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the tendencies to particular diseases, which might, until 1715, when he returned to England. While.
under different circumstances, have been rendered he was in London, he was introduced to that emi-
nugatory, now acquire a fearful force. In this way nent philosopher, Dr. Edmund Halley, who formed
has been brought about the degeneracy and even
idiocy of some of the noble and royal families of so favourable an opinion of a paper on animal secre-
Spain and Portugal, from marrying nieces and other tion, written by Dr. Colden some years before, that
near relations. From a similar cause proceeded the he read it at the Royal society, the notice of which
visible feebleness of character of so many of the old

it greatly attracted. At this time he formed an ac-
French noblesse. They had become, to make use
of the language of a distinguished medical writer of quaintance with some of the most distinguished lit-
their own nation, rickety, consumptive, and insane. erary and scientifick characters, with whom he ever
The revolution, he adds, brought forward another after maintained a regular correspondence. From
race with better hopes.

London he went to Scotland and married a young Among other examples is one of a noble family; lady of a respectable Scotch family, by the name of four successive generations of which were affected with aneurism or morbid enlargement of the heart. Alice Christie, with whom he returned to America Testimony equally strong, and to the same effect, is in 1716borne by the most experienced writers on insanity. In 1718 he settled in the city of New York; but Dr. Burrows states that hereditary predisposition to soon after relinquished the practice of physick and this disease could be distinctly ascertained in six sevenths of his patients. He asserts that the fre- became a publick character: he held in succession quency of transmission is greater by a third on the the office of surveyor-general of the province, maspart of the mother than of the father. We find then ter in chancery, member of the council at the inin this inheritance and family community of disease, stance of Governour Burnet, and lieutenant-governreasons of a very imperative nature, distinct from moral and social considerations, why laws have

our. Previously to his acceptance of this last stabeen so generally promulgated, from Moses down to tion he obtained a patent for a tract of land by the the present time, against persons within certain lim- name of Coldenham, near Newburgh, on the Hudits of consanguinity intermarrying: Love may be son, at which place he retired about the year 1756, blind to laws which are firmly based on nature ; | where he spent a great part of his life. Here he and, while condemning, we must often pity its wanderings : bat no such toleration ought to be exten- appears to have been occupied, (with occasional inded to the union between members of the same terruption on account of publick affairs connected family, brought about by heartless avarice or ambi- with his station of lieutenant-governour.) in the purtion, for the purpose of retaining wealth, or preser- suit of general knowledge, but particularly in botanving a title : and the consequences of which are ical and mathematical studies, at the same time that often the transmission, into another generation, of infirmities in an aggravated shape, which a more

he continued his correspondence with learned men
natural and honourable course might have entirely in Europe and America.
prevented or at least greatly mitigated.

In July 1760, upon the death of James De Lancy,
Jour, of Health.

Mr. Colden was appointed lieutenant-governour
of New York, which commission he held until the
time of his decease, the administration of the gove

ernment repeatedly falling on him by the death or

absence of several governours-in-chief. His politi

cal character, ardent in the cause of the king, was BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF CADWALLADER COLDEN,

rendered very conspicuous by the firmness of his Formerly Lieutenant-Governour of New York.

conduct during the violent commotions which preThis truly eminent and worthy character, who coded the revolution. His administration is also united in himself the several qualities we are accus- memorable, among other circumstances, for several tomed to admire in the physician, philanthropist, and charters of incorporation for useful and benevolent philosopher, was the son of the Reverend Alexan- purposes. Among these may be stated the act of der Colden, of Dunse, in Scotland, and was born on incorporation for the relief of distressed seamen, the seventeenth day of February, 1688. After he called the Marine Society ; that of the Chamber of had laid the foundation of a liberal education under Commerce, which has lately been revived by John the immediate inspection of his father, he went to Pintard, and is now prominent among the most efthe university of Edinburgh, where in 1705 he com- fective organizations for commercial purposes in the pleted his course of collegiate studies. He now city of New York, and one for the relief of widows devoted his attention to medicine and mathematical and children of clergymen. After the return of science until the year 1708, when being allured by Governour Tryon in 1775 he was relieved from the the fame of William Penn's colony, he came over care of government. He then retired to a seat on, to Pennsylvania about two years after, where he Long Island, where a recollection of his former practised physick with no small share of reputation studies and a few select friends ever welcomed by a


without a groan.

social and hospitable disposition, cheered him in his created much alarm. From the slight evidence in last days. He died in the eighty-ninth ģear of his Smith's New York and other sources, it seems to age, on the memorable 28th of September, 1776, a have been similar to the malignant pestilence few hours before the city of New York was in which has occurred of latter years. Two hundred dames, retaining his senses to the last, and expiring and seventeen persons died of a population of seven

or eight thousand. He communicated his thoughts Dr. Colden began at an early period of his life to to the publick on the most probable method of treatpay great attention to the vegetable productions of ing the disease, in a small treatise on the occasion, America, in which delightful study his daughter 'enriched with much learning, in which he enlarged afterward became distinguished; and it has generally on the pernicious effects of marshy exhalations, been asserted that this eminent female botanist re- moist air, damp cellars, filthy stores, and dirty streets: ceived from Linnæus the high compliment of having showed how much these nuisances prevailed in a plant of the tetrandous class named Coldenia, in many parts of the city, and pointed out the remehonour of her merits. The Linnæan correspond- dies. The corporation of the city presented him ence, however, recently published by Sir James their thanks and established a plan for draining and Edward Smith, removes all doubt on the subject; clearing the city, which was attended with the most the genus was so denominated as a tribute due to salutary effects. This important paper may also be Dr. Colden himself. For it deserves to be recol- found in the Register just referred to, as well as his lected that Dr. Colden was the first American ex- Observations on the Climate and Diseases of New positor of the Linnæan system in the new world. York. An opinion of Dr. Colden, set forth in this This he taught on the banks of the Hudson almost last-named essay, that the climate of the city of immediately after its announcement by the illustrious New York, he doubts not, will in tiine become one of Swede. That Linnæus contemplated a like honour the most agreeable and healthy on the face of the to the distinguished daughter of Colden, there is earth, has created some animadversion. He publittle doubt. His correspondent Peter Collinson, re- lished a short treatise on the cure of cancer, and peatedly referred in his letters to Miss Colden's botan- another on the virtues of the “Great Water Dock;" ical disquisitions. In a letter of May, 1756,

In a letter of May, 1756, he re- this last production was the occasion of the commarks: “I have lately heard from Dr. Colden. mencement of his Linnean correspondence ; though He is well : but what is marvellous, his daughter is in one of his letters to the great botanist, bearing perhaps the first lady that has so perfectly studied date 1748-9, it seems evident he had already made your system. She deserves to be celebrated :” and himself favourably known to him by other studies in another letter of April, 1757, Collinson again in the classification of plants according to the methwrites to Linnæus: “In the second volume of od of the sexual system. In 1753, he published Edinburgh Essays, is published a botanick disserta- some observations on the epidemical sore throat tion by Miss Colden : perhaps the only lady that which appeared in Massachusetts in 1735, and had makes profession of the Linnæan system, of which spread over a great part of North America. These you may be proud.” Other testimonials in behalf of observations are to be seen in Carey's American the high botanical attainments of Dr. Colden and Museum. his daughter, are recorded in the same work.

Upon his becoming acquainted with the LinDr. Colden was attentive to the physical consti- næan systeni of botany he applied himself with new tution of the country, in which as a physician, he delight to that study, as might be inferred from the had for some time held a conspicuous rank, and he progress he made in the science, but we have the has left a long course of diurnal observations on the further evidence of his zeal in that pursuit from one thermometer, barometer, and winds. He wrote a of his own letters to Linnæus :

" When I came history of the prevalent diseases of the climate, into this part of the world, near forty years since,” which appeared many years after his death in Ho- says he, “I understood only the rudiments of botsack's and Francis's American Medical and Philo-any, and I found so much difficulty in applying them sophical Register, Vol. I.; and if he was not the to the many unknown plants I met with everywhere, first to recommend the cooling regimen in the cure that I was quite discouraged, and laid aside all atof fevers, he was certainly one of its earliest and tempts in that way near thirty years, till I casually warmest advocates; and opposed, with earnestness, met with your books, which gave me such new the then prevalent mode of treatment in the small-pox. lights that I resolved again to try what could be done

In the year 1743, a fever which occasioned great with your assistance.” His slight personal intermortality, prevailed in the city of New York, and views with Kalm, the traveller, and a pupil of Lin

næus, may also have given him still further aid. He * Ds. Francis's Discourse.

felt justified, however, in attempting a scientifick de


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scription of American plants, and published an ac- Though his principal attention after the year count of between three and four hundred which was 1760, was necessarily directed from philosophical printed in the Acta Upsaliensia. Of this number about to political matters, yet he maintained with great two hundred were for the first time noticed as new spe- punctuality his literary correspondence, particularly cies. He published the “ History of the Five Indian with Linnæus of Upsal, Gronovius of Leyden, De Nations," in two volumes, 12mo, and dedicated it to Porterfield and Whytte of Edinburgh, Dr. Fother Gov. Butnet, who had distinguished himself by his gill and Mr. Collinson, F. R. S. of London. There wisdom and success in the management of Indian were also several communications on mathematical affairs. This history may be pronounced a work of and astronomical subjects between him and the great historical value, and indispensable to every

Earl of Macclesfield. With most of the eminent writer on the important subject of our Indian tribes. men of America he held an almost uninterrupted Much of his knowledge was derived from actual ob- correspondence. Among them may be mentioned servation and experience. But the subject which the names of Dr. Garden, J. Bartram, Dr. Douglass, drew Dr. Colden, at one time of his life from

Dr. John Bard, Dr. Samuel Bard, James Alexander,

every other pursuit, was what he first published under the Esq. and Dr. Franklin. With Dr. Franklin in partitle of the “Cause of Gravitation,” but which being ticular, he was a constant and intimate correspondafterward much enlarged, was published in 1751, by ent, and they regularly communicated to each other Dodsley, of London, in one volume, 4to, entitled their philosophical and physical discoveries, espethe.“ Principles of Action in Matter," to which is an- cially on electricity. In these letters are to be obnexed a " Treatise on Fluxions." His friend Peter served the first dawnings of many of those discorCollinson, in a letter to Linnæus, thus writes of the eries which Dr. Franklin ha's communicated to the first edition in 1747. “The treatise on gravitation world, and which so much astonished and enlightby our friend Dr. Colden, is a new system which he ened mankind. In one of his letters Dr. Franklin desires may be thoroughly examined. I wish it had gives an account of the organization of the Amerbeen wrote in Latin, to have been more universally ican Philosophical Society, in which he mentions read. But as a great many

learned men

that Dr. Colden first suggested the idea and plan os read English, I hope it will be acceptable to some that institution ;* and in another letter addressed to of them.” That this book cost him many years of Dr. Colden, he details the circumstances connected severe study, is apparent from the nature of the sub- with his making with his own hands a cylindricalject and the extent of his researches. His desire electrical machine, probably the first apparatus of 10 free it of all objections urged against it, caused such a construction ever formed. him to prepare a new edition with further elucida- That Dr. Colden was a man of varied and extentions of particular parts, which he transmitted to Dr. sive learning, of deep research and extensive obserWhytte, a professor in the university of Edinburgh: vation, is fully evinced by his various writings: that the fate of the volume was never known.

in industry he had few to equal him, and that his In the American Medical and Philosophical Re- devotion to science arose from the impulse of a gister, a work which has already been referred to in generous and disinterested feeling, will be conceded this article, a paper of singular value may be found, by all who reflect upon the nature and amount of his entitled a “New Method of Printing discovered by philosophical lucubrations, and the circumstances of Dr. Colden, together with an Original Letter from the country and the times in which he lived. Dr. Franklin on the same subject.” To this doc

The numerous manuscript papers left by Dr. Colument is added by the editors some account of ste- den at the time of his death, are now in the possesreotyping, as now practised in Europe. From the sion of his great grandson, David C. Colden Esq., correspondence with Colden and Franklin, the curi- of New York, who has kindly permitted the Frankous fact is deduced, that the stereotype process, said lin correspondence to be delivered to Jared Sparks to have been invented by M. Herhan in Paris, and Esq., in order, more effectually to enable this enlightnow practised by him (1810) in that city under låt- ened and able editor to complete his ample edition ters patent of Napoleon, is precisely ihe same as of Dr. Franklin's life and works now publishing at that spoken of by Dr. Colden more than sixty years

Boston. ago. How far this great improvement in the typo- we shall examine with impartiality the pretensions set up for graphick art is an American invention, becomes from Dr. Colden, and the observations of Drs. Hosack and Francis,

the editors of the Register, on the subject, as well as detail most the testimony thus furnished, an enquiry well worth

faithfully the leading circumstances connected with the progress investigation. The claims of Dr. Colden to this of this great improvement in the art preservative. high honour, seem to be of a no ordinary character.* + This curious paper, the only existing document making

known the origin of this society, may be seen in Hosack and We purpose, in some future number of the Family Mag. Francis's American Medical and Philosophical Register already azine, to give an historical account of this great discovery, when I referred to in this article.

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of the new as well as of the old world. In Amer.

ica, 100, its migrations are equally regular, passing STORKS are regular birds of passage ; but so its immense periodical journeys at such a prodigious punctual in their comings and goings, that from the height as to be seldom observed. It is satisfactory most remote times, they have been considered as thus to strengthen the authority of a Scriptural pasgifted with reasoning powers. The prophet Jer- sage from so distant a source, though amply borne emiah, speaking of their knowledge, contrasts their out by witnesses in the very country in which the instinctive obedience to their Creator's laws, with prophet dwelt. the culpable departure therefrom by those on whom "In the middle of April,” says a traveller in the God had bestowed the higher gifts of reason and Holy land, “while our ship was riding at anchor understanding “ Yea, the stork in the heaven know- under Mount Carmel, we saw three flights of these eth her appointed times; and the turtle, and the birds, each of which took up more than three hours crane, and the swallow, observe the time of their in passing us, extending itself

, at the same time, coming; but my people know not the judgement of more than half a mile in breadth.” They were the Lord.”—Jer. viii. 7.

then leaving Egypt, and steering for Palestine, toSo punctual is the arrival and departure of the wards the northeast, where it seems, from the acvarious migratory birds, that, to this day, the Per- count of another eyewitness, they abound in the sians, as well as ancient Arabs, often form their month of May. Returning from Cana to Nazaalmanacks on their movements. Thus, the begin- reth,” he observes, “I saw the fields so filled with ning of the singing of nightingales was the com- flocks of storks, that they appeared quite white with mencement of a festival, welcoming the return of them; and when they rose and hovered in the air. warm weather; while the coming of the storks was they seemed like clouds. The respect paid in forthe period of another, announcing their joy at the mer times to these birds is still shown; for the departure of winter. The expression, “ the stork in Turks, notwithstanding their recklessness in shedthe heaven,” is more applicable than at first appears, ding human blood, have a more than ordinary regard for even when out of sight, its pathway may be tra- for storks, looking upon them with an almost reveced by the loud and piercing cries, peculiar to those rential affection."

Vol. V.-43


In the neighbourhood of Smyrna, and indeed the Romans it was called the pious bird, and was throughout the whole of the Ottoman dominions, also an emblem on the medals of such Roman prinwherever the bird abides during its summer visits, ces as merited the title of Pius. it is welcomed. They call him their friend and their brother, the friend and brother exclusively of the Moslem race, entertaining a belief that wherever the influence of their religion prevailed, it would The frog (Rana,) is a genus of Batrachian reptiles, still bear them company; and it might seem that the typical genus, and the one from which the name these sagacious birds are well aware of this predi- is taken, Batrachos being the Greek name for a frog. lection : for singularly enough, a recent traveller, In the Linnæan system, the genus Rana included who met with them in incredible numbers in Asia not only the frogs properly so called, but the treeMinor, observed, that although they built on the frogs (Hyla,) and the loads (Bafo ;) and Cuvier, as mosques, minarets, and 'Turkish houses, their nests he has done in many other instances, has retained were never erected on a Christian roof. In the the Linnæan arrangement for the whole genus, or Turkish quarters they were met in all directions, rather family, but has divided it into three sub-genstrutting about most familiarly, mixing with the peo- era, answering to those which we have mentioned. ple in the streets, but rarely entering the parts of the The general characters of frogs are :--The body town inhabited by the Greeks or Armenians, by thick, and a little compressed, elongated, moist on whom, possibly, they may be occasionally disturbed. the surface, covered on the upper part with a few Nothing can be more interesting than the view of an small tubercles, and generally granulated on the unassemblage of their nests. Divided as they always der surface, with the exception of that of the thorax are into pairs, sometimes only the long elastick neck which is smooth. On each side of the back, just of one of them is to be seen peering from its cradle above the loins, some of the species have an anguof nestlings, the mate standing by on one of his long lar fold. The fore feet have four separate toes, or slim legs, and watching with every sign of the clo- toes without any webs, the thumb being larger than sest affection. While other couples, on the adjacent the others, and in the inales undergoing a peculiar walls, are fondly entwining their pliant necks, and enlargement at the pairing-time. The hind feet mixing their long bills, the one sometimes bending are much longer, not much less than the length of her neck over her back, and burying her bill in the the body; and they are five-toed and palmated in all soft plumage, while her companion clacking his long the species. The upper jaw is furnished with a beak with a peculiar sharp and monotonous sound, single row of small and finely-pointed teeth, and raises her head and embraces it with a quivering there is also a row of similar teeth across the paldelight; while from the holes and crannies of the ate. The tongue is short, thick, and fleshy, 'adwalls, below the storks' nests, thousands of little hering to the sides of the under jaw, but capable of blue turtledoves flit in all directions, keeping up an being elevated against the palate, so as completely incessant cooing by day and night.

to close the communication with the nostrils. It At another Mohammedan town, Fez, on the coast will be perceived that this structure of mouth is a of Barbary, there is a rich hospital, expressly built, simple swallowing one ; and that a frog can neither and supported by large funds, for the sole purpose of bite nor masticate. This points immediately to the assisting and nursing sick cranes and storks, and of kind of food on which it must subsist, namely, food burying them when dead! This respect arises from which it can take into the stomach without any prepa strange belief, handed down from time immemo- aration ; and in the taking of this food, frogs are of rial, that the storks are human beings in that form, considerable service to man on the land, nd not almen from some distant islands, who, at certain sea- together useless in the water. The different species sons of the year, assume the shape of these birds, of slugs, which are so very destructive in gardens, that they may visit Barbary, and return at a fixed and to many culinary and other useful plants, form time to their own country, where they resume the one principal article of the food of frogs; and, therehuman form. It has been conjectured that this tra- fore, frogs are deserving of much encouragement, in dition came originally from Egypt. By the Jews consequence of the value of their labours; and, the stork was also respected, though for a different while their labours are thus valuable, they themreason; they called it Chaseda—which in Hebrew, selves harm nothing. They do not burrow in the signifies piety or mercy-from the tenderness shown earth, neither do they eat any vegetable substance by the young to the older birds, who, when the lat- so far as is known; and, therefore, while they tend ter were feeble or sick, would bring thein food. to preserve vegetation in the moist places of the

This affection, however, appears to be mutual, for garden, and indeed in all places of it on those damp the parent birds have a more than common degree and dewy nights in which slugs are so mischievous, of affection for their young, and have been known they are always worth protecting; and not only so, to perish rather than desert them. An attachment but it is worth while to keep a little pond for their of this sort once occasioned the death of an old aquatick amusements, nor, perhaps, is it altogether stork, at the burning of the city of Delft, in Hol- amiss to have a bit of stagnant water in some waste land. When the flames approached her nest, sit- place in which they may breed; for, though she uated on a housetop: she exerted herself to the ut- nuptial songs of the frogs are not the most melomost to save her young; but finding every effort dious in the world, there is an association of cheeruseless, she remained and perished with them. fulness with their croaking—their song, such as it is, Besides the Jews, other ancient nations held these is a song of hope ; it tells us that the season of birds in veneration. A law among the Greeks, growth and beauty is coming, and in the case of the obliging children to support their parents, even re- common frog, it tells this very early in the season. ceived its name from a reference to these birds. By There is another reason why some attention



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