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Proceedings of Universities.'

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"VARIETIES. Oxford, October 10.-On Tuesday College: and the Rev. Peter Vaughan, the Rev. Frodsham Hodson, D.D. Prin- D.D. Iarden of Merton. cipal of Brasenose College, haring been Congregations have been and will be previously nominated by the Right Hon. holden for the purpose of granting Lord Grenville, Chancellor of the Uni- Graves and conferring Degrees, on the versity, to be Vice-Chancellor for the following days in the ensuing Term :year ensuing, Wils, in full Convocation, viz. Saturday, October 10, Thursday 22;

invested with that office; after which the Thursday, November 12, Thursday 19, „Vice-Chancellor, nominated his Pro- Thursday 26; Thursday December 3, „Vice-Chancellors, viz. the Rev. John Thursday 17. Cole, D.D. Rector of Exeter College ; October 17.-Yesterday, in fuil Con

the Revo Thomas. Lee; D.I). President vocation, the Degree of Doctor in Civil an of Trinity College ; the Rev. George Law, by diploma, was conferred upon " William Hall, D.D. Master of Pembroke his Royal Highness the Grand Duke

350 Steam Engines- Light without Heat-Antiquities. (Nov. 1, Michael, brother of the Emperor of bark answers every purpose in tanning, Russia ; at which ceremony the Arch- as well as oak bark. duke Maximilian of Austria was pre- Antiquities. The Bath papers say: sent.

“ The subterranea of our city and viciCAMBRIDGE, October 16.-On Satur- nity daily teem with more or less interday the 10th inst. being the first day of esting remains of ancient times. ExTerm, the following gentlemen were clusively of those spirited enterprizes appointed University officers for the year which have been so successfully pursued ensuing :

by the Rev. Mr. Skinner, at Roundhill PROCTORS. - Harry Pearce, M. A. tining, and at Camerton, and the acces. Conduct of King's College; James Cum- sions still continuing to be made by inming, M.A. Fellow of Trinity College. dividuals in and near Bath; the follow

TaxoRs. Edward René Payne, ing articles have been developed within M.A. Fellow of King's College; Wil- the last fortnight:-A sepulchral urn Liam French, M.A. Fellow of Pembroke with human bones and ashes; a small Hall.

brass coin of the usurper Carausius; and MODERATORS. George Peacock, a fine medal of Faustina Augusta, reM.A. Fellow of Trinity College ; Rich- verse Lucina, in large brass, at Walcot. ard Gwatkin, M. A. Fellow of St. A tesselated mosaic pavement, in Kings John's College.

mead, behind Norfolk-Crescent. A stone SCRUTATORS.– William Holme, B.D. sarcophagus, containing a human skelev Fellow of Emmanuel College ; Robert ton, dug near Mr. Harris's statwarys Woodhouse, M.A. Fellow of Caius Col- above Bathwick New Church. (Thel lege.

skeleton is in possession of Mr. F. Hunt, The following gentlemen were on member of the Royal College of Shar Monday last appointed the Caput:- geons, Northgate-street. Acelt, or The Vice-Chancellor.

(more probably) an ax for hewing tims Rev. J. Wood, D.D. St. John's Col- ber, found at Bathwick. This instruut lege. Divinity.

ment is formed of a hard grey stone, of Rev. J. W. Geldart, LL.D. Trinity that species called the Hanham pennant. hall.--Lam.

It is near 13 inches in length, of mass J. T. Woodhouse, M.D. Caius Col- sive dimensions, well contrived for effect, lege.--Physic.

and evidently designed to be fastened to Rev. J. Evans, M.A. Clare Hall.- its handle by thongs, in the manner found Sen. Non Reg.

to be usual in all barbarous nations where Richard Crawley, M.A. Magdalene. the use of the metals has been unknown. Sen. Regent.

It is probably the largest instrument of Atmospheric Phenomenon.--Mr. Thos. its kind at present extant; and presumForster has of late noticed a pheriome- ing it to have been antecedent to the innon which onght to engage the atten- troduction of the arts into Britain by tion of philosophers, viz. that the the Romans, must be at least 1,800 years moon, on rising, particularly about the old. It is in the possession of Mr. full, appears to have the power of dis- O'Neil.” persing the clouds and clearing the at- A Cure for the Dropsy. - Take a mosphere. This fact is best observed in quantity of the thick hollow shells of the neighbourhood of the sea. This cir- oysters, let them be well dried by the fire ; cumstance is slightly hinted at by Aris- then scrape out of the hollow part of the totle, and the early writers on meteoro- shell all the white cialky substance, unlogy.

til you get a quart thereof in powder Steam Engines.--A desirable improve- (that quantity having been found suffiment has been effected by a gentleman cient:) in a gill glass of good brandy put of Manchester, in a method of construct- as much of the powder as will lie on a ing the flues of the boilers of steam en- shilling, and take that quantity every gines in such a manner, that the gross morning and evening. part of the smoke is entirely consumed In a field belonging to Wm. Helyar, by combustion.

esq. of Coker-Court, near Yeovil, there Light without Heat.- Dr. E. Porter, have been lately discovered fine speciof Easton, Pennsylvania, is said to have mens of Roman pavement, with figures discovered a preparation capable of pro- in alto relievo, represeriting two warducing light without any sensible heat.: riors bearing a stag, suspended on a pole

By numerous experiments recently across their shoulders, and a dog undermade, it is indubitably proved, that larch neath, together with some Romari coins

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1818.) PhenomenonPlymonth Breakwater, 8o.

351 of Teticus, Crispinus, and Vespasian presentation of all the recent discoTesselated pavements were found in veries up to February, 1818, together three fields, one of which formed the with a description of the most leading floor of a room 12 feet in width, and 30 and interesting objects. in length.

Dis:illation by Steam. An experiPhenomenon.-- Lately, in a coal-pit ment to distil by steam is making at situated upon the Outwood, near Wake- Roscrea, under the inspection of Excise field, and belonging to Wm. Fenton, officers and several experienced distilesq. out of the lower bed or seam, at a lers. Great expectations are entertained distance of 150 yards from the surface of by those concerned, as to the saving of the earth, a block of coal was dug up, time and of fuel in case of success. which, when broken, contained a lizard, The grand series of National Medals, of the species vulgarly denominated undertaken by Mr. Mudie, advances with aşkers. The auimal was alive; but upon spirit towards its conipletion, and in being exposed to the air it soon died. point of execution rivals the very finest The cavity in which it was found was productions of the continent. Five new only just large enough to contain it. medals have just been published, making

Plymouth Breukwaler. - The equi- thirty-four, of which the series is innoctial gales have commenced; and on tended to consist. These are in honour the 21st and 230 inst. they proved ex- of Lord Nelson, Sir Sidney Smith, Sir traordinarily violent from the southward John Moore, the Constitution of the and westward, which occasioned a heavy lonian Isles, and Lord Wellington's propressure of the sea against the break- tection of Portugal, in the lines of water. During the former day his Ma- Torres Vedras. The heads of Nelson, jesty's, schooner Sea Lark, the Thalia Smith, and Moore, are entitled to high East Indiaman, Providence coal brig, commendation for their correctness and and Pilgrim merchant sloop, of about 60 relief, and the allegorical reverses of the tons, were in the Sound, the two first whole are exquisitely finished. vessels being moored in good births, the Mr. Minasi, artist to his Sicilian MaProvidence nearly where the unfortu- jesty and the Duke of Sussex, has just nate Jasper lay, and the Pilgrim close to finished a moderate sized portrait of her the Melampus shoal, in the most exposed Royal Highness the late lamented Prinpart of the Sound, and not far from the cess Charlotte of Saxe-Coburg. This spot whence his Majesty's late schooner excellent artist has rather romantically, Telegraph began to drive on shore. yet still with much simplicity and taste, They all rode out the storm in safety, allegorically represented her Royal Highand when it had abated, the brig and ness as a beautiful and resplendent stat; sloop went into Catwater. On the 23d and agrerably to Platonic philosophy, the vessels in the Sound were his Ma- this amiable Princess, in resuming her jesty's ships Spartan, the Sea Lark, and abode in her ancient star, shines still the Thalia, which sustained the gale with brighter by the virtues which immortals the same ease as before, and report high. ize her name, and the serenity of her ly of the sheltering protection afforded still lovely but pensive countenance is by the breakwater. Notwithstanding only interrupted by the emblem of eter, the fury of the waves, not a single stone nity which surrounds it. of the finished part of this structure was Cure for the Bite of a Mud Dog. been injured or displaced. The raising The Nottingham paper says: “The folof the western arm already begins to lowing receipt has been tried and proved have the most beneficial influence on the by experience to be an infallible remedy anchorage, particularly from half-ebb to for the bite of a mad dog. Clean the half-food.

wound with water, and place on each imAmongst the English travellers in pression of the dog's tooth a small round Italy who are occupied in illustrating the pellet of lint, dipped in oil of vitriol, ancient remains of that wonderful coun- tying the entire round with a bandagetry, Mr, Henry Wilkius, brother to the the bales of lint should be in proportion gentleman so well known by his cele- to the wound, from the size of the head brated work on Magna Grecia, has been of a pin to a small pea. This application for some time preparing a general view Dr. F. las found to be an infallible reof the present state of Pompeii, its ruins, medy, even when the bite has been un. excavations, &c. This work will con- dressed for 48 hours. Should any sore prise thirty-two engravings on a large remain after the caustic, it is to be treatseade, a ground plan of the city, exact re ed as a commou buru."

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352 New Method of Making Butter--Preservation of Flowers. [Nov. 1, RURAL ECONOMY.

ten; 2d. In hot weather butter is obThe following directions contained in tained without a tedious process, and is a Flemish Journal, we apprehend will free from the raneid taste that long and be found worthy of trial in this country. hot churned butter generally possesses ;

The recent drought, by depriving and, 3d. A very small stock of cream almost all kinds of vegetables of their may be operated upon equally as well natural moisture, has given rise in several as a larger quantity.-Durhum Adverdistricts to épizooties, not epidemic, but tiser. endémic, which may be simply ranked The Preserdation of Flowers by means among inflammatory diseases. The fol- of warm water. The following facts are lowing treatment is the result of a long not new, but as they are very little series of observation, and of its efficacy known, they deserve to be communicated; no doubt can be entertained.

partly as a curious addition to our preIst. To the cattle attacked with the vious knowledge of the vegetable kingdisease, water whitened with barley meal dom, and partly as an easy means by or fine bran, sharpened by a little which the lovers of flowers may enjoy nitrate of potash, and slightly acidulated, them longer. should be administered three or four Most flowers fade and wither after times every day.

having been in water for four and twenty 2d. As most of the diseases of rumi- hours; some may be revived by renewnating animals have a tendency to ing the fresh water; but all (with the putridity, although they live entirely on exception of the most tender ones, such vegetables, it is proper to put, evening as the Poppy and perhaps a few others) and morning, into their drink, a little become quite refreshed by putting them vinegar, and one glass of an infusion in warm water. For this purpose it is of aromatic plants, as wormwood, sage, necessary to dip the flowers in the warm rue, camomile,

rosemary, angelica, water to about the third part of the juniper-berries, &c. to each animal. stalk. While the water is cooling, the

Care should be taken to rub and flowers revive and resume their freshexercise them ; but those barbarous ness ; afterwards the end of the stalks is scarifications which are sometimes em cut off and put in fresh water. ployed, should be avoided. A seton M. Aubert Petit-Thouars mentions may however be made in the dew-lap in his Essays on Vegetation (Essais sur with black hellebore or perriwinkle- la Vegetation) some experiments male leaf.

known in the year 1808, which are In consequence of the great deficiency nearly connected with the preceding. of straw this year, Mr. Curwen has dried Speaking of Layers, he expresses him. the stalks or haum:s of his extensive crop self thus: --- Others affirm that by of potatoes, and they are stated to make burning the end of the branch put in comfortable litter for the cattle.

the earth, the success of the layer may New Method of Aluking Butter.- be secured. Kolben, the traveller, first Put the cream intended for butter into a recommended this method; he says, that strong linen cloth, tie it up with a string, the new colonists at the Cape of Good dig a hole in the earth fifteen inches Hope had attempted the planting of the deep, and let the bottom of it be suffici- vine without success, till a German hit ently capacious to allow the cream in the upon the thought of burning the end of linen cloth to lie about four inches deep the suckers which he intended to plant ; all over it. Put another around that the consequence was, that in the sequel which contains the cream, to keep the they all succeeded. The experiments dirt from it. When deposited in the that I have hitherto made have failed. hole, cover it up with earth (but not to We, however, do something similar tread it down) and let it remain twenty- when we put flowers into water to prefour or twenty-six hours; then take it serve them; the lower end of the stalk is out, and pour the cream, which will be drawn through a candle, and I have very thick, into a bowl, or other vessel, been assured that even flowers which and stir it well from five to ten minutes

withered became quite with a wooden spoon, when the butter freshed." will be completely formed, and may be The bark of the willow tree burnt to taken out and washed as usual. The ashes and mixed with strong vinegar, advantages of this mode of making forms a lixivium which effectually erabutter are as follow, viz.—Ist. The dicates, by repeated application, warts, cream yields a larger quantity of butter, corns, and other cutaneous excres. or an addition of about oue pound in ccoces.



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Foreign Varieties.


Field Rats have multiplied so greatly Several interesting experiments have in some districts in France, that to put a lately been made in France, to ascertain stop to their ravages, all proprietors in the relative quantity of nutritive matter the environs of Landau were ordered contained in the vegetables of most com- to deliver in, every day, two rats for mon use. The object of these experi- every florin of rent they pay. It ia ments was to determine a certain basis said that the inhabitants of the village to be adopted in those public establish- of Offenbach alone, who were extremely ments where there is a great consump- active in the execution of this order. tion of leguminous plants. The quantity gave in 47,300 rats in three days. of those used in the Maison de Deten The following notice is given in the tion, for example, was formerly fixed by Moniteur :-“ Navigators are informed the price of the potatoe ; but it has been that a new Light-house, erected on the found necessary to take, as a point of Tower of the city of Calais, will be comparison, not the prices of substances, illuminated on the evening of Tuesday, but their nutritious qualities : accord- the 1st of December, 1818, and will coningly three questions have been sub- tinue from that time to be kept lighted mitted to the Faculty of Medicine, tend- from sun-set to sun-rise. The flame of ing to determine what quantities (with the Light-house will be white, revolving, reference to the nutritive principle) of and, in consequence subject to eclipses. wheaten bread, meat, dry grain, rice, It will produce during one revolution of oatmeal, or vegetables, such as cabbages, the system, of which the duration will turnips, spinach, beans, peas, &c. may be about three minutes, two returns of be substituted for 45 kilograms of po- light, increasing and decreasing, whose tatoes.

greatest intensity will be after about a M. M. Percy and Vauquelin were ap- a space of thirty seconds; these times of pointed to make the experiments on light will be separated by an eclipse of which the solution of these questions about a minute. rested, and they have published the re A vessel has lately been exhibited on sults in an interesting report on do- the Seine near Paris, which is impelled mestic economy. They have ascertain by wheels, like those attached to our ed that bread contains 80 nutritive steam-boats, but the wheels, instead of parts in 100; meal 34 in 100; French being moved by steam, are turned like a beans, 92 idem; common beans, 89 hand mill, by the strength of two men. idem ; peas, 93 idem ; lentils, 94 idem ; M. Auguste Sainte-Hilaire, a young cabbages and turnips, the most aqueous French naturalist, who is at present of all the vegetables compared, pro- travelling in Brazil 'for scientific purduced only eight pounds of solid matter poses, has lately transmitted to the in 100 pounds ; carrots and spinach pro- Jardin du Roi, at Paris, a number of duced 14 in the same quantity; whilst valuable curiosities, namely, 24 mam100 pounds of potatoes contain 25 malia, 131 birds, 255 crustaceous anipounds of dry substance. It must be mals and insects, 5 reptiles, and two recollected, that the solid parts, when packets of seeds. They are all in exseparated from the aqueous or humid cellent condition, and, with the excepparts, may contain a small quantity of tion of the seeds, will be arranged in the extractive or ligneous matter probably galleries of the Jardin du Roi. It is asunfit for food ; and next, that the same certained that upwards of one third of substances do not act uniformly on all the abovementioned curiosities were not stomachs, and are relatively inore or less hitherto to be found in any French col. nutritious. But as a general result, the lection, and many of them have never learned reporters estimate that one been described. pound of good bread is equal to two MM. Biot and Arago, Members of the pounds and a half, or three pounds of Institute, and the Bureau of Longitude, potatoes; that 75 pounds of bread and are gone to Dunkirk, where they in30 of meat, may be substituted for three tend, in concert with several English hundred pounds of potatoes. The other philosophers, to terminate their astronosubstances bear the following propor. mical observations for the measurement tions : four parts of cabbage to one of of the earth. potatges; three parts of turnips to one The West Indian plant, known by the idem ; two parts of carrots and spinach name of the Caribbee-cabbage, ( Arum to one iden; and about three parts and colocassia, L.) has "lately been successa half of potatoes to ope of rice, lentils, fully cultivated in the South of France." beans, French beans, and dry peas. Its roots supply the place of the patatoe New MONTHLY Mag. No. 58.

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