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Notwithstanding the antipathy acquired by most persons during childhood to all species of lizards (efts, or cjks, as they are usually called) it is certain that they are amongst the most harniless and inofensive of all animals. I have frequently put my finger into their mouths, and have endeavoured to scratch the skin with their teeth, there, however, are so thort, that they would scarcely lacerate the tender skin of a hird Their sharp pointed tongue is formidable only in appearance, for it is periecely soft: the rapidity with which the lizards dart it out, and again retract it, whenever they are alarmed, is an instinctive action intended no doubt to operate upon the fears of their enemies; and thus to contribute towards the safety of these, viherwise, de encriefs creatures.
March 20. The ground ivy, (gleroma herleracea) barren firawberry, (fragaria fterilis) deg, violi, (vicla canina) and marsh marigold (caltha paluftris) are in flower.
A twelve-rayed ca.ftar (allereas pappola) was this day found on the fea-beach.
The fun thining unutually bright on this day, I, for the firft time, obferved several individuals of the fafron yellow luite fly (papilo obameri) flitting about in the shady lanes.
It has been remarked that the appearance of butterflies is, on account of the extreme deli. cacy or the animals, the curest sign of spring. This is certainly the case when they are seen in any considerable numbers: but it is well known that individuals of several of the species occafionully revive from their torpidity and fly about in warm days even during the depth of winter.
March 31. A greater sprired tvood picker was this day sent to me. 1 April 7. Roach and date begin to iwim about, and feed at the surface of the rivers. The old jalmon, after spawning up the rivers, have for some weeks parit been coming down to the fed. In the funn; days they may occasionally be seen, in a very weak and eniaciated state, balking themielves on the thallows. In leveral of the rocks ncit there are young ones. April 9. The cowslip is in flower; and the bramble has put forth its first leaves.
April 13. Walking along the bank of the river, I this day oblerved the bones of a pike, and ine budy of a large cel, which had been dragged out of the water by an otter. Upon enquiry I found that two otters were killed in the neighbourhood not long ago.
April 15. The black snail (limax ater) appears.
April, 1807, inclufive, Two Aliles NW. of St. Paul's,
On the morning of
On the 15th init. the Greatet 39 hun. curyttood at 29-82,
thermometer was ro
Greateft sarition in dredths of , and on the next
higher than 43°; and
variation in 10°. hours.
morning it was no
on the 16th it was as higher than 29:50.
as high as 53.
The quantity of rain fallen during the last two months is equal to about two inches in depth.
Although the thermometer has been fix days at 60° or 619, ftill the average height for the whole nonth is only 14.74, which is about equal to the mean heights for the same period the lait two years, but in April, 1802, the average heat was nearly 52%. The mean height of the larometer is 29.90.
Between the soch of March and the 19ch of the present month, we had much severe were ther, and ieveral very heavy fails of fnow, on the 18th the ice was in fome places much more than half an inch in thickness.
The wind has been variable. On the cold days it came chiefly from the N N.E. and on time others it was S.S.W. On leveral days it changed to every point between fun risc and fuo-let.
TO CORRESPONDENTS. WE are defired, by an old Correspondent, to ftate that, as no authenticated instance of the existence of a fingie mad dog, or any cale of hydrophobia, has yet been published, notwithstanding many thousands of dogs were destroyed during the late alarm, he wife to rente in formation of any such inttances, if there were any, through the medium of the Monthly de guzine.
MONTHLY MAGAZINE . No. 157.] JUNE ), 1807.
[5 of VOL. 23.
* As long as those who write are ambitious of making Converrs, and of Ejving to their Opinions a Maximum of
Influence and Celebrity, the most extensively circulated Miscellany will repay with thic greatük ENSK thie " Cariocity of those who read either for Amusement or Inftrudioa." JOHNSON.
ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS, For the Monthly Magazine. of teaching those persons to speak who are ON THE STATE OF THE EDUCATION OF dumb only in consequence of their being
THE DEAP AND DUMB THROUGHOUT deaf (or the deaf-dumb, as I shall call EUROPE.
thein, to contradistinguish them froin I". F the art of instructing the deaf and those who are both dumb and deat by
dumb of our species to converse with nature), are very simple. their fellow creatures cannot be traced Hearing is the universal medium of into times of very remote antiquity, á tercourse among men; it is also the meposition I by no means propose to lay dium by which men learn to express their down, it is, however, one wbich must thoughts to one another by sounds, that not be rankert among the discoveries that is, to speak. Hearing excites the child belong in principe to the present age.
to make exertions for producing sounds We know of works upon the subject of like those which be learns to understand, leaching the deaf and dumb to think and day after day, as the usual signals of write, and to learn useful arts, so early thought and will among men. Hearing as the beginuing of the seventeenth cen- is at the same time the criterion by which tury. I shall instance one in Italian, by a child judges every sound, and regulates Signor Affinate, printed in 1606; and his first attempts to mould and exercise another in Spanish, by Don Juan Pablo his organs in the way that produces Bouet, printed in 1620. These two sounds like those uttered by the persons books are generally reputed to be the about him. The deprivation of hearing cldest upon the subject extant. We have, from the period of infancy, whether acbesides, the Surdus loquens of Doctor cidental or constitutional, being almost Amman, a Swiss physician, who taught without an exception accompanied with several deaf-dumb children to speak in absence of speech, it became the reAmsterdam above a hundred years ago, ceived opinion, that where the sense of and his de Loquela, the former printed in hearing was not to be excited, it was im1692, the latter in 1700. In addition to possible for a person so circumstanced to these Jocuments of what has been before understand oral discourse, much more to our day, we have proofs that a very few pronounce intelligible sounds. years after the publication of the Ita- The sense of sceing, however, is very lian and Spanish works just mentioned, acute; and as our sense of hearing is aland before Dr. Amman began to instruct ways observed to be stronger and more any person whatever, some Englishmen accurate in the dark, because then all our of great learning and ingenuity conceived powers of attention are concentered upon the extensive and astonishing idea of that one method of perception, so with teaching the deaf-dumb to understand the the deaf, their sense of sceing is generally conversation of others by sight, and to quicker than ours, because better exspeak themselves; an invention calcu- ercised, and their attention is not die lated to afford to them a complete partici- vided with a sense so powerful as that of pation in the same means of develope- bearing. If, then, ordinary persons can ment and expansion of the mind, enjoyed take notice of the variety of changes the by the rest of mankind. The faculty of muscles of the face undergo in pronounspeech was thenceforward made known cing any.set of articulate sounds what. to those who seeined for ever excluded ever; and we admnit (what it is inpos. from its advantages; and the art has been sible to deny) that sounds which are dispractised, with the intermission of some tinct, must have been produced by disvery short intervals, in some part of tinct motions; it follows, to the compreGrent Britain ever since.
hension of every one, that the acate and The principles that led to the first idea well-exercised sight of a deaf person, MostaLY MAG., No. 157,
whose attention is all bestowed to that and in Holland, as well as England, it one point, may gradually learn to distin- did not begin to be universally admitted guish the motions exhibited on the coun- tliat those who were born deaf were not tenance in pronouncing each word: and likewise destitute of the powers of reathat he may at length succeed in making son, until the contrary was demonstrated the very same motions; which, if they be in France by the Abbé de l'Epée. The exactly the same, and produced in the progress which had been made in other same manner, cannot fail of being accom- countries, however satisfactory in most pavied with the very words uttered by instances, was but partial, and seemed, other people.
after some time, to be lost in obscurity. Our neighbours, the French, who are The consequence was, that many minds, in general too little inclined to allow the endued with the briglitest natural qualicredit due to the inventive spirit of this ties, remained neglected, and confounded country, or too much disposed to claim it with the hopeless ideot. The success of for themselves, dispute with us the palm De l'Épée fortunately drew the attention of superior genius and humanity, in re- of princes, and crowned heads have since spect to the unfortunate dumb aud deaf. deemed the topic not beneath their Their governments, since the foundation glory to notice. Several establishments laid by their munificent Bourbons, have are now formed in various parts of Eucertainly done much to attract the atten- rope under the immediate patronage, and tion of the universe, and clain the principal at the expence, of the monarchs. The merit among sovereigns anxious to ease example was set by France : Germany the unfortunate of the oppressive weight followed : Italy and Spain, which gave of evil. Europe looks with admiration to birth to the first essays upon this curious -the progress of the schools of De l'Epée subject, bave joined in the benevolent and Sicard in which the mode of instruc- undertaking; in England the contributing is by a language not intelligible to tions of private persons support a conthe generality of men; the glory of the siderable institution; and Deninark and English is, that they first, in spite of Russia either have, or are preparing to seeming impossibility, taught to operate carry into ellect, complete systems of nain favour of the speechless, the last of mi. tional education for the deaf and dumb racles, to impart to them the gift of on the most extensive scale, tongues; and that here the bounty of in- Upon a subject so intimately condividuals keeps pace with the muniti- nected with philological and liberal cence of princes.
knowledge, and peculiarly interesting to The celebrated Sir Kenelm Digby, an the mind either of curiosity or benevoauthor of the beginning of the seven- lence, it may be acceptable to many teenth century (from 1030 to 1660), gives readers to know what has been done in an account of a dcaf-dumb young man the various institutions of this nature who was taught tv kuow what was spo- now in being, where they are established, ken to him.
and by whom. A sketch of the various Dr. Wallis, in the Philosophical Trans- methods practised in those institutions, actions, Nos. 61, and ?45,* gives a very will enable the enquiring mind to judge minute description of the method by of their comparative advantages, and, if which he taught one deaf and dumb pu- the heart or genius prompt, to contripil to write, and general notions upon buic to the extension of the blessing. the manner in which he instructed ano- The method usually practised in the ther, a deaf-dumb person, to speak. The instruction of the deaf and dumb, is to first, a Mr. Daniel Whalley, was taught shew thein the thing meant iv be capressby the doctor to understand the English ed, and at the same time repeat the language mentally, and to become such a sign or gesture which is to be thenceproficient in writing, that he could ex- forward understood between the pupil press his own thoughts readily upon pa- and his instructor as representing it. per, and comprehend what was written Then, passing from things evident to to him by other persons; the second was the senses, to thingsintellectual, the masMr. Alexander l'ophani, brother-in-law ter, by gestures, corresponding motions to the Earl of Oxford.
of the countenance, and the approxins It is remarkable, that, notwithstanding tion of such ideas as the pupil mny have instances so conchisive as these, and all already couceived, proceeds to coutrawhich had been done in Italy, in Spain, distinguish and gire a separate gesture
pame to each of the sensations, emotions, # Abridgmert.
passions, and operations of the miud;
and, in due order, to qualities and things within his own mind, and pursue any Heal, as long, lengih, broad, breadth, train of thought which does not depend timę, space, immortality, &c.
upon results too abstruse for his unasEvery person who has been present at sisted comprehension, it is equally certain the representation of a good pantomime, that, if we communicate to him a certain has had an opportunity of witnessing, that set of sigos, however incomplete and appropriate gestures are capable of con- slow in the execution, he will make a proveying almost the precise idea of the per- gress of some kind proportioned to the son who uses then, to the ininds of helps he has received. None of these others. The language of gesture is ex. methods, however, can possibly obviate pressive, and it is natural. Its first prin- the principal deficiency wbich they leave ciples are the same in all countries, and still untouched, viz. that of being able require no instruction. By it the strao- to make a ready interchange of thoughts ger in a foreign country makes known his with any individual of the nation in mants, and understands the intentions of which the pupils are to pass their lives. those who approach him. It is the me. The languages of pantomime, of letters thod imparted by heaven, to open a com- on the fingers, and ot' writing, assist, and munication among the nations separated are undoubtedly useful in a high degree; since the confusion of tongues. Even a correspondence is indeed etfected by the English, whose countenances, of all thein, and they lead to the cultivation of others, are the most placid and inmove- the pupil's mind; but none of them reable in conversation, and who are re- store him to a participation in the cheerinarked for accompanying their discourse ful, easy converse, from which his want of with fewer gestures than any other people, hearing has severed him: and, without even the English make occasional use of the power of speaking or understanding the universal gesticulations for cominy, oral speech, he still remains solitary in going, threatening, ioviting, coinpliment- the midst of his friends and of the world. mg, noticing, commanding silence, bid
There are seldom more than one or divy farewell
, assenting, denying, &c. two among the whole number of any By carrying this language to its natural deaf-dumb child's relations, that will take extent; chusing new and distinct signs the trouble to learn the meaning and cons for ideas that in themselves are distinct; nection of his simplest gestures. They and successively substituting the written guess ils well as they can at the purport 'word for the gesticulated sign, until the of his mode of expressing himself; and use of both, as signs for the thing or in so many incongruous ways as their own thouglit, becomes equally familiar; the minds happen to be variously organised, deat and dumb have been, and still are, do they contrive gestures to convey to most usually instructed; such an edus him their own meaning. cation comprising properly the arts of The language of gesticulated signs, conversing by manual signs and by write therefore, although to a certain degree it ing.
may be a help in the initiative instrucIn addition to the pantomimic method tion, falls short of the purpose of exactof conversing by gestures, and that of ness, and writing also falls short of the corresponding by the written letters in purpose of speedy communication, two use aniong the rest of the nation to which objects which are sufficiently answered the pupil belongs, a method has been by speech alone. The most complete arlopted of easier acquirement than the system of gesticulation that can be taught former, to persons already acquainted the deaf and dumb, is as foreign a lanwith orthography, and of much conveni- guage to those with whom a person in ence where neither of the other methods that condition may bave afterwards to can be prictised. I allude to a literal live, and as difficult to comprehend, as language on the fingers, for which there the least intelligible of his own original are various schemes, most of which have and peculiar signs. been tried with some success. The ta- I have not heard of any persons who culties of a human being gain strength took the pains to attain a competent from any kind of exercise, however tedi- knowledge of such a manner of expressa oas; or imperfect, as these methods, com- ing thought, except the professors and faired with speech, trust ever be; and pupils alone; nor is it reasonable to presiuce it is certain that a deaf and dumh sume that many others would quit their person, like any other human being cn- ordinary and important occupations, for a dued with reasoning powers, wants but a study in itself infinitely conplex, with set of distinct signs to unravel the chaos out being impelled either by strong ne
3 G 2
cessity, or the hope of obtaining a re- people, and the events passing around coinpence in some degree proportion, them: for this is what we see every untued to the previous fatigue of attending tored dumb person do of himself, and it. Those unhappy persons who are in- with the greater significance in proportion curably duinb (that is, who want, or are to his greater degree of intellect. This irremediably defective in, the organs re- is the initiative stage of instruction. quisite to produce articulated sound) have The famous French professors, the certainly no other resource to express Abbés de l'Epée and Sicard, have founwhat passes within them: yet even they, ded their system of instruction for the if their sense of seeing be not as detec- deaf and dumb upon this natural lantive as their hearing, may be taught to guage of signs. By giving the full extent read upon, and understand frorn, the lips to the inferences that may be drawn from of others, every thing that is said in their the simple observations just mentioned, presence
they have filled all Europe with the echo The most numerous class of dumb per- of their prạise; a praise which every sons, are those who are destitute of speech friend of humanity who has had an oponly in consequenee of their being desti« portunity of contemplating their success tute of the sense of hearing, which ex- with all its consequences, will say is most cites otber inen to speak; and not from justly inerited. any defect in the organs of speech, with In the Philosophical Transactions, No. which they are in most cases as well pro- 312,* there is als account given on the vided as the generality of mankind. This authority of Mr. Waller, the then secreclass of dumb persons is what I desig- tary to the Royal Society, of a brother nate by the name of the deaf-dumb; and and sister, natives of the town in which they would have learned to speak from Mr. Waller was born, and both aged their cradle, if they had not been likewise about fifty, who, although they had been destitute of the proper instruction to ob- deaf from their childhood, yet potwithserve and imitate the motions used in standing, by observing the motions of a speaking; which, in their effects, viz. the person's lips and face while speaking, variety of sounds, are rendered so per- understood every thing the person said, ceptible to all who hear. Every indivi- and returned proper answers. The
produal of this class is capable of being in. nunciation of this man and woman, al. structed, not only to read the motions of though somewhat uncouth from want of the faces of others as quick as another being regulated by the ear, was perfectly can hear, but also to produce within his intelligible. or her own mouth those very sounds with There is another instance of the er which the motions observed are accom- ertions of nature in what I shall call the panied.
second and third stages of the instruction We have upon record instances suffi- of the deaf and dunıb, related by Bishop cient of the exertions of nature in some Burnet, in the case of a daughter of the of these forlorn individuals, to suggest, Reverend Mr. Goddy, a clergyman of without any other proof, the possibility Geneva, The young lady was first obof bringing this theory to the same de- served to have lost her bearing when a grec of perfection as the system of in- child of about two years old ; and never structing how to carry on a conversation afterwards, although she retained some by the aid of hearing. It is here worthy of faculty of perceiving when the air was agiremark, ihat the efforts of nature are to tated by very loud noises, could hear a sixbe observed in all and the very same gle sound of what was spuken. By atterra stages through which art will have to tive observation of the mouth and lips of follow,
persons speaking, she rendered herself It is presumable that in all ages the able to understand all that was said in dumb have not been destitute of as many her sight; and moreover, by imitating signs to express their wants or wishes, as the motions of their mouths, collected a they could in that state be supposed to sufficient number of words to form a jar. have had perceptions; for this species of gon of her own; in which she could hold language is not denied even to the brutes. a conversation with her friends, and those
It is also presumable that dumb per- whose attention and ingenuity were che sons have always been able to invent for pable of supplying her lapses and defithemselves, and that they have always ciencies. With the approach of dark made use of, some particular signs to in- her conversation ceased, until candles umate how far they understood the ineaning, gestures, looks, and actions of other