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person presenting it was in no immediate danger. The most remarkable, however, of the sacrifices of the Law, were the six and trespass offerings, both of which being designed to expiate sin aud to obtain pardon, were termed piacular. These two kinds of piacular sacrifice were again sub-divided : the former, into the definite sin offering, which was the same for the rich and the poor, and the vuriable sin otferings wbich was greater or less according to the ability of the offerer; the latter, into the doubtful trespass offering, made when it was only suspected that a sin had been committed, and the certain trespass offeriog, which was ordained in some cases of bodily defilement, as well as in expiation of moral offences. Our Author specifies the victims of which these various sacrifices were to consist, as well as the cases in which they were to be respectively offered by individuals; but he confesses himself utterly unable to state the difference between sins and trespasses. Between the two classes of sacrifices, however, there were several points of difference. The trespass offering always consisted of rams and heJambs: the blood was sprinkled on both sides of the altar, and it was presented only by individuals: the sin offering was never made of rams or he-lambs, the blood was put upon the horos of the altar, and it was made for the whole assembly of Israel. The sacrifices enjoined on the Israelitish nation, and offered by its representatives, were either stated or occasional. Of the latter sort were the bullock offered for a sin offering, when the people unwittingly violated a Divine prohibition; the kid for a sin offering, which, together with a bullock for a holo. caust, was offered when the people fell into idolatry; and the red heifer, which, though not preseuted before the altar, was yet a sin offering
The following enumeration is given of the stated sacrifices of the whole congregation.
• Every day were to be offered two lambs, one in the morning and the other in the evening," for a continual burnt offering.” To these daily victims were to be added, weekly, two other lambs, “ for the “ burnt offering of every sabbath.” At the commencement of every month, two young bullocks, one ram, and seven lambs, were to be sacrificed, as a burnt offering, and a kid for a sin offering. On each of the seven days of the paschal feast, the same sacrifices were to be offered as at the commencement of every month ; with the addi. tion, on the second day, on which the first fruits were consecrated by the wave sheaf, of another lamb for a burnt offering. On the feast of Pentecost also, the same sacrifices were to be offered as at the beginning of every month ; with the addition of one young bullock, two rams, and seven lambs for a burnt offering, two other lambs as peace offerings, and one kid for a sin offering. At the feast of Trumpets, which was the first day of the seventh month, were to be offered, beside the regular monthly victims, one young bullock, one
Outram on Sacrifices.
353 fam, and seven lambs for a burnt offering, and one kid for a sin offer: ing. The like sacrifices, without the monthly ones, were to be offered on the solemn day of atonement; and to them was to be added another ram for a burnt offering, and another goat, the most eminent of all the sacrifices, for a sin offering, whose blood was to be carried by the high priest into the inner sanctuary; which was not done with the blood of any other victim, except the bullock, which was offered the same day as a sin offering for the family of Aaron. On the first day of the feast of tabernacles, thirteen young bullocks, two rams, and fourteen lambs were to be offered as a burnt offering, and one kid for a sin offering. The like number of victims was to be offered on each of the next six days, except that the number of bullocks was to be one less on every successive day. The sacrifices for the eighth day of this festival were to be one bullock, one ram, and seven lambs for a burnt offering, and one goat for a sin offering.'
The sacrificial rites varied according to the sacrifices. Of these, the offering of the victim by the offerer's bringing it to the altar and putting his bands on its head--the sprinkling of the blood of the victims, in some cases in the tabernacle, in others, on the horns and at the sides of the great altar—and the burning of the carcases of some of the victims without the camp, are the most curious and instructive.
The circumstance, however, of the greatest interest in the ancient sacrifices, is the typical relation which they bad to the sacrifice of Christ. A type our Author defines, as a symbol . of something future, or an example prepared and evidently • designed by God to pre-figure that future thing, viz. the anti
type. All the Jewish sacrifices appear to have been typical, in this sense, of the Christian sacrifice, since, by the offering of himself, Jesus Christ superseded them all : the perfection required in the victims, represented his consummate virtues, and their death his dying. But the sacrifice of Christ was eminently the antitype of those victims whose carcases were burned without the camp, and whose blood was carried into the inner sanctuary. The most important respect in which the Jewish sacrifices typified the availing sacrifice, is this, that the efficacy of all of them was directed towards God. That the efficacy of the ancient sacrifices was directed towards God and not towards man, is a position vehemently impugned by those who reject the doce trine of atonement through the death of Christ. This main point Dr. Outram has taken great pains to establish. The arguments in favour of it, are drawn from the place at which sacrifice was offered, viz. the abode of the Divine presence-from the sacerdotal function which consisted in ministering to God, in transacting the affairs of men with God-from the circumstance that sacrifice partook of the nature of worship-from the sacrificial rites, viz. the imposition of hands upon the victim and devoting it to God, the putting the parts of it on the altar and sprinkling its blood toward the vail or the mercy-seat-and from the prayers used with the offerings; arguments which appear to us very cogent and satisfactory. While all the sacrifices of the Jews, by having respect to God, typified the perfect sacrifice, this was more especially typified by the piacular victims; they suffered a vicarious punishment. The piacular victim having the guilt of the sipper symbolically transferred upon it, became, on being put to death, the means of forgiveness to the offender; the transaction being designed to afford an apt representation of the Divine abhorrence of sin, and to impress a salutary reverence of the Divine authority. Nothing can be clearer than the vicarious nature of the piacular victims. Sin is uniformly represented in Scripture, as a taint which dreadfully defiled the sioner ; but when by imposition of hands, accompanied with confession of sins, the guilt was transferred to the animal, while that sustained the pollution the offerer was purified. This transfer of guilt from the offerer to the victim, was most conspicuous in the animals whose blood was offered in the sanctuary, and whose carcases were burned without the camp; but the principle of all piacular victims being the same, they must all be considered as of vicarious import. In corroboration of the arguments . adduced to prove that the efficacy of the sacrifices was directed to God, and that the piacular victims were of a vicarious naer ture, Dr. Outram has accumulated authorities illustrative of the concordant opinions held by both Jews and Heathen on their respective sacrifices, and by the ancient Christian writers concerning both.
The second Dissertation treats of the Sacrifice of Christ. The Author first insists upon his priesthood, as consisting in managing the cause of men with God, and thus differing from the prophetic and regal functions of Christ, which consisted in conducting the affairs of God with men; and as being of a different order from that which was constituted by the Law, inasmuch as he sprung not from the family to which the Law confined the priesthood, and inasmuch as he will exercise his office for ever. That Christ's priesthood is real and not figurative, is proved by numerous citations from Scripture, which bestow upon him that appellation, as well as by others, in which he is expressly said to perform the parts of the sacerdotal function. Christ was consecrated to the office of priest, not in the way of the Aaronic priests, but by those things which qualified him to exercise it effectually. In consequence of bis divinely consummate excellence, of the sanctity of his life, of his obedience in voluntarily submitting to death, he unites with immortal life, the greatest influence with God and the most intense affection to men,
Though the sacrifice which Christ, as a priest, offered God, collected in itself the reality of the shadowy virtues of all in the ancient sacrifices, it seems to belong more particularly to
the piacular class. Cbrist made the great sacrifice, in the view of our Author,' by his voluntary oblation of himself to a bloody death-by his death itself--and by his entering into heaven as a victim that had been slain.' Dr. Outram has attempted to explain how each of these branches of the sacrificial work of Christ, contributes to our salvation. By the first, in which Christ sustained the part of the offerer, being our representative, as well as that of the victim, while he confirmed the truth of his doctrine, and afforded an example of obedience to God and charity to men, he obtained sovereign dominion from the Divine Father, and with Him supreme influence, which influence constitutes the efficacy of his priesthood. The second--the death which he endured as a piacular victim, was a vicarious panishment, by which he procured remission for the sins of men. vicarious design is proved from the Scriptures. The Author's reasoning under both these heads, is supported by much judicious criticism, and appears to us solid and conclusive ; but he has indulged in some rather crude and we think unwarrantable speculation on the remission of sins effected by the sacrifice of Christ. The inaccuracies into which he has fallen on this point, (and they are almost the only objectionable passages that occur in this accurate treatise,) arose, apparently, from his not sufficiently considering the propitiatory sacrifice of Christ, in the light of a grand and extraordinary expedient to reconcile the exercise of justice and mercy-to maintain the authority of the Divine administration, while sinful creatures are raised to the fruition of immortality. The third thing by which Christ accomplished his sacrifice, was his entering into the celestial sanctuary, and presenting himself as a slain victim to God, with the design of commending us and our services to the Father. In this way, he became the reality of what was pre-figured by the entrance on the day of annual expiation of the high priest under the Law, into the inner sanctuary, where he sprinkled the blood of the piacular victims and commended the people to God. The arguments adduced in this concluding chaper, to prove that Christ presented hiinself in heaven as a piacular victim, previously slain, will be found to be stated with great precision and force.
An Index of the principal matters, an Index of Texts, and a List of Notes added by the Translator, are judiciously given at the end of the volume.
Art. V. 1. A Letter to Sir Samuel Romilly, M.P. From Henry
Brougham, Esq. M.P. F.R.S. Upon the Abuse of Charities. Fourth Edition, 8vo. pp. 68. Price 23. 6d. 1818. 2. An Appendix to the above, pp. 104. Price 3s. 1818, WE know not what effect this cool but keen remonstrance
may have upon the minds of certain right honourable personages ; probably none. That courageous defiance of public opinion, that inflexible adherence to the blindest measures, that nagnanimous subordination of moral to financial considerations, which have been repeatedly manifested by the dominant party of statesmen, leave us no room to anticipate any good result from the disclosures made by this publication, except so far as the public voice shall compel some ungracious and reluctant concession On this account it does seem material,' how unparliamentary soever be the mode adopted by Mr. Brougham,
that the subject should be fairly laid before the Country, without waiting for the meeting of Parliament.'
The Writer of this Letter is somewhat too prominently and avowedly perhaps a party man; too much so to gain implicit credit for the upsophisticated patriotism of his motives, or the disinterestedness of his resentment. We must say, however, that nothing can seem more fair and upright, and honourable and conciliatory, than the whole of his conduct as a member of the Education Committee of the House of Commons. We be. lieve him when he declares that he was peculiarly solicitous to
avoid every thing which might seem to proceed from party ! attachments or dislikes.' He confidently appeals for the truth of this assertion to His Majesty's ministers, with whom from time to time be bad occasion to communicate on the subject. The Education Committee, whose organ he was in bringing the Bill for a Parliamentary Commission before the House, was composed of above forty members, taken indiscriminately from all parts of the House, and a real and complete unanimity attended all their procceedings. The Bill was itself submitted to the highest legal authority in the House of Lords, as well as to the Secretary of State for the Home Department, and the most important alterations were submitted to, with the hope of rendering it palatable to the Minister. So material were these alterations, that if the framers of the Bill are liable to any charge, it is, as Mr. Brougham remarks, 'to • the imputation of having surrendered too many of the pro• visions originally made in it.?
As the Bill at first stood, the Commissioners were to be named in it. The Ministers proposed that the appointment should be vested in the Crown; that is in themselves. To this important alteration the Committee with extreme reluctance submitted rather than as.