« PreviousContinue »
greatness, the seeds of premature and It is thus with religion. Every eminent rapid decay. London will increase, as teacher chooses a difierent point of view. long as certain causes operate which she The Popish delineator of Christianity witcannot controul, and afier those cease to lingly withdraws from his devotees the operate for a season, her population will discussion of doctrine, and aims at iin. require to be renewed by new supplies pressing the sentiments of the church by of wealth; these failing, the houses will the arts of eloquence and music-of painia become too numerous for the inhabi- ing and sculpture. The Bucerist relies tants, and certain districts will be occu- more on an industry addressed to the pied by beggary and vice, or become mind than to the senses; on the perpedepopulated. This disease will spread tual repetition of vernacular liturgies: his like an atrophy in the human body, and appeal is to à public of less taste, but of ruin will follow ruin, till the entire city more literature.
The Calvinist argues is disgusting to the remnant of the inha- and terrifies: his scripture is the law of bitants; they fiee one after another to a God-his God a pitiless !awgiver; and he inore thriving spot; and at length the corroborates hy terrestrial excommunicawhole becomes a heap of ruins! Such tions the terrors of bis threatened futurihave been the causes of the decay of all ty: he allies himself with fear, the most overgrown cities.
Nineveh, Babylon, prolific parent of superstitions. The Unie Antioch, and Thebes, are become heaps tarian trusts to the shortness of his creed, of ruins, tolerable only to reptiles and for its eventual adoption. So many more wild beasts. Rome, Delhi, and Alex• articles of religion are taught in the cateandria, are partaking the same inevita- chismis than are retained in the progress ble fate; and London must some time, of enquiry, that a wish often supervenes from similar causes, succumb under the in mid-life to be fettered with the fewest destiny of every thing human.
possible dogmas, and to sit onder the Dec. 13, 1810. COMMON SENSE, teacher who exacts least of a positive
creed. Why may not instructors of each For the Monthly Magazine. description find an appropriate public, THE ENQUIRER.- Vo. XXVII.
disseminate in that public à purer moral Is uniformity of Religious Opinion de- zeal, and a warmer activity of benefisirable in the State?
cence; and thus ripen a greater crop of
national virtue, than could have been These institutions are the products of en- grown by any one of these four classes of thusiasm ; they are the instruments of wis teachers singly? On the supposition of dom. BURKE.
an exclusive, or uniform, public religion, IF
f half a dozen painters were employed three out of the four denominations would
to take a view of Saint Paui's Churchi, want adapted guides. the one would place himself in front, and The more closely human life is observed, bring oul its majestic vestibule; a second the more it will be perceived, that all the would include in his sketch the semicir- different sects of Christianity have their cular portal on the side; a third would several merits and excellencies—their sechoose his station behind, on the roofs of veral defects and inconveniences: but to the houses, that nothing below might with suppose that there can be danger from draw attention from the stately dome; a any one of them, to the good order of fourth would place himself at the ruins of society, and to the eventual happiness of the Albion-mill, that the colossality of the mankind, is to blaspheme the founder of cathedral might be rendered obvious from the religion. Sects arise by selecting pe a comparison with surrounding objects : culiar passages of Scripture for habitual and others would select for delineation, a attention: the emphatic texts of one sotransverse or a longitudinal section of the ciety are insignificant phrases in the next inside. These imitations, though differ- conventicle. Hence it naturally happens ing widely from each other, might all be that some sects carry one virtue, others faithful alike, and executed with equal another, to the highest practicable excelskill. Why should any patent or privi- lence; and it is well that men should ad. lege, be given to the engraver of the se- dict themselves to those religious parties cond, or third, of these drawings, to vend which enforce the line of conduct most exclusively his view of Saint Paul's? Let adapted to their constitutional disposition: them all be etched, and'exposed to sale; Thus they are more easily known. The the antiquary may prefer the one, the dic philosophic sects of antiquity classed manlettante anosher, the architect a third, kind conveniently: every one was aware representation,
what conversation and habits, and morals,
to expect among the set of men, whose attracts the higher classes, or the very low. acquaintance, naturally resulted from est class; as if some degree of instruction attaching oneself to the Platonic, the Stoic, and education were requisite to prepare or the Epicurean, sect. And is not the like the votary-as if a considerable degree of observable in our different denominations introriuction and education unfitted bin of Christians ?
again for this form of belief. It is often Let the man of fashion be a Catholic. accompanied with a punctilious easeless It is the essence of fashion to fall in, it behaviour, the result probably of a reci. knows not why, with the splepdid ceremo- procal inspection and vigilant controul, nial in use among the exalted, and to place devised for purposes of moral discipline, vital perfection in exterior compliance. and incorporated with the constitutions The catholic is the form of Christianity of their congregations.
It is often acwhich has been found least unfavourable companied also with an appareit gloom of to the military spirit, and most indulgent mind, the result perhaps of an excessive to the genteeler foibles. It patronizes use among their teachers of terrific dethe fisheries, by its dietetic interference; nunciations; but which to a mere by-stanand the fine arts, by its ostentatious de- der might suggest the idea of secret relight in monuments of architecture, of morse, or worldly embarrassment; and thus sculpture, and of painting. But let not tend to affect the moral or pecuniary the entire multitude be catholic. It is credit of these children of dejection. a religion which operates in the inanner Such melancholics are apt to fly for relief of military discipline, so as to secure de. to sottishness. Still the Calvinists, iu cency without reforming the inward man. general, are seen to be industrious, prović Wherever the catholic populace have dent, continent, neat, hospitable, but in broken luose, they have exceeded, in a other respects frugal, loth to military sersavage, cruel, and blood-thirsty spirit, the vice, lovers of justice, of order, and of populace of any other sect; and they are civil liberty. These are qualities, on the every where more idle and ignorant than whole, desirable in the numerous class their Protestant neighbours.
of tradesmen: it seems easier to increase Let the magistrate be a Bucerist. Bu- their happiness than their utility. cerism, or else a national establishment, Other sects are insufficiently vast to be favours religious indifference and political appreciated in the gross. One cannot yet toryism. The members of the Church of decide whether the Socinians owe the meEngland, in general, are apparently free ritorious qualities by which they are disfrom those anxieties of the soul, those tinguished, to their station in society, or mean selfish ambitious frettings about its to the influence of their favourite writers. future condition, which haunt and vex so Unitarianisın is not yet vulgarized ; but large a portion of the methodistical sect. from the recent reports of the Anti-trinita. They are, in general, inclined to lend the rian missionaries, it may be suspected authority of their support to the ministers that, in proportion as the sect gains ground of the Crown, and to receive with a favour among ine vulgar, it will have to adopt ing prejudice all the measures of the yn something of the cant, the bigotry, and vernment. Such predispositions adapt a the zeal, for positive opinions, which come justice of the peace to execute the law's monly characterize the vulgar. The liawith tolerance and alacrity. But let not lian and Polish Unitarians appeared, while the mass of citizens be Bucerists. That the sect was new, to aim at allying the habitual antagonism to the party in power, splendid ritual of Rome with the simple which einpels the discussion of all, and creed of theism, and to aspire at blending the modification of many, public acts, and the laste of the Catholic, the principle of which presents still more abuses than it the Calvinist, and the liberality of the pbicorrecis, would want the requisite popular losopher. But notwithstanding the conencouragement, if the inhabitants of our ventions of noblemen held at Vicenza and large towns were not in the main en. at Cracow, the Unitarian party could no bodied under a priesthood less servile where attain the ascendancy, either in than the established clergy. The parlia- the dukedoms of Italy, or in the republic wentary friends of liberty, derive their of Poland. The educated and ambitious popular support almost entirely from dis. ranks gradually slid back through unbe. senters.
Jiet to conformity; the forsaken multitude Let the trader be a Calvinist. Anste- was classed with tagatic Anabaptists, and rity favours frugality and industry. Cal- squeezed, between contempt and oppresvinism, at least where it is a sect; and not, sion, into mactive insignificance. As as in Scotland, an establishment, seldom Socinianisın is peculiarly the reverse of a
mystical mystical sect, it must be favourable to the encourage among their children a pre. evokition of the reasoning faculty, and is dilection for soine occupations, which are therefore perhaps suicidale, In Holland, necessarily held in disrepute; such as and elsewhere, it died out loss from refu. pedlary, frippery, pawn-broking, and tation, or persecution, than frona internal usury. A pedlar will always appear to be causes,
a cheat, because he must always charge The merely philosophic sects have also higher than a stationary shopkeeper. In their use. Teachers of this persuasion addition to the regular profit of the rehave been very etlicacious in resisting va. tailer, he must be paid for the porterage rious pernicious moral prejudices, which of his wares from door to door, and for the have occasionally resulted froin excessive time lost in fruitless applications. Frippery attachment to the sacred books. The will always be held somewhat offensive. attempts of the Anabaptists to introduce The man who sells his case-off clothes in. community of goods, of ibe Quakers to stead of giving them away, is ashamed of abolish military service, of the Calvinists the avarice or penury which that implies; to extinguish fornication, of the Catholics he dislikes therefore to see his fripperer, to torture and burn alive for heresy, have which reminds him of a meanness. Pawn. been got under, not by the arguments of broking is regulated by law; it is often an theology, but by those of philosophy. There honest and useful employment, and might is a reciprocity of morality necessary in be a most humane and generous occuthe external relations of states, to which pation : but it can never be an honour Scripture is less plastic than reason. able one. A sense of shame inevitably Hence every civilized society has found baunts the man who pledges his watch, it expedient to keep alive an illuminated or the woman who pawns a cloak, to resect,lilied either by pride or science,above lieve the necessities even of a sick child. all the forms of popular credulity. In Usury is odious: pot merely because the many churches of the once Lutheran pro. lawgiver has idly made it a crime, but vinces of Germany, the anti-supernatu, because, in all cases of bankruptey, those ralist christianity of the professors Eiche persons who have received 'exorbitant horn and Paulus has lately been brought interests for their advances, appear to be to anchor on the sacred books. In China, the only persons benefited at the expense the religious establishment of the country of more scrupulous creditors. In all these is habicually engaged in a like hostility branches of commerce, and other such against all the forms of superstition. Yet might be enumerated, che nature of the in Germany, as in China, to a large body employment tends to excite a feeling of of the people, such opinions are unwel. disgust, which is improperly transferred cemely licentious.
to the Jewish people, because it happens Nor are the Jews undeserving an ap- that they frequently exercise such em. propriate and limited patronage. They ployments. By preferring for their chilbave, indeed, some usages which interfere dren the more respectable lines of busiwith sociability, and which are necessarily ness, hostile prejudices would abate; but an impediment to that neighbourly inter society would still be compelled to seek course with Christians, which would tend out other persons for this division of lato efface reciprocal dislikes. Such are bour. And to whatever individuals it be their notions about die In early and consigned, moral instruction and admoo ignorant communities, it is expedient to nition is surely experient. teach the essential arts of life in the laws. If so many forms of sectarism can We bave statutes which direct how to strike root in a given community with brew, and how to bake, and which ren- obvious advantage to the whole, why der criminal a departure from the national should they not be all alike favoured by recipe. We have also laws about fisband the magistrate? They would then seves butcher's meat, which resist the sale and rally be embraced loy the adapted conuse of unwholesome food. The Jews verts, and prevail every where in the dehave inany such laws, which divide anio sirable proportions. The charities of mals into clean and unclean, or, as the tolerance abound most where piety has words ought to be rendered, into whole. many shapes. Moral competition, and some and unwholesome. The Jews wish general instruction, is increased by the tu keep their sabbath on the seventh day; variety of sects. but, since the alteration of the calendar, And why should they not be suffered they, in fact, keep it wrong, and miglit aś to ramify within, as well as without, the well keep it on the Sunday. The Jews national church?
tent of inflnence equitably proporzinned Aslebelieve no description of Aider
Suppose the Act of Uniformity re- patronage indefinitely: and surely the papealed. A duke of Graftou might then triotic statesman, instead of making a new present the benefices of which he has the pension for every new exertion, ought to advowson to his Unitarian chaplains. A hold it better to divert into an usefut ford Peire might bestow similar prefer- channel some of those preferments which ment on eminent catholics-on a Geddes, are become superfiuous to the encourageor a Milner. If the Jew-banker Gold: ment of theological literature, and which smid acquired with his estate a vacant only operate as bounties for advocating presentation, he inight allow the tythe of the cause of ecclesiastic monopoly and his parish to a rabbi. Mr. Wilberforce intolerance. Without burdening afresh could confer livings on his evangelists; the people, the means would thus exist of and lord Sheffield on a disciple of Gibbon. recoinpensing their real illustrators and God keeps many religious, said the Go- benefactors: the mighty machine, erected chic king Theodoric, why should not we? by the efforts of a barbaric superstition,
The aifects of this change could not but would retain its energies unimpaired, but be advantageous. Every sect, inasmuch be employed in diffusing the lessous of as it had converted to its persuasion the civilization, and in remunerating the toily property of the country, would acquire a of unbiassed learning and creative genius. stare of the advowsons, and station itself in the national church. A co-establish. To the Editor of the Monthly Maguzine. ment of all religions would be accom. SIR, plished, in which each would have an ex
ley Edye in Cheshire, and the . to the wealth of its votaries. A consider. Cobalt Mine lately discovered there, able comprehension of dissenters would has yet been published, perhaps the inimmediately result; and with the wish and closed account may be acceptable to power to acquire the use and property of your readers. the established temples, an altered feeling, Alderley Edge is an eminence situthe harbinger of cogstitutional loyalty, ated about five miles west from Maccieswould pervade all the ancient separatists. field, from which place the road rises by The danger which the Greek empire for an almost imperceptible ascent through merly, and which our own country lately, narrow sandy lanes; the sand chiefly of incurred, of finding among its schisinatics á a reddishi-brown colour : so very gradual pernicious foreign faction, would cease is the rise, that when you approach the with the intolerance of the magistrate, western side declivity, which is much which both there and here occasioned that steeper, you are astonished with the vast incalculable evil. The chieftains, not only extent of country which at once opens of the embodied, but of the literary, upon the sight. The whole plain of the sects, finding the ecclesiastic order open county of Cheshire, with a part of Lanto them unconditionally, and without any cashire, stretching froin the feet of the subscribed definitions of opinion, would Derbyshire' and Yorkshire hills to the more generally embrace it: and all classes sea : the pastures, woods, and villages, of public instructors, the men of letters the towns of Stockport and Manchester, and science, the poets and artists, might the distant sinoke of the city of Chester, be conveniently patronized out of the with the blue mountains of Wales on the terenues of the hierarchy. Thus, all sects, horizon, form part of the features of the popular and philosophic, would acquire scene. On the eastern side rise the a common interest in the preservation of Derbyshire and Yorkshire hills, which sach a church, and would join in a cho are part of the central range that passes cus of Esto perpetua!
through these counties. The whuie The patronage of the sovereign would prospect comprises a scene of extensive remain as at present in point of amount; and varied magnificence, which can but as the number of claimants on public scarcely be equalled in the kingdom. grounds would be increased, more of After a month's residence ainonyst che That patronage would be given to merit, mines and naked mountains of the and less to favouritisin. The right of High Peak, a sudden view of so much presenting prebends to Jaymen already fertility and grandeur ivas peculiarly ex. resides in the Crown-Camden braving hilarating and delightful. The hill on been rewarded for his literary exertions which I scood is low, compared with most by queen Elizabeth with a prebendal of our secondary hills : but being destall. A repeal of the Act of Uniformity tached from the central range, and adwould, in fact, extend this right of lay vanced several miles towards the plains
of Cheshire, there is nothing to obstruct in the persons employed. I could disa the view from thence to the Irish sea. cern the presence of copper in small But this place is an object of inore in Streaks in the product, by the assistance terest to the mineralogist than the pic- of a lens, and also on the irons employed turesque tourist : in the space of a few to stir the ore when in fusion. The copacres, he may be presented with ores of per ores are found intermixed with those most of the metals found in England, but of lead, lying in the confused state I placed in such situations, and presenting have described. Something like a regusuch appearances, as are rarely to be seen lar vein was opened last suminer, its die elsewere. The hill is evidently of allu- rection nearly vertical, its width about vial formation, being composed chiefly three feet, with a floor of cask interof gravel, and soft white and reddish posed between the ore and the rock on sand-stone;
; the white is intermixed with one side ; the other was united with the rounded quartz pebbles, the red with sand-ruck. The ore, as i was called, particles of mica. In some parts the red was of a reddishi-brown colour, extremely and white sand-stone assume a nearly hard, with quartz pebbles imbedded stratified appearance; in others, the red within it. Neither its specific gravity, stone intersects the white in very thin nor appearance, gave i:idication of the se ams, branching in various directions. presence of copper. On trial, I found In the white sand-stone are found various it precipitated that metal upon iron from cres of lead, as small portions of compact
a vitrous solution. It is more properly galena ; and the same in a granular state
an iron-stone combined with copper pyintermixed with sand-stone. In other rites, than an ore of copper: it contains places, particles of blue and brown ore very little of the latter metal. The most were collected in nodules of various sizes, remarkable production of the place is and imbedded along with pebbles in the cobalt ore, which was very recently dissand.rock, like currants in a pudding. covered here, existing in the red sanda The black ore or earth of lead, is here stone. It had long been unnoiiced or met with; and the carbonate or white employed in mending the roads, until a ore; but intermixed, like the others, with niner, who had worked upon the Concisand-stone. These ores do not lie in nent, and seen the cobalt ores of Saxony, regular veins, horizontally or verti- first discovered it in the estate of a gencally inclined, but are found in masses, tleman in the neighbourhood. The at: or intersecting and mixing with the sand- tention of the tenants of the Alderley stone and pebbles. In some few places Mines was then directed to the subject, there are appearances of a regular vein, and the Cobalt mines were let for one in which there are seams of cawk inter- thousand pounds per annum, to a comspersed between the sand-rock and the pany near Pontefract, in Yorkshire, ore; but these appearances are soon lost, The proprietor of Alderley Edge is Sir and the vein is broken off and thrown I. T. Stanley, bart, whose grounds and into a state of confusion. The cawk* seat are in its immediate vicinity. The is also mixed with quartz pebbles. These ores of cobalt, so valuable to the manu. ores are found in considerable quantities, facturers of porcelain and paper, are very and smelted at the place, but they are scarce in this island. They have been in general poor in quality. Copper ore found in small quantities in Cornwall, was formerly gat here in large quantities, chiefly of the kind called grey cobalt ore, as appears by the scoriæ or slags which which contains cobalt combined with semains. The works have been discon iron and arsenic. The ore at Alderley tinued during nearly forty years. The is the black cobalt ochre of mineralogists. copper was taken to Macclesfield; and, It is in the form of grains; of a bluishwith calamine from Derbyshire, made black colour. The best specimens in into brass at that place. Last summer colour and appearance, resemble grains an attempt was made again to get the of gunpowder, disseminated in red sandore, and a furnace erected for reducing stove, or lying in thin seams between it. I was there the day after the trial, the stone, which has a shistose or slaty which had not succeeded, owing to the fracture. It lies from eight to ten yards poorness of the ore, and want of skill under the surface, and is got out in thin
· pieces, and separated afterwards as I regret that I did not examine this subo much as possible from the stone; it is stance more particularly ; I suspect it to con- then packed in tubs, and sent near Pon. tain baroselenice and cals spar, like the cawks tefract, where it is manufactured into of Derbyshire.
swalla Amidst the confusion of mineral