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every side, they are apt to lose all pre- sound of a particular whistle denotes that sence of mind, become giddy, and fall the firemen are at their post; the sedown; thus, not only obstructing the ex- cond, that the working of the engine has ertions of the experienced tiremen, but begun; and the third, that it has ceased, disheartening the tyro from following the and is no longer nece sary. example of his master. The veteran After what has been observed, no one fireman, on the contrary, forms his opi- can, even in Paris, become an expert nion of a conflayration at the first sight firemen, before seven or eight years pracof it; he immediately knows whither to die tice. For although thcoretical knowrect his engine, and what instructions to ledge is of some use, yet the views of magive to the assistants.

uy totally different conflagrations, an unA guard of fireinen consists of three common presence of mind, and a coupersons; a corporal, a head fireman, and rage supported by the generous disposian under-fireman. The tiöst superintends tion of succouring the unfortunate, are the engine, that is to say, be directs the absolutely necessary to insure ultimate working of it, and takes care that no muddy or gritty water be poured into the In Paris, the idea of honesty is insecistern of the pump. The second super- parably connected with that of fireman; intends the fire, that is, he attends to the for although the fireman has a right to tendency, power, and extension of it, and demand the opening of any room, and in points

spout of the engine according, case of refusal, to burst open both street ly. The third superintends the leather and room-doors, yet there is no person pipes, that is, he follows the second, berug who would take more scrupulous care very careful that the pipes be well laid, of property entrusted to him. do not become entangled, or swell too Skilful engineers have more than once much in one place. To prevent their attended at conflagrations, but have free bursting, he is always provided with some ly confessed, that on such emergencies twine, for the purpose of applying it in their theoretical knowledge proved insufţime. For, even if the pipe actually ficient to direct the operations of the fireburst, this application is so beneficial, men, who had the advantage of experithat the operation is no way interrupted ence, derived from long practice. by the aperture. The firemen, who pos- Every fireman is at liberty to retire sess the privilege of compelling every one from the service of the company at pleapresent to give assistance, are expected sure, which is a wise regulation, calcuto assign each person his proper place, lated for its general benefit. For many lest he labour to no purpose. This task individuals are admitted members, who, is allotted to the first fireman, who di- after becoming more intimately acquaintrects the working of the engine, and ar- ed with the dangers, to which every fireranges near it the first file of from ten to man is daily exposed, shrink from the fifteen persons, handing the buckets. The ditñculties of such a service. Were these rest are under the orders of a magistrate, men enrolled like soldiers, they would attending for that purpose. As scarely a discharge their duties not only in a serday passes at Paris without some fire vile manner, but in constant agony, and breaking out, the firemen are kept in certainly do more harm than good; as the continual practice. Every playhouse firemen engaged in actual service are enin Paris is obliged to proride a fire-en- joined to perform certain functions, froin gine, which is served by three firemen, which every other citizen is excluded. who are daily relieved by others. Their I have been informed that the French attendance begins at five o'clock in the soldiers who returned froin Egypt unaniafternoon precisely, and is continued mously assert, that if Bonaparte hard through the whole of the night till day- taken with hiru either a while company, light, during which time they keep strict or at least a dozen, of firemen, to inwatch. Each man receives a monthly struct cthers, they would not, during gratuity of thirty francs, as their pay, their stay in that country, have been aniconsidering the extraordinary hardships noyed by so many conflagrations. and dangers to which they are exposed, The new organization of the Paris is very slender; for the city pays to each firemen is set forth in a decree, wajeno fireman no more than sixteen sols a day. passed in the ninth year, under the Cone The smaller theatres diskurse every day sular government. Its principal feature: for the three fireinen nine livres, and the are an augmentation of their number, and larger ones from fifteen to eighteen livres. an incrense of pay. The age of the tir :In case a theatre be set on fire, the first ineu is likewise restricted to the perio MONTULY MAG, No, 157.

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of from 18 to 30. Every man must “ Inutilesque amputans feliciores inserit." measure five lict two inches. He must be able to read and write; have been

I am aware that the latter part is (very apprenticed at least for two years to

happry) adopted for the criterian seal: the trades of bricblayer, carpenter, tiler,

bui illud suely does not piecude a diiteplumber, joiner, coacumanci, iuchsmith,

remi adaptation of it for a sull higher sadler, or basketmaker, and he must puse the mulajdon, the nione kingdom itself

process; bij ubichi, vil may venture upoa sess a good character,

is Though manyattempts have been made

mora y vaccinied at once. in the city of Paris, both iefore and after last number but one (vol. xxii. p. 355),

I open my note to say, that in your the revolution, as well as under the presin Memous of Lord Thuilow, there is a sent inperial government, to establish institutions for insuring buildings and mistake or two deseruang of currection. property, similar to those which are the

Dr. Smith, the inasier of Carus Colpride of London, yet whether it is wat lege, Cambridge, died 1 1795, and was the people of Paris have no favourable succeeded by Dr. Belward. Dr. Davy opinion of the integrity of the montied succceded the latter. interest, or that they place implicit conie

In the next page, Lord Walsingham's fidence in the skill of their firemen, ihese fanıily name is De Grey, wot Delpez. institutions have never been crowned

The query at p. 354, le tire to the with success.

barbarous practice of buiting lobsten alire remains unanswered.

F. R. S. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SIR,

To the Editor of the Monthly Auguzine. T I

STE, pondent Zenas, but, upon enquiry, he AVING seen in your entertaining willtind (I believe) that thesariation which

mu he proposes (vol. xxii. p. 435) in the ortho- yuury concern og lady inne, u bose Me graphy of the words exceed, proceed, and mon's are silu tu bare len nserteni in succeed, was introduced by no less a wric Pererme Pichle, gre me leart: to suforia ter than Dr. Conyers Middleton, author you what I brow about her. In the year of the Life of Cicero, &c. but without any 1711(I was then a young girl, and on a permanent effect. There is a vexatious party of pleasure witte sine trends at perver:cness in this want of analogy, Maico's, Maidenhead-bridge), in wie which more or less pervades our lan- minth of August, then, giri-like, we were guage, and which, I fear, is incorrigible, watching at the window to see who came The same cminent authority, on the tu the li, a coach stopped, and a lady same principle, would have introduced was litted out between two meu. "The the words exclume, erplune, &c. omi- singularity other appearance attacied our ting the i, as forming no part of the ori- nouce: her fiice appeared as in a mask, ginal Latin word; but the practice died I suppose from paint. When the waiter with himself. In the word, uncient, pro- Calc 1, "e enquired who this extraorrunciation, and others which have obs;- dinary personage was, and were told it ously come to us by the strictly geogra- was die formely much adaired Lady phical route of France, it may still be Vave, who resided in complete retirement doubtful whether the Gallic c or the Ro- a few miles from that spot; that she was mant should be preferred; and yet, in entirely nursed and attended by men; such a word as vice and its derivatives, had lost the use of her limus; and wiat which inay perhaps decide the question, her only recreation was to come to that we cannot hesitate about adopting the inn, which she did occasionally, and was former.

obliged to have a bed on the ground There is such a prejudice (perhaps tour; and that she sat up most of the night, your Correspondent A Subscriber', and drank a great deal of wine and spirits. who dates from St. Paul's Coffee-house, Some years alter, being in that ticighp. 451, may call it " a vexatious per- bourhood, I coquired after the unfurtu. verseness," in favour of Latin inoltos nate lady, and lieard that she died a few to seals, &c. that I would venture to ree months after I had seen her: 90 I suppose commend for that of the Philanthropic she was buried ucar the saine spot. I Society, with a double reference (both to theu heard the name of the place, but the exiled convict and his protected have quite forgot it. child):

I am, your's, &c, C.P.



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To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. I am at loss to conceive why he should IR,

ever have adopted Hebrum instead of O

le-considering Mr. Pickbourn's Eurum, unless the course of the river was

Buruver letter in vol. xxi. p. 104, ( intended to convey the idea of grace and find that I have understood that part beauty. Іa &c. of i! as a translation of the


J. ROBINSON. guste.tin Bishop Hare, which Mr. P, Muy 2, 1807. intended only as an explanation of ac

Tlus inisunderstaniing, I a-sure To the Editor of the Monthly Alugurine. M Pwa umorentional, and occasione SIR, elbi ducivertency, though the manner AVING occasion to go from Liverin !

14.0n the preceding sentence was Wirsi, in ght bave deceived others as day, I crossed at one of the ferries, and wed, however, makes no performed the journey, on foot. As I maieu el alteration with respect to the passed along, I perceived the female muter on which we dufer in senti. villagers eye me with no little curie meu. Win lil Pi I think that ucu- ostly, but conceiving it to be nothing tus is undoubtedly a participle froin the more than usual at the sight of a stranvero urun. But in the place of the ger, or perhaps somewhat flattered by word syllaba, I would insert nota. Acuta female attention, no unpleasant apprenoto neann a sharpencil or acuted note: hension arose; till at length a strong and therefore syllaba occute nota prorina porty of them, consisting of seven or must signify the syllalile which is accent- cight, ruslied from a little village, and ed.. that this is not a faise nor forced surrounded ine, one of them seizing me interpretation of the passage in question, by the breast. "Alarmed at this, so much is evident from the content, and in par: like a hue and cry after a thiet, I desired ticular, from what he afterwards subjósins; to know what was my offence; and in re“ Quæ acuuntur in terliu ab eriremin, in- turn was informed by the Amazoo, who terdum acutum corripiunt, si positione had me still in her grasp, that it was Easter sola tonga suni, ut optime, sérvitus, përve. Monday, or Lifting-day. As I had receive lim, lámphilus, et pauca aliu, quo Cretici ed some little hint of this custom when mutantur in Anajrestos. Idem fuctum in Liverpool, and rightly supposed the est in neutiquam.' licet incipiat a diphe principal object of all suchi (at least in mothonyo." De Metr. Comic. p. 62. deru days,) to be the extortion of money,

I could wish to be informed by some I thought it prudent so to liberate myself, of your learned correspondents why rather than to satisty my curiosity by a Heyne, in his edition of Virgil, has made practical experience of the operation. use of the word Hebrum, instead of The next village I had nearly shared a siEurum, in the passage in which the poet milar tate; but fortunately, I was too far is describing Venus, the inother of advanced ere they could collect in suffiEneas :

cient numbers to compence the aftacka -qualis equos Threissa fatigat As it was past 12 o'clock when I arrived Haspalyco, volucremque fuga prævertitur at Chester, I witne-scd nothing more on H brum.

that day, it being confined to the forenoon Volucrem Hekruin, (says lleyne), com

entirely: but on the morrow my ears muni futurum epitheto declaravit, cts of those who were attacking the passen

were carly assailed by the rude clainour's Hebrerursuin nurrant esse linem ac placidum. I do not think that the epithet rolu- gers on every side. Nor were the houses, Crix is applicable to the llebrus, it, as said, as I had by no means the enviable pleasure

at least the inns, a sufficient protection ; the course of the river be tenis et placidlus, to hear, daring my breakfast, a far froin Bes des, the common editions of l'irgel delicate party enquire if the gentleman have adopted the amendment of Huetius, and read Eurum, to which volucrem is

was risen, wbich was answered by my much more applicable. In everal places falsehood securing my safety. Tlie prac

hostess in the negative; thus by a little of his works, Viryal has made use of Lurus tice is, that if the perfons so seized, male to express rapidity.

or female (as they have each a day), re-- Fugit ilicet scior Euro Æn. viii 223. fuse to pay the necessary fine, they are -Fugitucior Euro. Æn. xii. 733.

taken by the arms, legs, clothes, or any lu these and other passayes, Heyne part, and tossed up and down several has followed the cominun reading; and times, the last, not uatrequently, suffered

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to fall with considerable violence: in- For the Monthly Magazine deed, I am told that serious accidents

THE ANTIQUARY. have been known to occur through it.

No. XIII. The precedence of the sex as to the day ON THE INTRODUCTION OF CHIMXIES. is, I understand, in some places, where no doubt the original custoin is more A hare more immediately distinguiststrictly adhered to, regulated by the superiority of a king or queen, who are

ed the comparative convenience of mochosen to ride for it; the winning sex com

dern life above the comforts of our early mencing hostilities on the Monday, the ancestors, we may, perhaps, be allowed other reta ia-ing on the Tuesday; but in to place the use of chimnies. most places, little to the honour of their whether the ancieitts were acquainted

It has been a question often canvassed, gallantry, the men take the lead now. Sir, as I ain a West-countryman, and little have been cited are rather evidences that

with them; but the testimonies which versed in any customs but those of my the houses of Greece and Rome were own inmediate neighbourhood, I should thank any of the numerous readers of your silent on the subject. And what we learn

constructed without thein. Vitruvius is valuable Magazine if they would intorm from the discoveries at Herculaneum and me through its medium, of the origin and intention of this curious one; as I am by Roman stations both in this and other

Pompeii, as well as from the traces of no means satistied with the information

countries, more than indicates that the given me by a gentleman, to whom, on account of his age and situation, I apr tirely by subterraneous flues.

different apartments were warmed enplied, that it was in commemoration of our Lord's resurrection. Were such the

The oldest certain account of chimcase, much as I venerate ancient

neys that occurred to Beckmann, while

usages, I could wish to see this abolished, as,

writing the History of Inventions, was in in addition to its appearing like a bur- 1347, when a great many chimnies at lesque, and fitter to convey an idea of

Venice (molti camini) are said to have poor Sancho Panza's tossing in the blan- He adds, that the first chimney-sweepers

been thrown down by an earthquake. ket, the horrid oaths and imprecations at in Gerniany came from Saroy, Piedmont; tending the proceeding, give a stranger a and the neighbouring territories; which entertained here for an event the most for a long time were the only countries interesting to human nature. As it seems

where the cleaning of chinnies was carto originate in Wales, whither our most

ried on as a trade. ancient customs retired, perhaps there is

But although chimnies were not comsome little remains in it of a ceremony mon, their use may be proved in this attached to the early religion of this country at a period still' more distant. island; as it was the practice of our first Chemin, which inplies a road or way, Christian missionaries to suffer the con- may, perhaps, induce one to believe that verts to retain as much of the former ce the introduction of them was fron France; emonies and usages which they were at

or the name might have been taken fron

the Latin. tached to, as was consistent with the spiritand purity of our benevolent religion. In

Mr. Whitaker, in the History of Crathat case it may be classed with the May

ven (p. 934), recites a Computus of Bolgames of our island, or the hill-tires of the ton-abbey, in Yorkshire; in which, so Irish; and some very learned person may

long ago as 1310, the sum of nine shiltrace its introduction to the Phoenicians: lings was paid for the making of a chine indeed, Mr. Editor, it is iinpossible to ney;

Pro camino rect, de Gayrgrave facisay how far my question may lead; but at all events, it is pretty well for you in the endo, et dato eidem, ixs." twetropolis that it is not in the possession lus aud Cresseide, which it may not be

There is also a line in Chaucer's Traiof your canaille, or even in that of your puissurdes at Billingsgate ; for, though it

irrelevant to quote: would not affect your beaux or fashion- “ In this gode plite, let no liery thought ables, who scarcely know what a fore

Ben hangyn in the tertis of you tvey; noon is, the consequence inight not be

And bare the candle to the clymenet" pleasant to soine of the rest.

Liji. I. 116. Liverpool, You's, &c.

Piers Plowinan, whose Visions are supe April 1807. INQUISITOR. posed to bave been written about 1362,



appears to votice the chimnies as con- “ In the building and furniture of their fined to the chambers of the rich: houses (he observes), till of late years, " Now hath eche ryche a rule to eaten by they used the old manner of the Saxons; himselfe,

for they had their fire in the midst of the In a privy parier for poor men sake,

house, against a bob of clay, and their Or in chamber with a chimney and leave the oxen under the same roof: but within chief halle."

these forty years they have builded chimBut the introduction of these funnels neys." was an innovation which does not seem Such are the principal testimonies to have been generally approved; since which relate to the introduction of china we do not find them exhibited in the il- nies. Their use becaine afterwards so luminations of our ancient manuscripts general, that in the 11th of Charles the till about the close of the tifteenth cen- Second the duty paid to the crown on tury. One or two are seen in the View houses had the name of chimney-money. of London, of the time of Henry the Se. And it would be difficult, perhaps, to renth, engraved in Mr. Gough's History find a hovel at the present day without of Pleshy.

In some cases it should seem that they Our ancestors, however, at remoter were moveable : at least we gather so periods, seem to have tried different from the following passage in the Will of ways of getting rid of the smoke froin John Sothill, proved in the Registry at their kitchens. York, October 3, 1500. (Rey. Ebor. The kitchen at Glastonbury Abbey, Scroope, f. 286.)

which had four fire-places in the lower “ I will that iny son have the great part, had a roof which contracted in prorhymney that was iny faders, and all the portion to its height, and ended in a kind leds in the brew hous.”

of open lantern. Harrison, in the Description of Bri- That at Stanton Harcourt, in Oxfordtaine, written about 1570, prefixed to shire, belonging to the ancient residence Holinshed's Chronicle, gives a relation of the Harcourt family, is still more cuwhich seems to imply that they had not rious. It is built of stone, square beeven then become very conimon in our low, octangular above, ending like a country towns.

tower; and tires being made against the “ There are old men (he says) yet walls, the smoke climbed up them withdwelling in the village where I remaine, out any funnels, or disturbance to the which have noted threc things too cooks, and being stopped by a large com much increased. One is the multitude nical roof, went out in loop-holes at the of chimnyes latelie erected, whereas in sides, which were shut or opened as the their yoong daies there were not above wind set, being formed by boards with two or three, if so manie, in most up- hinges. landish townies of the realme (the religious houses, and manour places of their To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. lords alwaies excepted, and peradventure some great parsonages); but each

SIR, one his tire against rere-dosse in SHALL be obliged to 'any of our meat."

(through the channel of your useful He afterwards adds,

and widely-circulated miscellany) froin “ Now have we manye chimnges, and whence came the term witch-elm, a name yet our tenderlings conplayn of rheums, given to a species of elm-tree, to distincatarrhs, and poses; thich had we nothing guish it from the common-elm. Somie but rere-dosses, and yet our heads did people have conjectured that it was a never ache. For as the smoke in those corruption of white elm, and so called daies was supposed to be a sufficient from the silvery whiteness of its leaves hardning for the ticuber of the house, so when the sun shines upon them: but this it was reputed a tarre better medicine to is hardly probable, as Sir F. Bacon in his keepe the good man and his family from “Silra Silvurum, or Natural History, in the quacke or pose, wherewith as then Ten Centuries," speaks of it under the very lewe were acquainted."

name of acech elm, which I should think But Mr. King, in the History of Vale was the properest way to spell it. The Royal, published in 1056, states their in- insertion of this will much oblige, troduction into Cheshire to have been

Your's, &c. S. R. considerably later :

December 6, 1806.


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