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definitions and the mystical, comp. ibid.—John Scotus Erigena considers the historical Christ as one in whom the human race is ideally represented; and at the same time he always strives to preserve Christ's specific dignity. Thus in De Divis. Nat. ii. 13 : Humano intellectui, quem Christus assumsit, omnes intellectuales essentiæ inseparabiliter adhærent. Nonne plane vides, omnem creaturam, intelligibiles dico sensibilesque mediasque naturas, in Christo adunatam. Comp. v. 25, p. 252: Quanquam enim totam humanam naturam, quam totam accepit, totam in se ipso et in toto humano genere totam salvavit, quosdam quidem in pristinum naturæ statum restituens, quosdam vero per excellentiam ultra naturam deificans ; in nullo tamen nisi in ipso solo humanitas deitati in unitatem substantiæ adunata est, et in ipsam deitatem mutata omnia transcendit. Hoc enim proprium caput Ecclesiæ sibi ipsi reservavit, ut non solum ejus humanitas particeps deitatis, verum etiam ipsa deitas, postquam ascendit ad Patrem, fieret ; in quam altitudinem nullus præter ipsum ascendit nec ascensurus est.

est. [Comp. Christlieb's John Scotus Erigena, 1860, pp. 330–360. Erigena on the exinanitio espoused the view held afterwards by the Calvinists in distinction from the Lutherans, p. 335. He makes the incarnation to be necessary, v. 25: Si Dei sapientia in effectus causarum, quæ in ea æternaliter vivunt, non descenderet, causarum ratio periret: pereuntibus enim causarum effectibus nulla causa remaneret, etc. Notwithstanding Erigena's strong assertion about the historical Christ, the drift of his doctrine is to give to the incarnation a merely ideal, or symbolical character. He anticipates Schelling and Hegel in a striking manner; see Christlier, p. 354, 89.]—The scholastics in general recognized something universal in Christ, as the prototype of the race, without, however, impairing his historical individuality; see Dorner, p. 141.—This was still more the case with the mystics. Some of them, e. 9., Geroch, prebendary of Reichersberg, protested as early as the time of the rise of Scholasticism, against the refining and hair-splitting tendency which became prevalent in regard to christology (especially in opposition to Folmar); see Cramer, 1. c. p. 43–78.' The disciples of the school of St. Victor looked with an indifferent eye upon the subtler development of this dogma (Dorner, p. 142, note.) All the mystics urged that Christ is quickened in us. Thus Ruysbroek said, “ Christ had his divinity and humanity by nature; but we have it when we are united to him in love by grace;" Comp. Engelhardt's Monograph, p. 157, and the entire section, p. 177–179. Tauler, Predigten, vol. i. p. 55, expressed himself as follows:-“We hold that we are susceptible of blessedness in the same manner in which he is susceptible, and that we receive here on earth a foretaste of that eternal blessedness which we shall enjoy hereafter. Since even the meanest powers and bodily senses of our Lord Jesus Christ were so united with his divine nature, that we may say, God saw, God heard, God suffered, so we, too, enjoy the advantage, in consequence of our union with him, that all our works may become divine. Further, human nature being united with the divine person, and with the angels, all men have more followship with him than other creatures, inasmuch as they are the members of his body, and are influenced by him as by their head, etc...... Not many sons! You may and ought to differ (from each other) according to your natural birth, but in the eternal birth there can be only one Son,

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since in God there exists only one natural origin, on which account there can be only one natural emanation of the Son, not two. Therefore, if you would be one son with Christ, you must be an eternal outflowing together with the eternal word. As truly as God has become man, so truly man has become God by grace; and thus human nature is changed into what it has become, viz., into the divine image, which is consequently an image of the Father," etc, Compare also the sermon on Christmas-day, vol. i. p. 89, and other passages.—Deutsche Theologie, ch. 22 : “Where God and man are so united, that we may say in truth, and truth itself must confess, that there is one who is verily perfect God, and verily perfect man, and where man is nevertheless so devoted to God, that God is there man himself, and that he acts and suffers entirely without any self-hood, or for self, or for self-having [Germ. ohne alles Ich, Mir und Mein), (i. e., without any self-will, self-love and selfishness): behold, there is verily Christ, and no where else.Comp. ch. 24 and ch. 43: " Where the life of Christ is, there is Christ himself, and where his life is not, there he is not."*—The language of Wessel is simple and dignified; De Causa Incarnat. c. 7, p. 427 (quoted by Ullmann, p. 267): “Every noble soul hath something divine in itself, which it loves to communicate. The more excellent it is, the more it endeavors to imitate the Divine Being. Accordingly, that holy and divinely beloved soul (i. e. Christ), resembling God more than any other creature, gave itself wholly up for the brethren, as it saw God doing the same with regard to itself.” Comp. cap. 16, p. 450, and De Magnit. Passionis c. 82, p. 627 : Qui non ab hoc exemplari trahitur, non est. On the human development of the Redeemer, see ibid. c. 17, p. 486, quoted by Ullmann, p. 259.

· Thus the Beghards : Dicunt, se credere, quod quilibet homo perfectus sit Christus per naturam. (Mosheim, p. 256, after the letter of the bishop of Strasbourg.) According to Baur (Gesch. d. Trinit. ii. 310, comp. however, note to above), the church doctrine as expounded by John Scotus Erigena, was nothing more than that of the immanence of God in the world, which appeared in man in the form of an actual, concrete self-consciousness. [Comp. also Christlier, ubi supra.]

The partus virgineus was one of those subjects which greatly occupied the ingenuity of the scholastics. It was at the foundation of the controversy between Paschasius Radbert and Ratramn, about the year 850, on the question, whether Mary had given birth to Christ utero clauso ? to which the former (after Jerome) replied in the affirmative, the latter (as Helvidius had done) in the negative. For further details, see Münscher, ed. by von Cölln, pp. 85 and 86; and Walch, C. G. F. Historia Controversiæ sæculi IX. de Partu B. Virginis. Gott. 1758. 4°. Anselm sought to prove in a very ingenious way, that the birth of the Virgin was necessary in the circle of divine possibibilities, Cur Deus Homo, ii. 8: Quatuor modis potest Deus facere hominem; videlicet aut de viro et de femina, sicut assiduus usus monstrat; aut nec de viro nec de femina, sicut creavit Adam; aut de viro sine femina, sicut fecit Evam; aut de femina sine viro, quod nondum fecit. Ut igitur hunc quoque modum probet suæ subjacere potestati, et ad hoc ipsum opus dilatum esse, nihil convenientius, quam ut de femina sine viro assumat illum hominem, quem quærimus. Utrum autem de virgine aut de non virgine dignius hoc fiat, non est opus disputare, sed sine omni dubitatione asgerendum est, quia de virgine hominem nasci oportet.—In the

* Lest this passage might be misinterpreted, so as to refer to a more ideal Christ, comp. what is said c. 52: “All that is hitherto written, Christ taught by a long life, which lasted thirty-three years and six months," etc.

writings of Robert Pulleyn, we meet with absurd questions respecting the exact moment at which, and the manner in which, the union of the divine nature of the Son with the human assumed in the womb of Mary, had taken place (Cramer, vi. p. 484, ss.)

The fondness of the scholastics for starting all sorts of questions, led them also to inquire, whether the union between the divine and human natures of Christ continued to exist after his death (the separation of the body from the soul.) Pulleyn replied in the affirmative. He supposed that only Christ's body had died, but not the whole man Christ; see Cramer, vi. pp. 487, 488. A controversy was also carried on between the Franciscans and Dominicans respecting the question, whether the blood shed on the cross was also separated from the divine nature of Christ? A violent discussion took place in Rome at Christmas, 1462. The Dominicans took the afirmative, the Franciscans the negative side of the question. At last Pope Pius II prohibited the progress of the controversy by a bull, issued A. D. 1464 ; see Gobellin, Comment. Pii II. Rom. 1584, p. 511...... Fleury, Hist. ecclesiast. xxiii. p. 167, ss.

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* Baur, Geschichte der Versönungslehre, p. 118, ss. Seisen, Nicolaus Methonensis, An

selmus Cantuariensis, Hugo Grotius, quod ad Satisfactionis Doctrinam a singulis excogitatum inter se comparati. Heidelberg, 1838–40. [Thomasius, Christologie, iii. 1. Comp. § 134. Anselm's Cur Deus Homo, transl. by Vose, in Bib. Sacra, 1854–5.]

The mythical notion, developed in the preceding period, of a legal transaction with the devil, and the deception practised upon him on the part of God and Christ, was also adopted by some theologians of the present period, e.g., John Damascenus. But it soon gave way, or at least became subordinate to, another theological mode of stating the doctrine, viz., that the fact of redemption was deducible with logical necessity from certain divine and human relations. We find the transition to this in the Greek church in the writings of Nicolas of Methone,' who arrived at similar conclusions with Anselm, though independently of him. In the Western church, Anselm of Canterbury established his theory with an amount of ingenuity, and a completeness of reasoning, hitherto unattained. It is in substance as follows: In order to restore the honor of which God was deprived by sin, it was necessary that God should become man ; that, by voluntary submission to the penalty of death, he might thus, as God-man, cancel the debt, which, beside him, no other being, whether a heavenly one or an earthly one, could have paid. And he not only satisfied the requirements of divine justice, but, by so doing, of his own free will, he did more than was needed, and was rewarded by obtaining the deliverance of man from the penalty pronounced upon him. Thus the apparent contradiction between divine love on the one hand, and divine justice and benevolence on the other, was adjusted.


1 De Fide Orth. iii. 1.: Αυτός γαρ ο δημιουργός τε και κύριος την υπέρ

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του οικείου πλάσματος αναδέχεται πάλην, και έργω διδάσκαλος γίνεται. Και επειδή θεότητος ελπίδι ο εχθρός δελεάζει τον άνθρωπον, σαρκός προβλήματι δελεάζεται και δείκνυται άμα το αγαθόν και το σοφών, το δικαίον τε και το δυνατόν του θεού το μεν αγαθόν, ότι ου παρείδε του οικείου πλάσματος την ασθένειαν, αλλ' έσπλαγχνίσθη επ' αυτώ πεσόντι, και χείρα ώρεξε» το δε δίκαιον, ότι ανθρώπου ηττηθέντος ούχ έτερον ποιεί νικήσαι τον τύγαννον, ουδε βιά εξαρπάζει του θανάτου τον άνθρωπον, αλλ' δν πάλαι δια τας αμαρτίας καταδoυλoύται ο θάνατος, τούτον ο αγαθός και δίκαιος νικητήν πάλιν πεποίηκε, και το ομοίω τον όμοιον άνεσώσατο, όπερ άπορον ήν το δε σοφών, ότι εύρε του απόρου λύσιν ευπρεπεστάτην. He opposed, indeed, the notion (of Gregory of Nyssa), that the devil had received the ransom, iii. 27: Μή γαρ γένοιτο το τυράννω το τού δεσπότου προσενεχθήναι αίμα, but used very strange language in the subsequent part of the chapter: Πρόσεισι τοιγαρούν και θάνατος και καταπιών το σώματος δέλεαρ τώ της θεότητος αγκίστρω περιπείρεται, και αναμαρτήτου και ζωοποίου γευσάμενος σώματος διαφθείρεται και πάντας ανάγει, ούς πάλαι κατέπιεν

: Anecd. i. p. 25, ms. fol. 148 b., (quoted by Seisen, p. i.); ibid., p. 30, ss. fol. 150 b., (quoted by Seisen, p. 2): "Ην γαρ θανάτω υπεύθυνον το πάν ημών γένος πάντες γαρ ήμαρτον, κέντρον δε του θανάτου έστιν η αμαρτία (1 Cor. XV. 56), δί ής τρώσας ημάς ο θάνατος καταβεβληκε, και άλλως ουκ ήν των δεσμών της δουλείας απαλλαγήναι τους δόρατι ληφθέντας, ή διά θανάτου (Rom. V. 14.) Τα γαρ λύτρα εν τη αιρέσει κείται των κατεχόντων. Ουκ ήν ούν και δυνάμενος υπελθείν το δράμα και εξαγοράσαι το γένος, ουκ ήν ουδείς των του γένους ελεύθερος μόγις δε της ιδίας ενοχής ελευθε. ρούται τις, ός εαυτού αποθνήσκων ου δυνάμενος συνελευθερώσαι ένα γούν εαυτώ. Ει δε ουδένα, τις ήν δυνατός, όλον κοσμον απαλλάξαι δουλείας; ει γάρ και αξιόχρεως ήν προς την ιδίαν ελευθερίαν έκαστος· αλλ' ούν ουκ ήν πρέπον, πάντας αποθανείν, ουδε υπό την του θανάτου εξουσίαν καταμεϊναι. Τίνος ούν ήν το κατόρθωμα και δήλον ότι αναμαρτήτου τινός. Τίς δε των πάντων αναμάρτητος ή μόνος ο θεός και επειδή τοίνυν και θεού το έργον ήν και χωρίς θανάτου και των ηγησαμένων του θανάτου παθών αδύνατον ην τελεσθήναι, ο θεός δε παθών και θανάτου εστίν απαράδεκτος, προσέλαβε φύσιν παθών και θανάτου δεκτικήν, ομοουσίαν ημίν υπάρχουσαν κατά πάντα και απαραλλάκτως έχουσαν προς ημάς, δμου λαβήν διδούς το προσπαλαίoντι θανάτω κατά σάρκα, και δι' αυτής της υποκειμένης αυτή φύσεως καταγωνιούμενος αυτόν, ίνα μήτε αυτός χώρας σχολη λέγειν, ουχ υπό ανθρώπου, αλλ' υπό θεού ηττήσθαι, μήτε μην ήμείς καταμαλακιζοίμεθα προς τους αγώνας καιρού καλούντος έχοντες παράδειγμα την ομοφυή και ομοούσιον σάρκα, εν ή κατεκρίθη ή αμαρτία, χώραν ουδόλως εύρούσα εν αυτή..... ...Ου γαρ μάτην τι γέγονε των περί το τίμιον αυτού παθος συμβεβηκότων, αλλά λόγω τινι κρείττονι και αναγκαίω, πάσαν λόγων δύναμιν υπερβάλλοντι. Comp. Refut. p. 155, 5S., quoted by Seisen, p. 4, and Ullmann, p. 90, ss. “ He agreed (with Anselm) principally in endeavoring to.demonstrate that the Redeemer must needs have been God and Man, but differed from him in this, that Anselm referred the necessity of the death of Jesus to the divine holiness, while Nicolas brought it into connection with the dominion of Satan over sinful men.” Ullmann, p. 94.

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«The relation in which Anselm's theory of satisfaction stands to the opinions which had generally obtained previous to his time, is chiefly expressed in his decided opposition to the principle on which those views were founded, in relation to the devil ;** Baur, Versöhnungslehre, p. 155. Cur Deus Homo )

p i. 7. and ii. 19: Diabolo nec Deus aliquid debebat nisi pænam, Dec homo, nisi vicem, ut ab illo victus illum revinceret; sed quidquid ab illo exigebatur, hoc Deo debebat, non diabolo. Comp. Dial. de Verit. c. 8 (in Hasse, ii. 86): Dominus Jesus, quia solus innocens erat, non debuit mortem pati, quia ipse sapienter et benigne et utiliter voluit eam sufferre. The theory of Anselm is rather established upon the idea of sin (comp. & 176, note 4.) It is the duty of man to honor God; by sin he has deprived him of the honor due to him, and is obliged to make retribution for it in a striking manner. So in i. 11: Hunc honorem debitum qui Deo non reddit, aufert Deo quod suum est, et Deum exhonorat, et hoc est peccare. Quamdiu autem non solvit, quod rapuit, manet in culpa; nec sufficit solummodo reddere, quod ablatum est, sed pro contumelia illata plus debet reddere, quam abstulit. Com. also c. 13 : Necesse est ergo, ut aut ablatus honor solvatur, aut pæna sequatur, alioquin aut sibi ipsi Deus justus non erit, aut ad utrumque impotens erit, quod nefas est vel cogitare. It may be true that God can not, properly speaking (i. e., objectively), be deprived of his honor, but he must insist upon its demands, for the sake of his creatures ; the order and harmony of the universe require it. i. c. 14: Deum impossibile est honorem suum perdere.... Cap. 15: Dei honori nequit aliquid, quantum ad illum pertinet, addi vel minui. Idem namque ipse sibi honor est incorruptibilis et nullo modo mutabilis. Verum quando unaquæque creatura suum et quasi sibi præceptum ordinem sive naturaliter sive rationabiliter servat, Deo obedire et eum dicitur honorare ; et hoc maxime rationalis natura, cui datum est intelligere quid debeat. Quæ cum vult quod debet, Deum honorat; non quia illi aliquid confert, sed quia sponte se ejus voluntati et dispositioni subdit, et in rerum universitate ordinem suum et ejusdem universitatis pulchritudinem, quantum in ipsa est, servat. Cum vero non vult quod debet, Deum, quantum ad illam pertinet, inhonorat, quoniam non subdit se spor dispositioni, et universitatis ordinem et pulchritudinem, quantum in se est, perturbat, licet potestatem aut dignitatem Dei nullatenus lædat aut decoloret. (With this the idea is connected, that the deficiency in the hierarchia cælestis, occasioned by the fall of the angels, was made up by the creation of man.

* It is worthy of notice that, as the doctrines of the Church were gradually developed in the lapse of ages, the kingdom of Satan was more and more put into the background, as the shadows disappear before the light. During the first period, up to the complete overthrow of Manicheism, the demons occupied an important place in the doctrines respecting God and the government of the world, as well as iu anthropology, until Augustine (in the second period) showed that the origin of sin is to be found in a profounder view of human nature. And lastly, in the course of the present period, the connection between the doctrines of Christology and Soteriology on the one hand, and the doctrine of demoniacal agency on the other, being dissolved, the latter is pushed back to eschatology, where the devil finds his proper place in hell. Still further, the relation of the devil to the work of redemption was still so prominent even in the time of Anselm, that Abelard was accused of heresy for contesting the right of the devil to man; see Bern. bard. Epist. cxc. 5, in Mabillon, Tom. I. p. 650 sq. (Comp. Hasse's Anselm, ii. 493).

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