.
In Antony and Cleopatra, Act I.
♡ Charm, Oh ! that I knew this husband, ! which you say must change his horns with " garlands."
In Coriolanus, Act II. k! Cor. From whom I have receiv'd not only
They have printed it, charge.
“ But with them, 'change of honours.' i.e. been newly adorned with honours ; received new ornaments of honours.
Again, because the popith and heathenith myfteries are: vain and whimsical, he therefore uses mysteries, for vanities, or wbimpies.
In Henry VIII. Act 1. “ Cham. Is't possible the spells of France
should juggle « Men into such strange 3 mysteries." i. e. vanities, and whimsies. He is speaking of court falhions.
1. They have likewise printed it here, charge.
3. They correct mockeries. The explication here given is sufficient to vindicate our poet's thus using the word. But myfteries may fignify manners of life, &c.' The French and Italians have the same word, and Chaucer ufes it for a profesion, trade, calling, &c. in this fignification miftere, comes from minifterium, as minffer from monafterium. Bat in the former fignification 'tis a Greek word. Spencer uses it like the French, as mifter wight, manner, kind af perfon : miffer malady, kind of malady. And, it miftreth not ; it needeth not, there is no necessity. In which of theke senses to underftand it, is the better, I leave to the reader; only one thing I caution him against, which is, the change ing our poet's words for any whimsies of his own.
RU LE IV.
He uses one part of speech foz another. For instance, he makes verbs of adjeđives, as, to ftale, i.e. to make ftale and familiar. To safe, to make safe and secure, &c. Antony and Cleopatra, Act I.
“ Ant. My more particular. “ And that which most with you should safe
my going, “ Is Fulvia's death." jould safe, i. e. should make safe and secure.
So again, he uses verbs foz fubftantives. Accuse, for accusation: Affe&t, for affection: Deem, for a deeming, an opinion : Dispose, for dispofition: Prepare, for preparation : Vary, for variation : &c. And, adjektives for fubftantives. As Mean, for mediocrity or mean estate. In K. Lear, Act IV.
« Glo, Full oft 'tis seen « Our mean secure us." So Private, for privacy, &c. Nothing is more frequent among the Latins than to use substantively, z ardua invia, avia, supera, acuta, &c.
1 They correct, salve.
In imitation of whom our poet in Coriolanus, Act I.
“ As if I lov'd my little should be dieted « In praises sauc'd with lies.”
Again, he makes verbs of subttantives. As, to bench, to voice, to paper, to progress, to stage, to eftate, to belm, &c. To scale, i. e. to weigh and examine : In Coriolanus, A& I.
66 Men. I will venture " 3 To scale it a little more." i. e. to consider it, to examine it. In Cymbeline, Act I.
Jacb. He furnaces “ The thick fighs from him.” į. e. His fighs come from him as thick as fire and smoke from a furnace.
In Julius Cæsar, Act II. “ For if thou patb, thy native semblance on,
if the reader thinks proper, he may turn to the following in Paradise loft. B. II, 97. and 278. B. IV. 927. B. VI. 78. B. VII. 368. B. XI. 4.
3 They have printed, To ftale it.
4 In the elegant edition printed at Oxford 'tis altered into, “ If thou march :" i. e. the gloss or interpretation has removed the more difficult word, which often happens to be the case.