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come to exist between the favourite singer and the || by a sort of instinct to exerciso the talents we poshabitual frequenters of the opera. Pleasure of all sess; though, if it had been otherwise, the partiality kinds is sure to beget in finer natures gratitude to- || and weakness of biographers would probably havo wards the bestowers of it; and it was impossible to induced thein to invent the circumstance. It is not have listened whole seasons to Jenny Lind without our intention to describe minutely all the events having experienced extraordinary delight, and some and incidents of Jenny Lind's life, for which we degree of attachment, at least, to her who had so refer our readers to the ordinary biographies. Our profusely scattered it. When brought face to face, object rather is to explain under what influences therefore, for the last time, the great singer and she made her appearance, and by what fortunate the public could not but experience extraordinary chain of accidents she was led to make the stage sensations. Partings are proverbially painful; but her profession. when they are supposed to be for ever--when you It is impossible to glance over her biography think you are listening to the tones of a beloved without discovering a striking resemblance between voice which you shall never more listen to againthe scenes and adventures through which she passed all the best feelings of your nature come actively and those related by Madame Sand of her heroine into play, and aid in swelling the sympathy of the Consuelo. Jenny Lind, indeed, had not to start moment. Many of those present remembered from so depressed a point in the social scale. Her indeed, it was but two years before—when, after parents, as we have said, were respectable, while long expectation, they had first heard Jenny Lind Consuelo emerged from rags and infamy to struggle in the very part which, with greatly more developed with difficulties, to put her virtues and patient genpowers, she was then playing before them—that, tleness to the test, and overcoming all, achieved for ve mean, of “ Lucia di Lammermoor.” The brief herself ultimately a lofty and envied place in sointerval of time was forgotten, and though the ciety. Jenny Lind's biography has, properly speakstranger from Stockholm had been almost by inter-ing, not yet been written ; but we know that it was course converted into a friend, they looked upon her to an actress who accidentally heard her sing that as an unexpected visitant to our shores, and greeted she owed her introduction to the world. This acher with repeated and rapturous bursts of ap- tress was Madame Lundberg, who urged upon her plause, which altogether overcame her sensibility, parents the propriety of having her instructed in and melted her into tears.
music, and devoting her ultimately to the stage. No incidents of this kind are wanting to establish But how came Madame Lundberg acquainted with the philosophic truth that pleasure is a great re
the schoolmaster and his wife, who, it is said, enfiner and purifier of our nature. The difference, tertained a peculiar aversion for theatres? Was it indeed, between the savage and the civilised man only to the houses themselves that they objected, consists chiefly in their different appreciations of while they delighted to live on terms of intimacy pleasure. Much has been written respecting the with those who acted in them and lived by them? ultimate designs of art-particularly of the highest Some day, perhaps, these points may be cleared up. form of it, poetry—and it has been not unfrequently At present the whole of this part of Jenny Lind's pretended that, in order to justify its claims, it must life lies enveloped in the thick mist of accident. be shown to have an ethical purpose. In a certain Everything in this world is accidental, but we sense, this, no doubt, is true. Whatever imparts should be glad to be informed what was the nature dignity or beauty to our nature, whatever softens of the accident which brought Lind and his wife the heart, whatever gives a wider range to our acquainted with Maulame Lundberg, and how it nobler and more beautiful sympathies, is ethical. came to pass that she took so deep an interest in Pedants in philosophy, however, too often deny the fate of the littlo school girl. this epithet to pleasure, which, whether ethical or It commonly happens that the life of persons of not, is the end and aim of our being. For pleasure genius passes at first under a thick cloud, which apis brief happiness, and happiness is protracted pears to be dispersed, and is met by the retroactive pleasure. The wisest speculators, therefore, on inquiries of future years. Parents and friends, uuhuman nature, though they may have differed about observant at the time, get up a sort of artificial rethe term, have all agreed about the truth, that collection of what they suppose themselves to have pleasure is the supreme good of humanity, which it noticed, when their child emerges into celebrity. refines, purifies, and elevates, so as to confer upon This has rendered many sceptical respecting the it ultimately something of a divine character. infantine exhibition of genius which many reinark
To administer this kind of pleasure Jemy Lind | able persons, and Jenny Lind among the number, has devoted her whole life. Looking back to her are said to have made. At three years of age, we early and obscure career in Sweden, we find that are told, she already began to display her foudness she was the daughter of poor but respectable pa- for singing, and gradually learned to execute some rents, who earned their livelihood by keeping a of the old airs of her country; but what we should school. Whether or not singing was taught by like to know is this, were her father or her mother them is not said. Jenny, however, from the first musical ? Was the music of those airs breathed years after emerging from infancy, begau to put about hier cradle? Was it from the gentle maternal forth the treasures of her voice, with which she lips that she heard the old Swedish melodies ringing consoled herself for the drudgery which must every and lumming round her before she could speak? where be the lot of the children of the poor. It is or was it some neighbours, some aunt, some distant mery natural to suppose that this must have been relative, who, living in the house, and associating ble case, because we are all, more or less, impelled familjarly with the family, first shıcd into Jeuny's
mind the seeds of music, and thus laid the founda- || tax beyond means the powers of the voice or mind tion of that wonderful celebrity which she has now is to make imminent risk of destroying them, acquired?
which the wise men of Stockholm very nearly aeHitherto there may be said to be no aneedotes complished for Jenny Lind. They placed her in in circulation respecting the early period of Jenny a hot-bed of adulation and excitement. They i Lind's life, though many, doubtless, will be recol- || amused themselves by those displays which were lected or invented. It is said that she softened the rapidly undermining her constitution, mental and hours of sickness or toil by singing. But what was physical ; and it seems to us extremely probable her sicknesses and what was her toil? When the that it was the consciousness of this that made old illness of a child is severe, it seldom takes refuge Croelius relinquish the instruction of his youthful in music, and, least of all, in singing; whereas, if pupil, being, probably, determined that if she was its labours be not altogether disproportioned to its to be ruined it should at least be by others. The strength, nothing is inore common than to hear it post relinquished by this Porpora of the North was accompany them with a song. So far, therefore, accepted by Herr Berg, who is said to have been there is nothing at all remarkable in what is related deeply versed in the science of music, and to him, of Jenny Lind's childhood. But the fault, we fully we are told, Jenny Lind is chiefly indebted for her believe, is in the biographers, and not in the sub-profound acquaintance with the principles of this ject, for though it sometimes happens that remark- science. It may be so, but in our opinion a girl of able persons have not made an early display often years old is little qualified to penetrate into the their faculties, the rule is that they should be un- principles of any science whatsoever. The probability common from the beginning, and evident to all who is, that he carried on with more severity the system have the quickness to observe indications of their of discipline cominenced by Croelius, and so far coming powers.
proved his inferiority to that master. At any rate, In one of Jenny Lind's biographies it is prettily Jenny Lind was expected to produce more material said that the spell of song was upon her from her results than her constitution would permit, and by birth, and then the writer goes on to relate that by the assistance of Herr Berg and Count Puche she the advice of Mrs. Lundberg, the actress already was forced into a premature development which mentioned, Jenny was placed under the care of nearly deprived the world for ever of one of its Croelius, a well-known teacher of music at Stock- / greatest singers. holm. But to whom is he well known? Not to It would be extremely valuable to possess Jenny the English public certainly, though, in relation to Lind's own account of this period of her life, and Jenny Lind, he may hold the same place that if she possess that devotion to her art, for which Porpora, in Madame Sand's novel, holds towards we are inclined to give her credit, it may be hoped Consuelo. But in this case we should like to know that she will, ere long, in the interest of music and something of his previous career; who were bis for the encouragement and guidance of others, deother pupils, and what contributions he has made, || scribe those varied processes by which her ovm if any, to the stock of the world's music. It may || vocal powers were ripened at the risk of being at be that this ignorance is peculiar to ourselves, terly annihilated. Throughout Europe at the prebut in no account that we have seen of Jenny Lind sent moment no idea is more prevalent than that have we met with any explanation of Croelius's po- of converting children into wonders. It pervades sition. That he was acquainted with convention- our schools, it regulates the proceedings of our eolally great people appears from the narrative, since leges and universities. Nor is it of recent date. he is said to have made known his young prodigy || The schools, says Helvetius, are filled with clever to Count Pucho, the manager of the Court theatre | boys, and the world with very foolish men. Milton in the Swedish capital. Nobility is a cheap thing also, in his day, complained that the pedantie in those countries, and accepts mcuial and trivial || teachers of youth were in the habit, as he forcibly offices about the person of the prince, for which rea- expresses it, of wringing blood from the noses of son we cannot be at all surprised at finding a count their pupils, or, in other words, of torturing them a stage manager. It is one of the most respecta- | into displays, which at best were mere delusions, ble situations a nobleman can fill at court, and may which frequently proved fatal to those who made possibly emancipate him from the necessity of un. them. Jenny Lind was on the point of adding to the dertaking others infinitely less honourable. list of those victims. It was not to be expected that
Already, at the early age of nine years, did she, herself, should be aware of the fearful process Jenny's voice possess the power of exciting emotion, going on within her, which, had not nature fortuwhich is the most distinguishing quality of it now. nately interposed, might have consigned her to a Count Puche, with that exaggerated enthusiasm premature grave. For three years Herr Berg, which belongs to nearly all foreigners, especially in with an ignorance of human nature, fully equal, at what relates to music, professed to be transported least, to his knowledge of music, incited his youth. by it; and with that wrong judgment, which is the ful pupil to unremitting exertion, at the end of habitual accompaniment of false enthusiasm, pre- / which period, suddenly, without any visible cause, cipitated Jenny Lind into the acting of parts well Jenny Lind became voiceless altogether. She was enough calculated, indeed, to display her youthful then twelve years old, and her form unfitted her to powers, but still better calculated to blast them. shine in those children's parts, in which she had In all kinds of study the aiming at premature dis- | hitherto distinguished herself, while she was, of tinction is almost always fatal to lasting fame, and course, altogether unfit for those representations of music forms no exception to the general rule. To womanhood which required fully developed form
and mind. But the connoisseurs of Stockholm || studies. Habitually gentle and reserved, she dewere blind to the indications of nature, and applied | voted ten hours every day to music, besides three every kind of excitement to re-invigorate the flagging hours, during which she performed in the evening, powers of her mind. To no purpose. Jenny, as and with this laborious life she was as happy and far as concerned singing, was dumb.
light-hearted as a bird. Under the influence of If it be true that the distinguished singer is now the sombre skies of the north, Jenny Lind may the vietim of nervous sensibility, we may fearlessly have been equally cheerful, though her gaiety must trace it to the influence of those injudicious friends have had less of sunshine in it, for the mind, after who had charge of her youthful years. Not content all
, is more or less a mirror which reflects faithfully to keep pace with nature, they sought to engraft a the accidents and circumstances surrounding it. woman's powers on the physical constitution of a To be a prima donna at sixteen is to occupy one girl, to awaken emotions the organic power to ex. of the most dangerous positions in which a woman press which nature had not yet given, and alto- can be placed. Dangerous we mean in every sense gether to invert, as it were, the chronology of life, of the word, for if she escaped that moral contagion by opening the floodgates of passions before nature which is too frequently found diffused through the had provided channels for carrying off the torrent. theatrical world, she may yet be attracted and Nothing could be more interesting or more valu. overcome by that other contagion which, without able, in a philosphical point of view, than a full and injuring the character in a conventional point of frank revelation of the feelings of a child of genius view, subverts, nevertheless, all its better qualities, under such circumstances. But we have no exam- and deprives it of all grace and loveliness. Jenny ple of such a relation on record. The nearest ap- Lind triumphed over all these temptations, and reproach to it is that of Madame Roland, who, how-|| mained—and remains, we believe, to this hourever, trusted to the inspiration of memory, and gentle, modest, unassuming person, full of genius may, nay, must, have attributed to herself in her and tenderness, and equally full of that grace and early years ideas which never could have been humility which confer on genius its greatest charms, awakened in her till a much later period.
Properly speaking, her education as an actress had At twelve years old Jenny Lind may be said to now to commence. She had never bestowed the have touched upon the critical period of her life. || usual attention on the performance of tragic parts, She had to pass through the interval which sepa- || and, when that of Agatha was entrusted to her, is rates the child from the woman. Should she be said to have remained during the rehearsal so imsuffered to traverse it wisely, that is, silently, with- || moveable, that the actors all trembled for the reout making any more foolish effort to antedate the sult. But nothing is more certain than that differ, gift of time? Or should she be made the victiment persons have very different modes of acquaintof the vanity of those around her, who, to displaying themselves with the duties demanded of them. the effects of their own system of teaching, were Some require to go through a sort of dull discipline obviously ready to offer her up on the altar of their and reach the goal by incessant repetitions, while self-love? Fortunately, it was found that she could others spend their time in measuring the distance not, at that time, sing at all, and so they left her | between them and the object to be attained, and to herself, and suffered her physical system to ac- then reach it by a single bound. Jenny Lind is quire strength, and her mind, in comparative soli- one of these, When the moment of performance tude, to generate those habits which, under the arrived she proved herself altogether equal to her name of virtues and talents, have since charmed || part, and excited public admiration and enthusiasın the world. At this period of her life it seems to to the highest pitch. have been Jenny Lind's greatest ambition to per- And here again we feel painfully the extreme form the part of Agatha in Weber's opera of “ Der meagreness of details in the published biographies Freischutz." Upon this part, therefore, it is proba- | of Jenny Lind. This absolute barrenness some ble she bestowed much silent study and meditation, attempted to conceal by swelling and extravagant in the hope of being one day enabled to command phrases, which, however, it must be obvious, cannot that applause which is the very breath of life to mend the matter. What we want are details, and the lovers of fame.
these have not yet been given. We know that When four years had elapsed in this comparative the girl of sixteen got by degrees to be eighteen, eelipse, it happened that a young person was want- but there is very little other important information ing to sing the solo in Meyerbeer's opera of “Roberto to be acquired on the subject, with the exception of il Diavolo," and the good-natured, though injudi- | one fact which, for good reasons, we shall notice cious, Herr Berg bethought him of his neglected | briefly:-The celebrated Garcia was at that time papil. The thing in itself was of little importance ; //esteemed the best musical teacher in Europe, and but Jenny Lind acquitted herself so well in it, || Jenny Lind, whose voice had not yet acquired or that the entire part of Agatha, in “Der Freischutz,"regained all its sweetness and flexibility, earnestly was shortly afterwards assigned to her, and she desired to study for a short time under him. But enjoyed an engagement as prima donna in the he was unfortunately in Paris, and funds were opera of Stockholm. This was at the age of sixteen. / wanting for the journey. Under these circumstanWe have known in Italy a prima donna of eighteen, || ces, Jenny applied to no patron, not even to the who, whatever may have been her subsequent fate, || Government, which is the usual resource, in semiwas no less devoted to her profession than Jenny || despotic states. Her independent spirit urged her Lind herself, except when some gust of wild and to rely on her own exertions. In company with Stormy passion came to disturb the tenor of her | her father she made the tour of Sweden and Nor
way, singing at the principal cities and towns at actresses was no doubt extensive, and as there is concerts, and thus collected the means of defraying nothing on earth more wayward than a woman of her expenses to the French capital. This indicates genius, except 'a' genius of the other sex, he may a vigorous and masculine spirit, and does Jenny have found it necessary to make use of very peLind as much honour as anything in her subse- remptory language to keep their ebullitions and quent career, 1
extravagance within bounds. Besides, he judged 1. But this interesting tour, doubtless, gave birth to of all womankind by the warm daughters of the many letters to mamma, and other dear friends at south, whose impetuous temperaments would easily Stockholm, which, if they have been preserved, may allow them to bear pungent remarks and forhereafter throw light on the most remarkable and
But upon the gentle, retired, modest eventful period of her life. In that resolution, so woman of the north, this fell with almost crushing firmly carried out, she really set an example to all severity. He told her what, no doubt, was true professional persons. It was not in her nature to that she had nearly ruined her voice by premature become a parasite of the wealthy or powerful. She efforts and too constant exertion; that it was, coufelt that it was within her competence to provide sequently, in many respects defective, and that she for herself; and as of all fruits those of industry must pass some months in absolute rest before he are the sweetest, she doubtless experienced, during could decide whether it would be practicable for her journey to Paris, a delight almost altogether her to proceed with her profession or not. With without alloy. Having no relative who could ac- this comfortless announcement Jenny returned to company her on the projected journey, her father her lodgings, where, in tears and incessant longings being detained apparently by paramount duties at for Stockholm, she passed the prescribed period. Stockholm, she set out alone, as many an honour- If we now turn back, and compare the opinions able and courageous woman has done before, feel. of Jenny's Swedish masters with the ideas of ing within herself the conviction that a woman Garcia, we shall possibly be perplexed for an eris never unprotected when she respects herself. planation. The former were all admiration and
The history of Jenny Lind's residence in Paris enthusiasm, predicting wonders which time has has a sort of tragi-comic aspect, difficult to describe. now verified ; the latter all coldness and discou. To her, for a time, was productive of nothing ragement, since, at best, he never imagined she but vexation and deep anguish; but, now that it is would rise above mediocrity. To account for these past, it is difficult to avoid laughing when we think differences, we must not imagine that Croelias and of the solemn pedantry of Garcia, who no doubt Herr Berg were generous, and Garcia envious. By ! thought himself a person of as great importance in
The real cause of the discrepancy mast this nether world as the founder, or saviour, of an be sought for in those national idiosyncrasies to empire! If our readers have ever looked into the which we have already referred; since, in all likelidelightful memoirs of Gozzi, they will remember hood, Garcia was incapable of experiencing that the comic style in which that jovial old Venetian enthusiastic delight which northern auditors feel describes the life he led among the actresses ; how in listening to Jenny Lind. He had been accushe taught them their parts; how he explained to tomed all his life to a different kind of voice-to a them difficult passages; how he cducated the igno- voice composed of other elements, and addressing rant; how he subdued the angry and the passionate; itself to different emotions and sympathies. Hence how he reconciled the quarrelsome--in one word, he may have been unaffectedly surprised at her how he cast oil on the troubled waters which rolled great success, as she herself is said to have been. within the precincts of dramatic lifo. In his little This view of the matter is rendered still more scenic commonwealth he was as great, in his own probable by what took place shortly afterwards estimation, as Solon or Lycurgus in their respective with Meyerbeer. This great musical composer, republics; and so precisely was it with Garcia. He belonging to the same race with Jenny Lind hersaw musical pupils flowing unto him from all parts self, and possessing, consequently, similar mental of the civilised world, and regarded himself as a structure, saw and felt at once what Gareia could great legislator, whose business it was to give laws neither see nor feel. This ethnological affinity once to the principal amusement of modern society. presupposed, the apparent anomalies in Jenny
We can casily imagine the respective faces of Lind's career became perfectly intelligible. MeyerJenny Lind and Garcia during their first interview. beer heard her sing in three several operas_Ro“ Jenny, all timidity and breathless anxiety, looked berto il Diavolo," "Norma," and "Der Freisup eagerly, no doubt, into the eyes of the musical chutz,” from which, perceiving the extent of her autocrat, upon whose decision, in some sort, de. powers and the exquisite grace and felicity of ber® pended her fate. She sung before him, with deeply execution, he invited her into Prussia, with a excited sensibility, and did her very worst as a flattering offer for the Berlin theatre. But the matter of course. Apprehension must have almost sweetest fame is that which we taste at home choked her utterance, yet the worthy oll dictator among those who know and love us. Gil Blas passed judgment upon that single exhibition, and, felt this when he returned to act the fine gentiewith a sang froid which nothing but the most pro- man in his native village. But the townsmen of found self-conceit could confer, informed her that the Spanish adventurer were much less generous she had no voice, or at least was about to lose the than those of the Swedish singer, as Jening Lind one she had. It is difficult to judge of a man or experienced on revisiting Stockholm, where she his motives without having been placed in a similar was received with increased admiration, position. Garcia's acquaintance with singers and The fonduess for music becomes a passion only
by-indulgence, and by having no loftier object to and her rich and animated Spanish features glowed interest the feelings. In Stockholm this passion with pride and confidence as she listened to the adwould seem occasionally to degenerate into a rage miration of the house. It was genuine, and she which renders men incapable of appreciating what felt it; and continually, from that day forward, they hear, and makes them think and act like rose in the estimation of the public, till she stood in children. Still, when the result of any taste is to Europe without a rival. Her sudden and lamented produce disinterestedness and generosity, we can- death in the midst of her fame, when public adminot withhold from it our praise. The listening to | ration was at the highest, will long be looked back Jenny Lind soon became a pleasure of which the to with regret. good people of Stockholm could not voluntarily When Madame Pasta performed, for example, cousent to be deprived, and therefore the wealthy | in “Medea,” it is impossible to exaggerate the bankers of the city conceived a plan by which they || pleasure she afforded to all true lovers of music hoped to attach her permanently to her native or the drama. In singing she excelled all her conplace. They offered annually to deposit a conside-| temporaries ; in acting she equalled Mrs. Siddons, rable sum for ten years, by which time it would as far, at least, as the range of the opera enabled amount to a large fortune. But though touched her to suggest a parallel. If in a certain sense she by this mark of the respect and sympathy of her was less popular than Jenny Lind, it is to be accountrymen, the singer was urged by ambition to counted for by anything rather than the supposition display her talents in the various capitals of Europe, of an inferiority. Madame Pasta was probably inand to gather laurels more valuable and enduringferior to no one that ever sung, and her acting was than the Stockholmers, with all their enthusiasm, incontestably superior to anything ever beheld on could bestow.
the opera boards. Yet in the voice and manner of We shall not attempt to accompany Jenny Lind || Jenny Lind there is something more congenial to on her peregrinations through Germany, or to copy the taste and feelings of the English people. Her the exaggerated style in which her performances voice is altogether sui generis. Words convey no there are spoken of. She visited Dresden, Berlin, || idea of tones and cadences, and cannot enable those and Vienna, and in the dominions of the King of to judge who have not themselves listened. EmoPrassia displayed her powers before the Queen of|tion has no lengthened vocabulary, and criticism England. What, perhaps, was far more flattering | exhausts itself in vain in the attempt to give perto her, Henrietta Sontag, now Countess de Rossi, manence to those forms of art which are more fleet. pronounced her to be the first singer of the age. || ing than a summer cloud. In all other creations Compliments like these often mean nothing, and of genius, the type of the idea exists without the are taken for what they are worth. But we be- | mind, and though it cannot suggest procisely the lieve the Countess Rossi is an earnest and sincere same conceptions to all, it remains to be appealed woman, and, having herself been the wonder of to and consulted by one generation after another. her day, and enjoyed her full share of praise, may But the merit of a singer is an affair of testimony. be supposed to have spoken frankly of one with You can embody it in nothing, not even in language. whom she could have no rivalry.
You express yourself pleased, gratified, intoxicated, To Mr. Alfred Bunn belongs the merit of having if you will, with delight—when you have rung the conceived the idea of bringing Jenny Lind to Eng-changes a thousand times on this fact, the expresland. He entered into an engagement with her, || sion is all you have accomplished. which, as is well known, did not terminate fortu- Connected with Jenny Lind's stay in England, nately. But into the details of their disagreement there is, however, something else to be observedwe shall not enter, since the people are already fa- | she filled a larger space in the public mind than Iriliar with them.
any other artist of any class whatsoever. In every The career of Jenny Lind in England was that society her name was mentioned.
While the rage which imparted completeness to her reputation. | continued, you never went into company without She herself felt that she had achieved nothing till hearing discussions of her merits, which were someshe had charmed a British audience. Berlin, times carried on with as much vehemence and anger Dresden, and Vienna were forgotten in the blaze as a theological controversy. Much of this is to be of London. Here her powers grew up to maturity, accounted for by vanity. Those who had heard and here she took her leave of the stage. To describe Jenny Lind fancied themselves superior in some the effect of her singing upon the public would be respects to those who had not, and it was thought impossible. But they are altogether deceived who a great distinction to have met her in private. imagine it is unlike what has taken place before in We remember to have seen a Swedish author who, the case of other singers. Madame Catalani ex- || during his visit to London, chiefly attracted attencited, in her day, precisely the same kind of admi- tion by the fact that he was acquainted, very ration ; so also did Madame Pasta. The triumphs slightly, perhaps, with Jenny Lind. of Malibran, as more recent, will be better remem- But this folly by no means touches the great bered. We were at the Opera House when this singer herself, who seems to have preserved altogesaperb singer, the daughter of Garcia, made her ther the balance of her mind, and never to have debût, in company with her father, in the “ Barber been puffed up for a moment by what would have of Seyille.” The applause she excited was not sufficed to ruin a thousand other performers. very great, yet there were those present who, in Numerous anecdotes are related to prove the kindthe half-shrinking and timid girl, then foresaw ness and goodness of her nature, but no one is what the woman would be. She was just sixteen, | more characteristic than the following, which, we