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justly merited from his fellow citizens, to the highest dignity in the city; and during the year 1795, when he was lord mayor, by his prudent conduct, maintained good order in the city whilst the state trials of Mr. John Horne Tooke, &c. took place at the Old Bailey, on charges of high treason. Mr. Alderman Skinner, had previously rendered himself valuable to his fellow citizens in his magisterial capacity on the following occasion.

On the 17th of May, 1790, between the hours of twelve and one in the morning, a dreadful fire happened near the corner of Long Lane, which destroyed all the houses to Carthusian Street, and property to the value of 30,0001. A person of the name of James Flindall, being detected and sentenced to transportation for stealing at the fire, caused a letter to be written to Mr. Skinner, offering to disclose all the horrid particulars of that calamity, provided the alderman procured his majesty's pardon. By the laudable exertions of the alderman, two accomplices were apprehended, and Flindall, the third accomplice, was admitted evidence for the crown ; who disclosed a scene of most de, liberate and unparalleled villainy, the object of which was the concerted scheme of firing the premises in question, for the sake of the plunder. On the 30th of October, Edward Lowe and William Jobbins, were tried for the offence at the Old Bailey, and fully convicted. They were executed op, posite the place of their depredation, on the 20th of No. vember, and confessed the fact for which they suffered. An inscription in stone affixed in the corner house facing Bar, bican, records the transaction.

BARBICAN. We have very fully stated the nature of the watch tower, whence this street was called *. It had an. tiently been called Houndsditeb, as a receptacle for the filth of the city, as was that before mentioned near Aldgate. An inquisition was made in the third year of the reign of Ed. ward I. concerning purprestures in the city, and concerning one Thomas Juvenal, “who had appropriated to himself of the king's soil without Le Barbekan, a certain place, con

Vol. I. p. 21. VOL. III. No. 64.



taining forty feet in length, and four feet in breadth, and inclosed it with an earth wall: and master Nicolas Bra. banzoun then held it. Upon this presentment, made by the jurates, the king's justices commanded the sheriffs of London to summon the said Nicolas; who said, that he had nothing to do with, nor laid any claim to the said purpresture; but that he was tenant to Thomas Fitz-Simon de Burgh. The said Thomas came, and prayed that he might arrent the same of the king for three-pence per annum, which was granted, because the twelve sworn men witnessed, that the said inclosure was no annoyance. And it was adjudged, that the king might recover the arrearages of the said purpresture, to wit three shillings. But no forfeiture, because it was not of the said Thomas's doing." It is evident that the Barbican, and all its appurtenances, was held by the king as one of his castles. - In the reign of Edward III. it was entrusted to the care of Robert de Ufford, earl of Suffolk. It had before this time been esteemed an antient royal manor, by the name of Base Court, or the Barbican; the house of which had been de. troyed in 1251, but restored in favour of the earl of Suffolk. His son William, deceasing without issue, the cusa tody of the Barbican descended to his sister Cecilia, married to Sir John Willoughby, afterwards created Lord Willoughby of Eresby. It descended from him to Catharine, widow of Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, in her own right baroness Willoughby, of Eresby; and in the right of Mary I. wife of Richard Bertie, ancestor of the Duke of Ancaster, and of Lady Gwyder.

This lady, who was an enemy to, and ridiculed the doctrines of the church of Rome, had in her zeal, dressed a dog in a rochet; and, in affront to the notorious persecutor, Bishop Gardiner, giren his name to that of a dog, in the reign of Edward VI. She was therefore marked for destruction by Mary and her coadjutors; on which lady Catharine and her husband, Aed from their house in the Barbican, to the Continent, till the danger was over; and lived in a retired and distressed manner in Poland. During

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their travel it is related, that Lady Catharine was delivered of a son near a church porch at Bruges, in Flanders; who, on account of the circumstances of refuge and distress, was named PEREGRINE ; which was the name taken by several of the noble family of Ancaster. The mansion in Bar, bican was named Willoughby House, and inbabited by Peregrine Bertie, Lord Willoughby of Eresby, and father of Robert Bertie, the great earl of Lindsey, who was killed at the battle of Edgehill; the house, it seems, was then of vast circumference.

Towards the end of Golden Lane, was GARTER PLACE, sa called from Sir Thomas Wrythe, or Wriothesley, whose fa. mily had been, for some time, heralds at arms. Having been trained to the same studies by his father Sir John, he was created Wallingford Herald, and afterwards succeeded his father as Garter king at arms. His brother William, who was York herald, had issue Thomas Wriothesley, who, by various degrees of merit, arrived to be lord chancellor of England, and earl of Southampton. He died at his house in Lincoln Place, Holborn, called from him Southampton House, where we shall speak more of him.' Sir Thomas, the uncle, built Garter Place, and on the top founded a chapel, which he dedicated by the name Sancte Trinitatis in Alto.

At the end of this street, where the pump now stands, the antient Barbican, Burgh-kenning, or Watch Tower, is supposed to have been situated.

Red Cross STREET, is so called from a cross which stood near the end of Golden Lane. This is a noble, wide, and well-built street, inhabited by persons of property, and runs from Barbican to the church of St. Giles, Cripplegate. There are several courts and alley, but they are of no material estimation either for structures or inbabitants.

The first object of attention is a DISSENTING MEETING
House, which has changed owners and doctrines various
times; it has been successively occupied by Independents,
Baptists, New Jerusalem, and other congregations,
UU 2


The adjoining house is the charity school belonging to the parish of St. Giles, Cripplegate, founded in 1698, for one hundred boys and fifty girls, who are clothed and edacated. But the greatest ornament of this street, is

DR. WILLIAMS'S LIBRARY for the use of Protestant Dissenting Ministers.

6 Daniel Williams, D. D. was born at Wrexham, in 1643, or 1644. He had a great natural vigour of mind, which being improved by an uncommon application, made à compensation for his want of such helps as many others have had in their early years. He loved serious religion from his youth, and entered upon the ministry about the time of the ejectment in 1662." Our limits will not allow us to follow Dr. Williams through the many persecutions he suffered both in England and Ireland, during the reigns of Charles II. and James II. After the Revolution he was unanimously chosen to succeed the reverend Mr John Oakes, as preacher to a numerous congregation in Hand Alley, Bishopsgate Street; he had before this many times officiated for Mr. Richard Baxter, at Pinner's Hall, Broad Street, and had succeeded that worthy character, in the lecture; but with great opposition, on account of his fe. verity against Antinomian opinions. Upon this Mr. Williams withdrew himself, and was followed by Dr. Bates, Mr. Howe, Mr. Alsop, Dr. Annesley, and Mr. Richard Mayo; and they jointly set up ihe lectures at Salter's Hall, He was in great favour with William III.

" When, in the reign of queen Anne, a bill was depend. ing in parliament against occasional conformity, he exerted himself to the utmost against it. He was very much for the Union with Scotland in 1707, and urged his friends to forward it, with great earnestness. In 1709, he received a diploma for the degree of D. D. from Glasgow, and another from Edinburgh ; the latter inclosed in a silver box. In the latter end of Anne's reign, Dr. Williams having very dark apprehensions of the state of things, dealt freely with the great man then at the head of affairs, with whom he had been long acquainted, and warned him of his danger, whe. ther he was einbarked against liberty or not. But the free. dom he took was not relished, the doctor's free remarks on the great man's conduct (in a letter to some friends in Ire land) being ungenerously carried to him, he was so incensed against Dr. Williams, that he never forgave him. No man in the nation more heartily rejoiced than the doctor at the over-blowing of the impending storm, by the accession of king George I. to the British throne ; and on September 28, 1714, he, at the head of the Protestant Dissenting Ministers, in and about London, presented to bis majesty an address of congratulation. About this time his constitution, naturally strong, began visibly to decay ; but he held on in the exercise of his ministry, till 1716, when, after a short illness, he departed this life January 26, aged seventy-three. He was interred in a vault of his own at Bunhill Fields, with a long Latin inscription to his memory.


“ Dr. Williams gave the bulk of his estate, by will, to charitable uses; as excellent in their nature, as various in their kinds, and as much calculated for the glory of God and the good of mankind, as any other that have ever been known. Among other objects of it are, the relief of poor ministers and their widows: the education of students in the university of Glasgow for the ministry: the support of schools, especially in Wales: the distribution of bibles and other pious books among the poor: a Protestant missionary in Ireland, &c. He left his library for public use, and directed a convenient place to be purchased or built, in which the books might be properly disposed of, and left an annuity for a librarian. The building we are about to describe was afterwards erected by a subscription among the opulent Dissenters, where the doctor's collection is preserved with peculiar care and neatness. This is also the place in which the body of Dissenting ministers meet to transact the business of the general concern ; it is also the repository for portraits of. Nonconformist ministers, for MSS. and for other matters of curiosity and utility."

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