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the circuit. 3d. The register-An instrument which “My GOOD WIFE.--Although I wrote to thee last receives and records the numbers sent by the port- week, yet, having so fit opportunity, I must needs rule from any distant station. 41h. A dictionary, write to thee again; for I do esteem one liule, sweet, containing a complete vocabulary of all the words short letter of thine, (such as the last was,) to be in the English language regularly numbered. well worthy two or three from me.

The communication which we saw made through “I began this letter yesterday at two o'clock, a distance of two miles was the following sentence: thinking to have been large, but was so taken up by " Railroad-cars just arrived, 345 passengers. These company and business, as I could get but hither by “ words were put into numbers from the dictionary; this morning. It grieves me that I have not liberty the numbers were set up in the telegraphick type in to make better expression of my love to thee, who about the same time ordinarily occupied in setting art more dear to me than all earthly things; but I up the same in a printing office. They were then will endeavour that my prayers may supply the deall passed complete by the portrule in about half a fect of my pen, which will be of use to us both, inasminute, each stroke of the lever of the portrule at much as the favour and blessing of God are better one extremity marking on the register at the other, than all things besides. a distance of two miles instantaneously. We “I know thou lookest for troubles here, and when watched the spark at one end, and the inark of the one affliction is over, to meet with another ; but repencil at the other, and they were as simultaneous member our Saviour tells us, •Be of good comfort ; as if the lever itself had struck the mark. The I have overcome the world. Therefore, my sweet marks or numbers were easily legible, and by means wise, raise up thy heart, and be not dismayed at the of the dictionary were resolved again into words. crosses thou meetest with in family affairs or other

The superiority of this telegraph over all hither-wise ; but still fly to Him who will take up thy burto invented is, that day or night, in clear or in foggy den for thee. Go thou on cheerfully, in obedience weather, intelligence can be sent instantaneously. to his holy will, in the course he hath set thee. The advantages to the government and the country Peace shall come. I commend thee and all thine of such a means of communication are incalculable. to the greacious protection and blessing of the Lord.

Morristown Jerseyman. Farewell, my good wife. I kiss and love thee

with the kindest affection, and rest

“Thy faithful husband,


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“ Most LOVING AND GOOD HUSBAND.-I have re(From a Boston paper.]



letters. The true tokens of your love Between the first Governour of Massachusetts and his wife, and care of my good, now in your absence, as well about the year 1628.

as when you are present, make me think that saying “ My MOST. SWEET HUSBAND.—How dearly wel. false, . Out of sight, out of mind.' I am sure my come thy kind letter was to me, I am not able to heart and thoughts are always near you, to do you express.' The sweetness of it did much refresh me. good, and not evil

, all the days of my life.' I rejoice What can be more pleasing to a wife, than to hear in the expectation of our happy meeting ; for thy of the welfare of her best belored, and how he is absence has been very long in my conceit, and thy pleased with her poor endeavours ! Idush to hear presence much desired. Thy welcome is always myself commended, knowing my own wants. But ready ; make haste to entertain it. it is your love that conceives the best, and makes “ And so I bid my good husband farewell, and all things seem better than they are. I wish that commit him to the Lord. I may be always pleasing to thee, and that those

“Your loving and obedient wife, comforts we have in each other may be daily in

“ MARGARET WINTHROP. creased, as far as they may be pleasing to God. I will use that speech to thee, that Abigail did to David ; ‘I will be a servant to wash the feet of


lord.' I will do any service wherein I may please my good husband. I consess I cannot do enough for thee;

PRINCIPAL EVENTS OF 1837. but thou art pleased to accept the will for the deed,

[From the New Yorker.) and rest contented.

Jan. 3. Wreck of the ship Mexico, of New York—108 lives lost. “I have many reasons to make me love thee,

15. Great fire at St. John, New Brunswick. Loss $1,000,000 whereof I will name two : first, because thou lovest 30. Jaffa, in Palestine, destroyed by an earthquake, and 13,

If God; and secondly, because thou lovest me.

000 inhabitants buried beneath the ruins. these two were wanting, all the rest would be Feb. 9. Votes for President counted at Washington-MARTIN

VAN BUREN declared elected.-No choice for Vice eclipsed. But I must leave this discourse, and go

President: RICHARD M. JOHNSON elected by the Sen

ate-33 to 16. about my household affairs. I am a bad housewife

22. English ship Jane and Margaret for New York, wrecked to be so long from them ; but I must needs borrow a

on the Isle of Man-206 lives lost. little time to talk with thee, my sweetheart. I hope Mar. 1. Resolution in favour of recognising the Independence of

Texas passed the U. S. Senate, by a vote of 23 to 19. thy business draws to an end. It will be but two

4. Martin Van Buren and Richard M. Johnson inaugurated. or three weeks before I see thee, though they be 6. Treaty with the Florida Indians concluded by Gen. long ones. God will bring us together in his good


15. The Queen's English and Spanish forces under Evans tiine ; for which I shall pray.

defeated by the Carlists near St. Sebastian : loss 1000. "Farewell my good husband; the Lord keep thee.

31. The President of Mexico protests against the recog. " Your obedient wife,

nition of Texas.

Apr. 3. Great snow-storm at St. Louis, snow deeper than evet “ MARGARET WINTHROP.”



Apr. 8. Great fire at New Orleans-107 houses destroyed.

MINISTERS PLENIPOTENTIARY. 11. Snow in England and France-season backward every

Salary where.

Andrew Stevenson, Va. England, London 1836 $9,006 17. Mexican brig-of-war, captured by U. S. sloop-of-war Lewis Cass, Ohio Fiance, Paris

1836 9,000 Natches.

John H. Eaton,
Spain, Madrid

1836 9,000 27. Fire in Detroit-70 buildings and much property de George M. Dallas, Pa. Russia, St. Petersburgh 1837 9,000 stroyed.

Henry Wheaton, R. I. Prussia, Berlin

1837 9,000 May. 4. Agricultural Bank of Mississippi suspends specie pay. Powhatan Ellis, Miss. Mexico, Mexico

1837 9,000

Charges d'Affaires.-Edward Kavanagh, Portugal; Auguste 9. Steamboat Ben Sherrod burnt on the Mississippi—175 Davezac, Holland; Virgil Maxcy, Belgium; Christopher Hughes, lives lost.

Sweden; J. F. Woodside, Denmark; David Porter, Turkey; 10. New York city Banks suspend specie payments, follow- R. B. McAfee, New Grenada ; J. G. A. Williamson, Venezuela;

ed by general suspension. The heavy failures in this William Hunter, Brazil ; Charles G. De Witt, Central America; city alone, for two months preceding, had exceeded Richard Pollard, Chili; James B. Thornton, Peru: Alcee La 300; in Boston, 78.

Branche, Texas. 15. The President calls an extra session of Congress.

OTHER CHIEF OFFICERS. Sept. 4. 16. Bank' suspension authorized by the New York Legis- James K. Polk, Speaker of the House of Representatives. lature.

Alexander Maconib, Major-General and General-in-Chief, Wash. 17. Advantages gained by the Queen's troops in Spain. ington. 19. War declared by Buenos Ayres against Peru.

Edward P. Gaines, Brigadier-General West Division, Jefferson June 3. Queen's troops under Gen. Oraa defeated by the Carlists. Barracks, Mo. Destructive tornado in Dutchess county, &c.

Winfield Scott, Brig.-Gen. Eastern Division, Elizabethtown, N.J. 10. Plague ravages Smyrna-300 deaths daily.

Isaac Chauncey, Pres't. of Board Navy Coinmissioners 3,500 11. Riot between firemen and Irishmen in Boston.

Charles Morris

3,500 15. Disastrous inundation at Baltimore-25 lives lost. A. S. Wadsworth

Associate Members of do. {

3,500 20. Death of William IV. of England, after a reign of six John Campbell Treasurer

3,000 years. Thomas L. Smith Register

3,000 21. Victoria, daughter of the Duke of Kent, proclaimed Aaron S. Dayton Chief Clerk in State Department 2,000 Queen, aged 18.

M'Clintock Young

do. Treasury do. 2,000 July 4. Cholera at Naples, carrying off 400 daily; since April, J. A. Cochran


do. 2,000 12,000. Rages also at Palermo and throughout the John Boyle

do. Navy do.

2,000 south of Italy.

George Wolfe First Comptroller of the Treasury 3,500 19. Railroad from Baltimore to Wilmington formally opened. Albion K. Parris Second do.

do. 3,000 21. Political commotion in Mexico.

Jesse Miller
First Auditor

3,000 Aug. 2. Great hurricane in the West Indies for several days.

Wm. B. Lewis Second do.

do. 3,000 11. Cars run against each other on Norfolk Railroad-3 Peter Hagner Third do.

do. 3,000 killed.

J. C. Pickett
Fourth do.

do. 3,000 14. Fire at Washington, Ga.-30 buildings destroyed. S. Pieasonton Fifth do.


3,000 15. Steamboat Du Buque exploded above St. Louis: 26 Henry D. Gilpin Solicitor

3,000 lives lost. Charles K. Gardner Auditor of the Postoffice

3,000 21. Office of the Abolition Observer at Alton destroyed by Selah R. Hobbie s'irst Assistant Postmaster-General 2,500 a mob.

Robert Johnson Second do.


2,500 Oct. 9. Treasury Note Bill passed by the House: yeas 123, Daniel Coleman Third do.


2,500 Henry L. Ellsworth Commissioner of the Patent Office 3,000 Loss of steampacket Home, from New York to J. S. Whitcomb Com'sgry-Gen'l of the Land Office 3,000

Charleston, off Cape Hatteras, with 95 lives: only Matthew Burchard Solicitor of the Land Office 2,000

40 saved.
Constantine in Algiers captured by the French-Gen-


WASSINGTON. Nov. 7. Riot at Alton: Abolition press destroyed; Rev. E. P.

Henry S. Fox

Great Britain C. Bankhead Sec. Legation. Lovejoy and Mr. Bishop shot dead.

M. Edouard Pontois

France M. Saligny do. 16. Troubles in Canada : Radicals arrested-several of their Baron de Maltitz


G. Krchmer do. leaders rescued-arms first appealed to.

Don Angel C. de la Barca Spain

Don M. Tacon do. 25. Affair of St. Charles-insurgents defeated.

Don Francisco Martinez Mexico Dec. 4. XXVth Congress reassembles for its first regular ses

W. W. Wharton, M. Hunt Texas sion.

POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. 5. President Van Buren's Annual Message delivered. 10. Insurrection in Upper Canada-attack on Toronto by

1790. 1800. 1810. 1820. 1830. the Radicals, headed by M'Kenzie-repulsed.

Total 3,429,827 5,305.925 7.239.814 9,698,131 12,866 920
Slaves 697,897 893,64 1,191,360 1,538,064 2,000,031



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Governours. Term. Expires. Salary.

Edward Kent

1 year Jan. '39 $1,500
N. Hampshire Isaac Hill

1 " June, '38 1,000 MARTIN VAN BUREN New York President

$ 25,000 Vermont Silas H. Jenison 1 Oct. '38 750 RICHARD M. JOHNSON Kentucky Vice-President 5,000 Massachusetts Edward Everett 1 Jan. '39 3,666 i

Rhode Island John Brown Francis 1 " May, '38 400


Henry W. Edwards 1 " May, '38 1,100

New York William L. Marcy 2 " Jan. '39 4.000 John Forsyth

Georgia Secretary of State 6,000 New Jersey William Pennington 1 Oct. '38 2,000 Levi Woodbury N. Hampshire Sec'y of Treasury 6,000 Pennsylvania Joseph Ritner 3 6 Dec. '39 4,000 Joel R. Poinsett

South Carolina Secretary of War 6,000 Delaware Cornelius P. Comegys 4 « Jan. '41 1,333; Mahlon Dickerson New Jersey Secretary of Navy 6,000 Maryland Thomas W. Veazey I

" Jan. 39 2,666 Amos Kendall Kentucky Postmaster-Gen'l 6,000 Virginia David Campbell 3 « Mar. '40 3.333 Benjamin F. Butler New York Attorney-General 4,000 North Carolina Edward B. Dudley 2 Jan. '39 2,000

South Carolina Pierce M. Butler 2

Dec. '38 3,500 SOPREME COURT.

Georgia George R. Gilmer 2 Nov. '39 3,000 Appointed.

Alabama Autliur P. Bagby 2 « Nov. '39 3,500 ROGER B. TANEY Baltimore, Md. Chief Justice 1836 5,000 Mississippi Alexander G. McNutt 2 Jan. 40 2,500 Joseph Story Cambridge, Ms. Asso. Jus'ce 1811 4,500 Louisiana Edward D. White 4 " Jan. '39 7,500 Smith Thompson New York city do. 1823 4,500 Ohio

Joseph Vance 2 Dec. '38 1,000 John McLean Cincinnati, o.

1829 4,500 Kentucky James Clark

4 Sept. '40 2,500 Henry Baldwin

Pittsburg, Pa. do. 1830 4,500 Tennessee Newton Cannon 2 " Oci. '39 2,000 James M. Wayne Savannah, Ga. do. 1835 4,500 Indiana

David Wallace 3 '" Dec. ''40 1,500 Philip P. Barbour Gordonsville, Va. do. 1836 4,500 Illinois

Joseph Duncan 4

Dec. '38 1.000 John McKinley Florence, Ala. do. 1837 4,500 Missouri Lilburn W. Boggs

4 " Nov. '40 1,500 John Catron

Nashville, Ten. do. 1837 4,500 Michigan Stevens T. Mason 2 " Jan. '40 2,000 Officers.-B. F. Butler, Attorney-General Richard Peters, Arkansas James S. Conway

4. Nov. '40 2,000 Reporter ; Wm. T. Carrol, Clerk. Session annually, commen- Territories.-Florida Gen. Richard K. Call 2,500 cing the second Monday in January.

Wisconsin Gen. Henry Dodge 2500

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of the conspirators as he could most readily meet

with; on which, finding there was no time to be The most valuable acquisition made by Pizarro, lost, they repaired, one by one, to the number of after the death of Almagro, was the conqu of the nineteen, to the house of young Almagro, which province of Charcas, in which were the rich mines stood on one side of the great square, from whence of Potosi, which the marquis divided among the they marched with drawn swords through the marconquerors, having first founded the city of La Plata, ket-place toward the marquis's palace, crying out, so called from its being situated among the mines.“ Long live the king, but let the tyrant die!" And His brother Gonzalo, then engaged in subduing the it is remarkable that though there were at the same Inca Manco, and his brother Ferdinand, at that time time above a thousand people in the square, they a prisoner in Spain, had also shares in the riches of met with no opposition, nor did Pizarro receive the this province.

least intelligence of their rising; so that they Gonzalo having driven the Inca to the mountains, entered the palace very easily, the doors being and becoming governour of Quito, turned his thoughts open. to the making new discoveries ; for which purpose When the first news of the disturbance was he marched to the eastward, in order, if possible, to brought, Pizarro, who was setting with only two or obtain some knowledge of the breadth of America; three of his people, ordered Francis de Chaves, his and though he met with such insuperable obstacles lieutenant-general, to secure the great door, which as obliged him to return to Quito, yet Orellana, one he neglected to do, on a supposition that it was only of his officers, sailed down the great river of the some disturbance among the soldiers, which his Amazons, returning from the mouth of it to the presence would easily quell; so that going forward, Spanish settlements, on the other side of the he met the conspirators on the great staircase, and American continent, and thereby opening a passage demanding the reason of those commotions, was anto countries before unknown, though not less valua- swered by two or three of them lodging their dag: ble than those already discovered.

gers in his bosom, on which he instantly dropped The marquis of Pizarro now employed himself down dead. in securing and establishing his authority, by meth- The marquis, hearing them in the gallery, had no ods not less cruel than impolitick; for he not only time to put on his armour, but seizing his sword and discharged all the officers whom he suspected of buckler, defended the door of his apartment very having had any regard for Almagro, but conscious of resolutely for a considerable time, supported only by his own injustice, and fearing the consequence of his half-brother Don Francis de Alcantara, and two their complaining against him, took measures to pre- of his pages; the rest of his company and servants vent their returning to Spain: by which means ma- having fled at the beginning of the insurrection. At ny of them being involved in great distress, were length one of the conspirators pressing home, bore reduced to the necessity of living upon the alms of down and killed Don Francis, on which the rest adtheir countrymen: and twelve of them, all men of vancing with fresh vigour, the marquis retired befamily, lived together in a house given them by one fore them, and at last sunk down, fainting with loss de la Presa, having but one cloak among them all, of blood, and was soon despatched; while his two which they wore by turns, only one of them going pages, having desperately wounded several of the out at a time : but de la Presa dying, Pizarro turned conspirators, expired by his side, gallantly fighting them out of the house, and at the same time pub- in his defence. lished an edict by which, under the severest penal- Thus fell Don Francis Pizarro the first discoverer ties, he forbade any one to afford them or their adhe- and conqueror of Peru, in the sixty-fifth year of his rents the least relief.

age. His body, by young Almagro's permission, This proceeding rendering them desperate, was was privately buried by his servants, no person of more fatal to Pizarro than possibly their other dis- any consequence presuming to attend the funeral, tresses might ever have been; for seeing no end to lest they should give offence to the prevailing their miseries, but by their own or the marquis's party. destruction, they resolved on the latter.

The meanness of Pizarro's education was pubThe bravest of Almagro's friends, among whom lickly known from his not being able to write his were the distressed veterans abovementioned, re- own name, which his secretary used to insert bepaired to Lima, two or three at a time, where they tween two strokes which he drew with a pen. did not want friends, who concealed them in their He was endowed by nature with some good qualhouses, till their number exceeded two hundred. ities, the most remarkable of which was his bra. These determined to seize the first fair opportunity very ; but his ambition was boundless, he never of executing their design, in which, however, they scrupled to sacrifice his honour to his interest; were for some time retarded, in hopes that a new made a jest of the most sacred obligations, and was commissioner, some of whose attendants were al- dead to all the tender feelings of humanity. ready arrived, would come from Spain, in order to His fate in some measure resembled that of Altake cognizance of the marquis's conduct; and that magro ; like him he fell a victim to ambition; like he would do them justice, without laying them under him he died a violent death ; and like him he was the necessity of raising an insurrection.

obscurely buried after a life of splendour; but But on Sunday, the twenty-sixth of June, 1541, he possessed not the fiftieth part of Almagro's De Rada, one of the principal conspirators, had pri- virtues. vate intelligence that they were discovered, and that Pizarro was never married, but he had several the marquis was taking measures to have them all mistresses, some of whom were daughters and sisput to an ignominious death in less than three hours. ters of the Incas; but we do not find that he left This information he hastily communicated 10 such' any children behind him.


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