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9 affliction and distress; even upon every soul of man who 10 doeth evil, of the Jew first, and of the gentile' also; but

glory, and honour, and peace, to every man who doeth

good, to the Jew first, and to the gentile also. 11 For there is no respect of persons with God. For as 12 many as have sinned without law will perish also without

law; and as many as have sinned under a law will be judg13 ed by that law; (for not the hearers of [the] law will be just 14 before God, but the doers of [the] law will be justified: for

when the gentiles, that have not a law, do by nature the

things contained in the law, these, not having a law, are a 15 law to themselves : who show forth the works of the law,

which are written in their hearts; their conscience witness

ing with them, and their reasonings between themselves 16 accusing or excusing one another): in the day when God

will judge the secret things of men by Jesus Christ, accord

ing to the gospel which I preach?. 17 But if thou be called a Jew, and rest in [the] law, and 18 glory in God, and know his will, and discern the things 19 that are excellent, being instructed out of the law; and be

confident that thou thyself art a guide of the blind, a light 20 to those that are in darkness, an instructor of the unwise, a

teacher of babes, having the form of knowledge and of the 21 truth in the law; thou who teachest another, teachest thou

not thyself? thou who preachest that a man should not steal, 22 dost thou steal? thou who sayest that a man should not

commit adultery, dost thou commit adultery? thou that ab23 horrest idols, dost thou commit sacrilege? thou who glori

est in the law, through transgression of the law dishonour24 est thou God? (For 66 the name of God, is evil spoken of

among the gentiles through you;” as it is written.) 25 For circumcision profiteth indeed, if thou keep the law:

but if thou be a transgressor of the law, thy circumcision

"Gr. Greek; and so ver. 10.2 Gr. my gospel. 3 Behold, thou art called, R.T. 26. becometh uncircumcision. If therefore the uncircumcision

keep the righteous ordinances of the law, shall not the

uncircumcision of such? bé counted for circumcision? 27 and shall not the uncircumcision which is by nature, and

fultlleth the law, condemn thee, who under the letter of 28 circumcision art a transgressor of the law? For he is not a

Jew, that is one outwardly; nor is that circumcision, which 29 is outward, in the flesh: but he is a Jew, that is one in

wardly; and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit, and not according to the letter: whose praise is not from

men, but from God. Ch. III.“ What advantage then hath the Jew? or what is the 2 benefit of circumcision?” “Much every way: but chiefly

because to the Jews were committed the oracles of God. 3 For what if some had not faith? shall their want of faith 4 make the faithfulness of God without effect? By no means :

yea, let God be true, but every man false: as it is written;

“That thou mightest be justified in thy words, and might5 est overcome when thou art judged.' But if our unrighte

ousness enhances the righteousness of God”-“What shall

we say? Is God unrighteous that inflicteth punishment*? 6 (I speak according to the manner of men.) By no means: 7 for then how shall God judge the world?” “ For if the

truth of God have abounded to his glory through my un8 faithfulness, why am I still.judged as a sinner?” “ And

why say ye not, (as it is slanderously spoken of us, and as some affirm that we say,) 'Let us do evil, that good may

come?' whose condemnation is just.” 9 What then? do we excel the gentiles.? No, surely: for

we have before brought a charge against Jews and gentiles, 10 that they are all under sin: as it is written, “There is none

I Gr. his uncircumcision. ? Gr. under the letter and circumcision. For this use of droe, see Rom. iv. 11; 2 Cor. v, 10; 1 Tim. ii. 15. N. 3 Or, magoify. Or, illustrate. Or, make more manifest. See S. 12. and Wakefield. N. Gr. anger?

11 righteous, no, not one: there is none that understandeth, 12 there is none that seeketh after God. They are all gone

out of the way, they are together become worthless: there 13 is none that doeth good, no not even one. Their mouth' is

like an open sepulchre; with their tongues they have used 14 deceit; the poison of asps is under their lips: their mouth 15 is full of cursing and bitterness: their feet are swift to shed 16 blood: destruction and misery are in their ways; and the 17 way of peace they have not known: there is no fear of God 18 before their eyes.” Now we know that what things soever 19 the law saith, it saith to those that are under the law: so

that every mouth is stopped", and all the world becometh 20 subject to the judgement of God. For by the works of a law

no man can be justified in his sight: for by law is the know

ledge of sin. 21 . But now, without a law, God's method of justification is

manifested; being attested by the law and the prophets; 22 even God's method of justification by faith in Jesus Christ,

unto all, (and upon all,] who believe: for there is no differ23 ence: for all have sinned, and fall short of the glory of God; 24 being justified of free bounty, even by his favour, through 25 the redemption which is by Christ Jesus ; * whom God hath set forth as a mercy-seat, in his own blood t; to show his method of justification concerning the remission of past sins, 26 through the forbearance of God; to show, I say, his method

1 Gr. throat. 2 Gr. whose. 3 Gr, every mouth may be stopped. * “ Being justified :" i.e. brought into a holy community or state, “ of free bounty ;” and therefore not in consequence of any ransom paid, or satisfaction offered: "by his grace" or favour : i. e. under the gospel dispensation. See ch. i. 7. “ through the redemption, or deliverance, which is by Christ Jesus;" who was commissioned to rescue us from that state of condemnation into which all mankind had fallen,—not by making an atonement to divine justice, but by proclaiming the gracious purposes and offers of divine mercy.

+ So Locke. “ Through faith in his blood,” is the reading of the received text, of Griesbach, and of Archbishop Newcome. The words da tistes are omitted in the Alexandrian and some other manuscripts, and they obscure the

The apostle represents Christ as a mercy-seat, consecrated by his own blood, upon which the goodness of God, as it were, takes its stand, and declares his gracious purposes and dispensations to mankind. See Locke, and Taylor's judicious note upon the text. The word inasngier never in the scriptures signifies “ propitiation,” as it is translated in the public version; but is used wherever it


of justification at this present time: that he might be just,

and the justifier of him who hath faith in Jesus. 27 Where then is glorying? It is excluded. By what law? 28 Of works? No: but by the law of faith. For we conclude

that man is justified by faith, without the works of the law. -29 Is God the God of the Jews only? is he not of the.gentiles 30 also? Yes; of the gentiles also: since there is one God,

who will justify those of the circumcision by faith, and those - 31 of the uncircumcision through faith. Do we then make

void law through faith? By no means : yea, we establish

law. Ch. iv. “What advantage then shall we say that Abraham our 2 fatherfound, as to the flesh? for, if Abraham was justified

by works, he hath whereof to glory?” “But not before God. # 3 For what saith the scripture? Abraham believed God; 4 and it was counted to him for righteousness.' Now to him

that worketh, the reward is not counted matter of favour, 5 but of debt. But to him that worketh not, but believeth in

him that justifieth the ungodly', his faith is counted for 6 righteousness. As David also describeth the happiness of

the man to whom God counteth righteousness without 7 works, saying, “Happy are they whose iniquities are for8 given, and whose sins are covered: happy is the man to

whom the Lord will not count sin." 9 Comcth this happiness then upon those of the circumcision

1. Therefore, R. T.


3 the ungodly man, N.

our ancestor, Mss.

occurs, both in the Old Testament and the New, to express the mercy-seat, which was the golden lid of the ark, upon which the Shechinah or cloud of glory rested, and from which oracles were dispensed. Exod. xxv. 22; Numb. vii. 8, 9; Lev. xvii. 2; Heb. ix. 5. It must be evident to every unprejudiced person, that this beautiful allusion of the apostle, which is intended to represent Christ as the messenger of divine mercy, and the medium of divine communi. cations to mankind, gives no countenance to the commonly received doctrine of atonement by vicarious sufferings, though many, misled by the common

translation, lay great stress upon this text. was confidat in


only, or upon those of the uncircumcision also ? For we say 10 that faith was counted to Abraham for righteousness. How

then was it counted? when he was in circumcision, or in

uncircumcision? Not in circumcision, but in uncircumci11 sion. And he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of

the righteousness arising from the faith which he had, being yet uncircumcised': that he might be the father of all those

who believe, though in a state of uncircumcision, that righte12 ousness might be counted to them also; and the father of

circumcision to those that are not of the circumcision only,

but also walk in the steps of that faith of our father Abra13 ham, which he had being yet uncircumcised. For the pro

mise, that he should be the heir of the world, was not to

Abraham, or to his offspring, through a law, but through 14 the justification ® arising from faith. For if those that are

under a law be heirs, faith is made void, and the promise is 15 made of none effect; because law produceth punishments : 16 for where no law is, there is no transgression. Therefore

justification is from faith, that it might be through favour; so that the promise might be sure to all the offspring, not to

that only which is of the law, but to that also which is of the 17 faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all, (as it is writ

ten, I have made thee a father of many nations,') in the sight of that God whom he believed, who giveth life to the

dead, and calleth those things that are not as though they 18 were: which man* against hope believed in hope, so that

he became the father of many nations; according to that 19 which was spoken, “ Thus shall thine offspring be:' and

because he was not weak in faith, he considered (not] his

own body now dead, when he was about an hundred years 20 old, nor the deadness of Sarah's womb : nor did he stagger

at the promise of God, through unbelief; but was strong in

i Gr. in uncircumcision. And so ver. 12. * righteousness, N. And so ver. 16. 3 worketh anger, N. 4 Or, and this Abraham, N.m. s Gr. that he might become.

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