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of Schleiermacher) a new path in theology has been struck out by Richard Rothe of Heidelberg, in his Theologische Ethik, Wittenb., 1845, 2 Bde. [Compare his articles Zur Dogmatik, in the Studien und Kritiken, 1859–60.]

· Philip Marheineke, born 1780, was professor of theology in the university of Berlin, and died 1846. He wrote: Grundlinien der christlichen Dogmatik als Wissenschaft, Berlin, 1819, 1827. [Theol. Vorlesungen, ed. Matthies und Vatke, 5 Bde., 1847, sq.]

Gabler, Göschel, Rosenkranz, Schaller, Rothe. See Thilo, u. s.

D. F. Strauss, die christliche Glaubenslehre in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung und im Kampfe mit der modernen Wissenschaft dargestellt, ii. Stuttg., 1840, 41. Comp. K. Ph. Fischer, die speculative Dogmatik von Strauss, erster Band, geprüft, Tub., 1841. Thilo, ubi supra. [Comp. Rosenkranz. Kritik d. Strauss'schen Glaubenslehre, 1845. Kahnis, Die moderne Wissenschaft des Dr. Strauss, and die wissenschaftliche Basis der Strauss'. schen Dogmatik, 1842. Sartorius, Die christliche Glaubenslehre; Beurtheilung der Straussischen Dogmatik, 1842.—In more recent times, this tendency has been most ably advocated by Tübingen, as represented by Ferdinand Christian Baur, born 1792, died 1860, at first a disciple of Schleiermacher, and by degrees applying the principles of the Hegelian system to the reconstruction of Christian history and of Christian doctrines. Among his works are Christian Gnosis, 1835; replies to Mohler's Symbolism, 1836, 89.; History of the Trinity, 3 vols., 1843–5; History of the Atonement, 1838; History of Doctrines, 1847, 1858. Schwegler and Zeller are his chief disciples. Comp. Baur's work on the Tübingen School, 2d ed., 1860, and Karl Hase, Die Tübinger Schule, 1855. A. Hilgenfeld, Das Urchristenthum. Hengstenberg's Evang. Kirchenzeitung, 1846; Keyser, Rev. de Thcologie, 1856; Uhlhorn in Jahrb. f. deutsche Theologie, 1858 (transl. into French by Sardinouz, in Revue Chrétienne, Suppl., 1861); Neue Evang. Kirchenzeitung, Jan., 1861; L'Ecole de Tubingue in Revue Germanique, 1861; Christ. Examiner, Boston, 1858. On Bruno Bauer and his criticism of the Gospel, see Gutachten d. evang. Theol. Facultäten, Berl., 1842.]

Among those who lived during the period of Kant and Fichte we may mention Reinhold, Fries, Krug, Bouterweck, and others; in modern times, Ritter, I. H. Fichte, C. H. Weisse, K. Ph. Fischer, Billroth, Erdmann, Drobisch, and others. [The school of Herbart is contending with that of Hegel for supremacy, on the opposite (viz., a realistic) basis ; (revival of the doctrine of monads?) J. F. Herbart, b. 1776, Prof. in Göttingen, d. 1841. Works, ed. by Hartenstein, 12 vols., Lpz., 1850–52; Minor Philos. Works, with biography, by Hartenstein, 3 vols., 1841-3. Among his disciples are M. W. Drobrich, Prof. in Leipz., Religionsphil., 1840, Math. Psychologie, 1845, etc.; Gustav Hartenstein, Metaphysik, 1836; Ethik, 1844; G. F. Tante, Religionsphil., 1840-52; F. Erner, d. 1853, Psychologie der Hegelschen Schule, 1843–5; Theod. Waitz, Psychologie, 1849 ; F. H. Allihn, Verderbliche Einfluss d. hegelschen Phil., etc.; E. A. Thilo, Moderne Rechtsphil., 1860; Rob. Zimmermann, Prof. in Wien, etc. The school is represented by the Zeitschrift f. d. exacte Philosophie, ed, by Allihn and Zeller, 1860.]

The principles of Schleiermacher were adopted, though with a stronger

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leaning towards orthodox theology, by Nitzsch (comp. 8 282, note 7), and A. D. Ch. Twesten, Vorlesungen über die Dogmatik der evangelisch-lutherischen Kirche. ii., Hamb., 1826, edit. 3d, 1834. On the other hand, Carl Hase allowed to critical and speculative tendencies a greater influence : see his Lehrbuch der evangelischen Dogmatik, Stuttg., 1826; fourth improved edition, 1850; Gnosis, oder evangelische Glaubenslehre für die Gebildeten in der Gemeinde, Leipzig, 1827, ii.—The most recent systems of theology are J. T. Beck, 1850; Rothe, Ethik, 1845–6; Julius Müller [Lehre von der Sünde, 2 Bde., 4th ed., 1838; transl. in Clark's Edinb. Library); Liebner (Christologie, Bd. i.), 1849; J. P. Lange, 1849–51 [Christliche Dogmatik, i., Phil. Dogmatik, ii., Positive, iii., Angewandte); Martensen, 1850–6 [from the Danish into German]; Ebrard, 1851-2 [Christliche Dogmatik; F. A. Philippi, Kirchliche Glaubenslehre, 3 Bde., Stuttg., 1854–9, to be continued ; J. C. K. Hofmann, Der Schriftbeweis, ein theologischer Ver. such, 3 Bde. Nördlingen, 1852, sq., 2d ed., 1859; G. Thomasius, Christi Person und Werk, 3 vols., 1853–9; Daniel Schenkel, Die christl. Dogmatik vom Standpunkte des Gewissens, 2 Bde., 1859–60; Ch. H. Weisse, Philosophische Dogmatik, 2 Bde. 1855–60, and others. Though representing different tendencies, yet these bave as a common aim, to give a philosophical basis to the Biblical and orthodox system of faith, and thus to conquer rationalism by spiritual supremacy.

That tendency which endeavored to bring about a reconciliation between the two extremes was, at first, chiefly represented in the Theologische Zeitschrift, edited by Schleiermacher, De Wette, and Lücke, and afterwards in the Studien und Kritiken, edited by Ullmann and Umbreit (from the year 1828).-There have since been several other periodicals of this class, particularly the Zeitschrift f. christliche Wissenschaft und christ. Leben [founded by Neander, Nitzsch, Müller, Tholuck, and others), from 1850: the Jahrbücher £. deutsche Theologie, by Liebner, Ehrenfeuchter [Dorner], etc., Stuttg., 1856.—The organ of the more advanced Hegelian party is the Theologische Jahrbücher, since 1842, by Baur, Zeller [now the Zeitschrift f. wissenschaftliche Theologie, ed. by Hilgenfeld.]

$ 284.


After the destructive tendency, in its self-delusion, had advanced even to the denial and dissolution of the religious self-consciousness,' the modern Rationalismus vulgaris came forward with all its claims to become a religion for the people, fitted to the wants of the times, and denuded as far as possible of all dogmas ; in short, to be for the people what, it said, religion had long been for a great part of educated minds. This was the aim of the so-called Protestant Friends, or Friends of Light (Lichtfreunde),' started in Köthen, who obtained adherents in different countries, especially in the north of Germany, and were soon divided up into several branch unions, and free churches.' For the development of the History of Doctrines they have only a negative importance, and

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their place is ratber in the transient story of the day than in the earnest history of religious truth. Of far greater moment is the struggle on fundamental principles, which has again sprung up between the conservative ecclesiastical party and the party of progress, as represented by Stahl and Bunsen.

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· Ludwig Feuerbach, Das Wesen des Christenthums, Lpz., 1841 (in the service of a pneumatic water-cure !); Das Wesen der Religion, 2te. Aufl., 1850. [Essence of Christianity, transl. by Marian Evans, Lond., New York, 1855. “ Religion is a dream of the human mind;" “all theology is anthropology,” etc. Feuerbach has also written Charakteristiken des modernen Afterchristenthums; P. Bayle, 1838 ; Philos. und Christenthums, 1839; Leibnitzsche Philosophie, 1837, etc.)

· Uhlich and Wislicenus.-A meeting was held in Köthen, May 29, 1844. Wislicenus work, Ob Schrift, ob Geist, 1845.-Thirteen Articles.-Uhlich's Reformation Theses.-See Niedner, Kirchengesch., p. 890, who gives the titles of the works.-Another controversy was that of Dulon in Bremen ; compare the Votum of the Heidelberg faculty, drawn up by Schenkel, 1852.

Societies in Breslau and Königsberg. Rupp, after his exclusion from the Free Church was a preacher of the Free Evangelical Church in Königsberg. See Niedner, as above. [Hase, p. 589.]

Bunsen, Zeichen der Zeit, Leipz., 1855; Gott in der Geschichte, 3 Bde., Leipz., 1857. These works gave rise to a controversy.—The Protestantische Kirchenzeitung, edited by H. Krause, may be considered as the organ of the freer Protestant tendency, introduced by Schleiermacher. (Christian Charles Josias Bunsen, d. 1791, ambassador in England, 1841-53, died Nov. 28, 1860. Among his works are, history of the Passion and Still Week, 1841 ; Church of the Future, 1845, translated, 1847; Eygpt's Place in Universal Hist., 4 vols., English by Cottrel, 1848-60; Ignatius, 1847; Hippolytus and his Age, 4 vols., 1855, and then 6 vols., 1854, 89. (in English, 2 in German, 1852, sq.); Signs of the Times, transl.; Bible Work, not completed, 8 parts, 1858–60. Comp. B. Baehring, Bunsen's Bibelwerk, und seine Bedentung für die Gegenwart, Lpz., 1861. H. Gelzer, Bunsen als Staatsman und Schriftsteller, Gotha, 1861.- Frederick Julius Stahl, Prof. in Erlangen, called to Berlin, 1841. Works : Protestantische Kirchenverfassung; Rechtsphilosophie. Leading the party of the reaction, he has been involved in controversies on Protestantism and Catholicism, on the Union (advocating the claims of High Lutheranism), and against the Evangelical Alliance: Was ist die Revolution, 3te, Aufl., 1852: Der Protestantismus als politisches Princip., 4te., Aufl., 1853; Die katholischen Widerlegungen, 1854; Christl. Toleranz, 1855; Wider Bunsen, 1856 (Schenkel, Fur Bunsen, Wider Stahl); Der Christl. Staat, 1858; Die Lutherische Kirche und die Union, 1859, 2te. Aufl, 1860.]

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§ 285.


The doctrinal controversies related in the preceding sections ($ 279-284), were almost entirely confined to Protestant Germany, and partially affected Denmark and those parts of Reformed Switzerland, in which the German language is spoken.' Nearly all the other Protestant countries either took no notice of these conflicts, or formed erroneous and onesided opinions concerning them.' Lutheran orthodoxy maintained on the whole its ground in Sweden.' In the Netherlands, the advocates of a more moderate (Arminian) tendency opposed the rigid system of the orthodoxy, established in the canons of the Synod of Dort. In England there were sonie partial deviations from the 39 Articles ;' and some new sects sprung up. The theology called Puseyism, nurtured in the university of Oxford, tended in both worship and dogma towards the Catholic Church ; distinguishing however between the genuine Catholic and the Roman Catholic.'—The Evangelical Alliance, started in London in 1846, is a grand attempt to do away with the ecclesiastical and dogmatic dissensions ; but German theology can hardly be satisfied with its formal articles. —Nor did Protestant theology in France keep pace with the German culture (with the exception of Strasburg) ;' the laity were here the first to display a spirit of more profound inquiry into religious truths." The commotions in the Church of Geneva and the Canton de Vaud cannot be compared (either as to matter, or to form) with the contests between Rationalism and Supernaturalism in Germany." But the barriers which have hitherto prevented foreign churches from appropriating the results of German learning seem gradually disappearing, and a growing desire manifests itself to become acquainted with the religious conflicts of the birth-place of the Reformation.



' In Denmark the controversy between Rationalism and Supernaturalism was carried on by Clausen and Grundtvig (see the Evangelische Kirchenzeitung, 1827, etc. Studien und Kritiken, 1834, part 4; Hase, Church History, pp. 525, 526, 561-2.) [Rudelbach, in Zeitschrift f. lutherische Theologie, 1841; and, more fully, 1859–60, in opposition to the later high church Lutheranism of Grundtvig. Among the Reformed Churches of Switzerland in the last century, Zurich was especially affected by the theological tendencies then prevailing in Germany. (Hess and Lavater were the representatives of Supernaturalism, though each in a different wayHäfeli, Stols, and Schulthess, of Rationalism.) The theology of Schleiermacher in the course of this century was here represented by L. Usteri, the author of the


" Paulinischer Lehrbegriff,” which in the later editions inclines to the views of Hegel and Rosenkranz ; and Alexander Schweizer, [author of the Glaubenslehre der Reform. Kirche, 2 Bde., 1844, and Central-Dogmen der Reform. Kirche, 2 Bde., 1854–6; an advocate of strict necessity as the inmost sense of the Reformed theology. The call of Strauss to Zurich, 1839, led to a violent controversy, and the call was revoked. See Gelzer, Die Straussischen Zerwürfuisse in Zürich, 1843; Aug. Roden, Geschichte der Bernfung des Dr. Strauss, 1840.-In Schaffhausen, Georg Müller, (died 1819; he wrote: Vom Glauben der Christen, Wintherthur, 1815, 2 vols.) endeavoured to propagate principles akin to those of Herder, but in a more orthodox

In Berne, orthodoxy long maintained its ground in alliance with the aristocratic government.--Since the expulsion of the first representative of Rationalism (Wettstein, 1730) from Basle, its advocates have always been excluded from that town. For a long time it was (unjustly) considered the seat of pietism.-By the renovation and foundation of the Swiss universities (Basle, 1817-35, Zurich, 1833, Berne, 1834), and the vocation of German professors (De Wette received a call from the university of Basle, 1821), the theology of Switzerland was brought into a closer connection with that of Germany.

J. H. Rose, der Zustand der protestantischen Religion in Deutschland, 4 Reden an der Univ. Cambridge, 1825, translated from the English, Leipz., 1826. [Hugh James Rose, b. 1795, d. 1838, State of Protestantism in Germany, 2d ed., 1829; comp. Edinb. Rev., vol. 54, and E. B. Pusey's Histor. ical Inquiry, 2 vols., 1828–30.] • See Guericke, Kirchengeschichte, ii., p. 1084, 1087.

Concerning the latest events, see Die Unruhen in der niederländischreformirten Kirche während der Jahre, 1833–39, von X. herausg. von Gieseler, Hamb., 1840. Among the Dutch theologians Heringa, Clarisse, Royaards, and others have followed the development of German theology. [J. Clarisse, Encyclop. Theol., 1835. J. Ez. Heringa, Opera Exeg., new ed., 1845; Het gebruiken misbruik der Kritik, 1793. H. J. Royaards, Chrest. Patrist., 1831, 7; Comp. Hist. Eccles., 1840; Geschiedenis van het Christendom Nederland, 1853. D. Van Wijnpersse, on Div. of Christ, 1793. H. Muntinghe, d. 1824, Theologia Theoret. ; Brevis Expos. Vet. Fæderis, 1827. -The present divisions of the schools in Holland are, 1. Strict orthodox, at the Hague, represented by Groen van Prinsterer, Capadose, the poet Bil. derjik, (d. 1831). 2. Moderate orthodox, under the motto, Earnestness and Peace. Chantepie de la Saussaye, has written on the Religious Crisis in Holland, in defence of their views (Paris, 1860) against Prinsterer: Domine Beets, Helldring, Hasenbroek, Van Rhyn, Van Osterzee, Doedes and Trottet, (see his article on Dutch theology, in the Rev. Christ., 1860) also belong here. 3. The school of Groningen (moderate liberal); Van Heusde (the Platonist, d. 1845), Hofstede de Groot, etc. 4. Rationalists, chiefly at Leyden. Prof. Scholten, of Leyden in his “Doctrine of Ref. Church” and “History of Philos. of Religion” is “ deistico-pantheistic.” Opzoomer of Utrecht would reconcile man with himself by means of philosophy. See Von Prinsterer, The Anti-Revolutionary Party, Amst., 1860; Chantepie, La Crise

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