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Who, smit with thy fair fame, industrious cull Their thighs and legs in just proportion rise.
An Indian wreath to mingle with thy bays,

Such soon will brave the fervors of the clime ; And deck the hero and the scholar's brow !

And, free from ails that kill thy negro-train,
Wilt thou, whose mildness smooths the face of war, ! A useful servitude will long support.
Who round the victor-blade the myrtle twin'st,

THE CORMANTEE, A LIBERTY-LOVER, DANGEROTS. And mak'st subjection loyal and sincere ;

Yet, if thine own, thy children's life be dear, 0, wilt thou gracious hear the unartful strain,

Buy not a Cormantee, though healthy, young. Whose mild instructions teach, no trivial theme,

Of breed too generous for the servile field, What care the jetty African requires ?

They, born to freedom in their native land, Yes, thou wilt deign to hear; a man thou art

Choose death before dishonorable bonds : Who deem'st naught foreign that belongs to man.

Or, fired with vengeance, at the midnight hour, HOW TO EMPLOY THE VARIOUS RACES OF NEGROES. Sudden they seize thine unsuspecting watch, In mind and aptitude for useful toil,

And thine own poniard bury in thy breast. The negroes differ : Muse, that difference sing.

Whether to wield the hoe or guide the plane, Or for domestic uses, thou intend'st

At home the men in many a sylvan realm The sunny Libyan, from what clime they spring

Their rank tobacco, charm of sauntering minds, It not imports, if strength and youth be theirs.

From clayey tubes inhale; or, vacant, beat

For prey the forest ; or in war's dread ranks USES TO WHICH THE CONGO NEGRO SHOULD BE PUT.

Their country's foes affront: while in the field Yet those from Congo's wide-extended plains, Their wives plant rice, or yams, or lofty maize, Through which the long Zaire winds with crystal Fell hunger to repel. Be these thy choice : stream,

They, hardy, with the labors of the cane Where lavish Nature sends indulgent forth

Soon grow familiar ; while unusual toil, Fruits of high flavor, and spontaneous seeds

And new severities, their husbands kill. Of bland nutritious quality, ill bear

THE MINNALI AND MOCO NATIONS CHARACTERIZED. The toilsome field ; but boast a docile mind, And happiness of features. These, with care,

The slaves from Minnah are of stubborn breed ; Be taught each nice mechanic art, or trained But, when the bill or hammer they affect, To household offices : their ductile souls

They soon perfection reach. But fiy, with care, Will all thy care and all thy gold repay.

The Moco-nation ; they themselves destroy.


Worms lurk in all : yet pronest they to worms But, if the labors of the field demand

Who from Mundingo sail. When therefore such Thy chief attention ; and the ambrosial cano

Thou buy'st, for sturdy and laborious they, Thou long'st to see, with spiry frequence, shade

Straight let some learned leech strong medicines Many an acre : planter, choose the slave

Till food and climate both familiar grow. (give, Who sails from barren climes, where want alone,

Thus, though from rise to set in Phoebus' eye Offspring of rude necessity, compels

They toil unceasing, yet at night they'll sleep The sturdy native, or to plant the soil,

Lapped in Elysium, and each day at dawn Or stem vast rivers for his daily food.

Spring from their couch as blithesome as the sun. Such are the children of the Golden Coast ; Such the Papaws, of negroes far the best ;

QUALITIES OF THE QUANZA NEGROES. And such the numerous tribes that skirt the shore, One precept more it much imports to know. – From rapid Volta to the distant Rey.

The blacks who drink the Quanza's lucid stream,

Fed by ten thousand springs, are prone to bloat,

Whether at home or in these ocean isles :
But, planter, from what coast soe'er they sail,
Buy not the old : they ever sullen prove ;

And though nice art the water may subdue,
With heartfelt anguish they lament their home ;

Yet many die, and few for many a year

| Just strength attain to labor for their lord. They will not, cannot work; they never learn Thy native language; they are prone to ails ;

HOW TO KEEP NEGROES IN HEALTH; SEASONIXG, And oft by suicide their being end.

Wouldst thou secure thine Ethiop from those ails MARKS BY WHICH TO BUY NEGROES.

Which change of climate, change of waters breed, Must thou from Afric reinforce thy gang ? - And food unusual ? let Machaon draw Let health and youth their every sinew firm ; | From each some blood, as age and sex require ; Clear roll their ample eye ; their tongue be red ;

And well with vervain, well with sempre-vive, Broad swell their chest ; their shoulders wide Unload their bowels. These in every hedge expand ;

Spontaneous grow.

Nor will it not conduce Not prominent their belly ; clean and strong To give what chemists, in mysterious phrase,


What cramps, what palsies, shake their feeble limbs
Who on the margin of the rocky Dravo
Trace silver's fluent ore ! - Yet white men these !

Term the white eagle ; deadly foe to wornis.
But chief do thou, my friend, with hearty food,
Yet easy of digestion, likest that
Which they at home regaled on, renovate
Their sea-worn appetites. Let gentle work,
Or rather playful exercise, amuse
The novel gang : and far be angry words,
Far ponderous chains, and far disheartening blows.

From fruits restrain their eagerness ; yet if
The acajou, haply, in thy garden bloom,
With cherries, or of white or purple hue,
Thrice wholesome fruit in this relaxing clime !
Safely thou may'st their appetite indulge.
Their arid skins will plump, their features shine :
No rheums, no dysenteric ails, torment;
The thirsty hydrops flies. 'T is even averred
(Ab, did experience sanctify the fact,
How many Libyans now would dig the soil,
Who pine in hourly agonies away !)
This pleasing fruit, if turtle joins its aid,
Removes that worst of ails, disgrace of art,
The loathsome leprosy's infectious bane.


PERUVIAX, ETC. How far more happy ye than those poor slaves, Who, whilom under native gracious chiefs, Incas, and emperors, long time enjoyed Mild government, with every sweet of life, In blissful climates! See them dragged in chains, By proud insulting tyrants, to the mines Which once they called their own, and then despised! See, in the mineral bosom of their land, How hard they toil! how soon their youthful limbs Feel the decrepitude of age ! how soon Their teeth desert their sockets ! and how soon Shaking paralysis unstrings their frame ! Yet scarce even then are they allowed to view The glorious god of day, of whom they beg, With earnest hourly supplications, death ; Yet death slow comes to torture them the more !


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With these compared, ye sons of Afric, say, How far more happy is your

lot! Bland health, Of ardent eye, and limb robust, attends Your customed labor ; and, should sickness seize, With what solicitude are ye not nursed ! Ye negroes, then, your pleasing task pursue, And by your toil deserve your master's care.


When first your blacks are novel to the hoe, Study their humors : some soft-soothing words, Some presents, and some menaces subdue ; And some I've known, so stubborn in their kind, Whom blows, alas ! could win alone to toil.


To easy labor first inure thy slaves ; Extremes are dangerous. With industrious search, Let them fit grassy provender collect For thy keen-stomached herds. But when the earth Hath made her annual progress round the sun, What time the conch or bell resounds, they may All to the cane-ground with thy gang repair.



Nor, negro, at thy destiny repine, Though doomed to toil from dawn to setting sun. How far more pleasant is thy rural task Than theirs who sweat sequestered from the day, In dark Tartarean caves, sunk far beneath The earth's dark surface; where sulphureous flames, Oft from their vapory prisons bursting wild, To dire explosion give the caverned deep, And in dread ruin all its inmates whelm ! Nor fateful only is the bursting flame ; The exhalations of the deep-dug mine, Though slow, shake from their wings as sure a death. With what intense severity of pain Hath the afflicted Muse, in Scotia, seen The miners racked, who toil for fatal lead !


HOME, Yet, planter, let humanity prevail. Perhaps thy negro, in his native land, Possessed large fertile plains, and slaves, and herds: Perhaps, whene'er he deigned to walk abroad, The richest silks, from where the Indus rolls, His limbs invested in their gorgeous plaits : Perhaps he wails his wife, his children, left To struggle with adversity : perhaps Fortune, in battle for his country fought, Gave him a captive to his deadliest foe : Perhaps, incautious, in his native fields (On pleasurable scenes his mind intent), All as he wandered, from the neighboring grove Fell ambush dragged him to the hated main. Were they even sold for crimes, ye polished, say, Ye to whom learning opes her amplest page, Ye whom the knowledge of a living God Should lead to virtue, are ye free from crimes ? Ah, pity, then, these uninstructed swains ; And still let mercy soften the decrees Of rigid justice, with her lenient hand.

Say, as this malady but once infects The sons of Guinea, might not skill engraft (Thus the small-pox are happily conveyed) This ailment early to thy negro-train ?


EMANCIPATION ; HOW DESIRABLE! 0, did the tender Muse possess the power Which monarchs have, and monarchs oft abuse, 'T would be the fond ambition of her soul To quell tyrannic sway ; knock off the chains Of heart-debasing slavery ; give to man, Of every color and of every clime, Freedom, which stamps him image of his God. Then laws, oppression's scourge, fair virtue's prop, Offspring of wisdom, should impartial reign, To knit the whole in well-accorded strife : Servants, not slaves; of choice, and not compelled ; The blacks should cultivate the cane-land isles.

Yet, of the ills which torture Libya's sons, Worms tyrannize the worst. They, Proteus-like, Each symptom of each malady assume, And under every mask the assassins kill. Now, in the guise of horrid spasms, they writhe The tortured body, and all sense o'erpower. Sometimes, like Mania, with her head down-cast, They cause the wretch in solitude to pine, Or, frantic, bursting from the strongest chains, To frown with look terrific, not his own. Sometimes like ague, with a shivering mien, The teeth gnash fearful, and the blood runs chill : Anon the ferment maddens in the veins, And a false vigor animates the frame. Again, the dropsy's bloated mask they steal, Or ómelt with minings of the hectic fire.'

DISEASES OF NEGROES; THE DRAGON-WORM. Say, shall the muse the various ills recount Which negro-nations feel? Shall she describe The worm that subtle winds into their flesh, All as they bathe them in their native streams ? There, with fell increment, it soon attains A direful length of harm. Yet, if due skill And proper circumspection are employed, It may be won its volumes to wind round A leaden cylinder : but, 0, beware, No rashness practise ; else 't will surely snap, And, suddenly retreating, dire produce An annual lameness to the tortured Moor.

CHIGRES, OR JIGGERS. Nor only is the dragon-worm to dread : Fell wingéd insects, which the visual ray Scarcely discerns, their sable feet and hands Oft penetrate, and in the fleshy nest Myriads of young produce ; which soon destroy The parts they breed in, if assiduous care, With art, extract not the prolific foe.


THE TYRIANS. Say, to such various forins of mimic death, What remedies shall puzzled art oppose ? Thanks to the Almighty, in each pathway hedge Rank cow-itch grows, whose sharp unnumbered

stings, Sheathed in melasses, from their dens expel, Fell dens of death, the reptile lurking foe. A powerful vermifuge, in skilful hands, The worm-grass proves; yet even in hands of skill, Sudden, I've known it dim the visual ray For a whole day and night. There are who use (And sage experience justifies the use) The mineral product of the Cornish mine; Which in old times, ere Britain laws enjoyed, The polished Tyrians, monarchs of the main, In their swift ships conveyed to foreign realms : The sun by day, by night the northern star, Their course conducted.


Or shall she sing, and not debase her lay, The pest peculiar to the Ethiop kind, The yaw's infectious bane? The infected far In huts to leeward lodge, or near the main. With heartening food, with turtle, and with conchs, The flowers of sulphur, and hard niccars burnt, The lurking evil from the blood expel, And throw it on the surface : there in spots Which cause no pain, and scanty ichor yield, It chiefly breaks about the arms and hips, A virulent contagion ! When no more Round knobby spots deform, but the disease Seems at a pause, then let the learned leech Give, in due dose, live-silver from the mine, Till copious spitting the whole taint exhaust. Nor thou repine, though half-way round the sun This globe her annual progress shall revolve, 'Ere cleared thy slave from all infection shinc. Nor then be confident ; successive crops Of defecations oft will spot the skin : These thou, with turpentine and guaiac pods, Reduced by coction to a wholesome draught, Total remove, and give the blood its balm.


Mighty Commerce, hail ! By thee the sons of Attic's sterile land, A scanty number, laws imposed on Greece. Nor awed they Greece alone; vast Asia's king, Though girt by rich-armed myriads, at their frown Felt his heart wither on his furthest throne. Perennial source of population thou ! While scanty peasants plough the flowery plains Of purple Enna, from the Belgian fens What swarms of useful citizens spring up, Hatched by thy fostering wing! Ah, where is flown That dauntless free-born spirit, which of old Taught them to shake off the tyrannic yoke Of Spain's insulting king, on whose wide realms

The sun still shone with undiminished beam? | Parent of wealth! in vain coy nature boards

Are in a phial poured ; o'er these the leech Mutters strange jargon, and wild circles forms.

Her gold and diamonds ; toil, thy firm compeer,
And industry of unremitting nerve,
Scale the cleft mountain, the loud torrent brave,
Plunge to the centre, and through Nature's wiles
(Led on by skill of penetrative soul),
Her following close, her secret treasure find,
Το pour them plenteous on the laughing world.
On thee, Sylvanus, thee each rural god,
On thee, chief Ceres, with unfailing love
And fond distinction, emulously gaze.


AGAINST DEMONS AND THIEVES. Of this possessed, each negro deems himself Secure from poison ; for to poison they Are infamously prone : and, armed with this, Their sable country demons they defy, Who fearful haunt them at the midnight hour, To work them mischief. This diseases fly, Diseases follow, such its wondrous power ! This o'er the threshold of their cottage hung, No thieves break in ; or, if they dare to steal, Their feet in blotches, which admit no cure, Burst loathsome out : but should its owner filch, As slaves were ever of the pilfering kind, This from detection screens ; so conjurers swear.



COLUMBUS ; PORTUGAL. In vain hath nature poured vast seas between Far-distant kingdoms ; endless storms in vain With double night brood o'er them; thou dost throw O'er far-divided Nature's realms a chain To bind in sweet society mankind. By thee white Albion, once a barbarous clime, Grew famed for arms, for wisdom, and for laws; By thee she holds the balance of the world, Acknowledged now sole empress of the main. Coy though thou art, and mutable of love, There mayst thou ever fix thy wandering steps, While Eurus rules the wide Atlantic foam ! By thee thy favorite great Columbus found That world, where now thy praises I rehearse To the resounding main and palmy shore ; And Lusitania's chiefs those realms explored, Whence negroes spring, the subject of my song.

Till morning dawn, and Lucifer withdraw His beamy chariot, let not the loud bell Call forth thy negroes from the rushy couch : And ere the sun with mid-day fervor glow, When every broom-bush opes her yellow flower, Let thy black laborers from their toil desist : Nor till the broom her every petal lock, Let the loud bell recall them to the hoe. But when the jalap her bright tint displays, When the solanum fills her cup with dew, And crickets, snakes, and lizards, 'gin their coil, Let them find shelter in their cane-thatched huts : Or, if constrained unusual hours to toil (For even the best must sometimes urge their gang), With double nutriment reward their pains.


Nor pine the blacks alone with real ills, That baffle oft the wisest rules of art : They likewise feel imaginary woes, Woes no less deadly. Luckless he who owns The slave who thinks himself bewitched; and whom, In wrath, a conjurer's snake-marked staff hath

struck ! They mope,

love silence, every friend avoid ; They inly pine, all aliment reject, Or insufficient for nutrition take; Their features droop ; a sickly yellowish hue Their skin deforms ; their strength and beauty fly. Then comes the feverish fiend, with fiery eyes, Whom drought, convulsious, and whom death surFatal attendants ! if some subtle slave round, (Such Obia-men are styled) do not engage To save the wretch by antidote or spell.

KINDNESS URGED. Howe'er insensate some may deem their slaves, Nor 'bove the bestial rank, far other thoughts The Muse, soft daughter of humanity, Will ever entertain. The Ethiop knows, The Ethiop feels, when treated like a man ; Nor grudges, should necessity compel, By day, by night, to labor for his lord.

THE OBIA, OR GREE-GREE ; HOW MADE. In magic spells in Obia all the sons Of sable Afric trust :- Ye sacred Nine (For ye each hidden preparation know), Transpierce the gloom, which ignorance and fraud Have rendered awful; tell the laughing world of what these wonder-working charıns are made.

Fern-root cut small, and tied with many a knot ; Old teeth extracted from a white man's skull ; A lizard's skeleton ; a serpent's head ; These, mixed with salt and water from the spring,


Not less inhuman than unthrifty those
Who half the year's rotation round the sun
Deny subsistence to their laboring slaves.
But wouldst thou see thy negro-train increase,
Free from disorders, and thine acres clad
With groves of sugar, every week dispense
Or English beans, or Carolinian rice ;
Ierne's beef, or Pennsylvanian flour ;
Newfoundland cod, or herrings from the main
That howls tempestuous round the Scotian isles.

Yet some there are so lazily inclined,
And so neglectful of their food, that thou,
Wouldst thou preserve them from the jaws of death,
Daily their wholesome viands must prepare :
With these let all the yo ng, and childless old,

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And all the morbid share ; - so heaven will bless, With manifold increase, thy costly care.




Suffice not this ; to every slave assign Some mountain ground ; or, if waste broken land To thee belong, that broken land divide. This let them cultivate, one day each week ; And there raise yams, and there cassada's root : From a good demon's staff cassada sprang, Tradition says, and Caribbees believe : Which into three the white-robed genius broke, And bade them plant, their hunger to repel. There let angola's bloomy bush supply, For many a year, with wholesome pulse their board. There let the bonavist his fringéd pods Throw liberal o'er the prop; while ochra bears Aloft his slimy pulp, and help disdains. There let potatoes mantle o'er the ground; Sweet as the cane-juice is the root they bear. There too let eddas spring in order meet, With Indian cale, and foodful calaloo : While mint, thyme, balm, and Europe's coyer herbs, Shoot gladsome forth, nor reprobate the clime. HEDGE FOR THE NEGRO-GROUND ; LIMES, CITRONS, ORANGES,

COTTON, COFFEE, COCO, MADRE DE CACAO. This tract secure with bedges or of limes, Or bushy citrons, or the shapely tree That glows at once with aromatic blooms, And golden fruit mature. To these be joined, In comely neighborhood, the cotton shrub ; In this delicious clime the cotton bursts On rocky soils. The coffee also plant ; White as the skin of Albion's lovely fair Are the thick snowy fragrant blooms it boasts : Nor wilt thou, coco, thy rich pods refuse ; Though years, and heat, and moisture, they require, Ere the stone grind them to the food of health. Of thee, perhaps, and of thy various sorts, And that kind sheltering tree, thy mother named, With crimson flow'rets prodigally graced, In future times the enraptured Muse may sing, If public favor crown her present lay.

Might be instructed to unlearn their clime,
And by due discipline adopt the sun.
The Muse might tell what culture will entice
The ripened melon to perfume each month ;
And with the anana load the fragrant board.
The Muse might tell what trees will best exclude
(' Insuperable height of airiest shade')
With their vast umbrage the noon's fervent ray.

Thee, verdant mammey, first, her song should

praise : Thee, the first native of these ocean-isles, Fell anthropophagi, still sacred held; And from thy large high-flavored fruit abstained, With pious awe ; for thine high-flavored fruit The airy phantoms of their friends deceased Joyed to regale on. Such their simple creed. The tamarind likewise should adorn her theme, With whose tart fruit the sweltering fever loves To quench his thirst, whose breezy umbrage soon Shades the pleased planter, shades his children long. Nor, lofty cassia, should she not recount Thy woodland honors! See, what yellow flowers Dance in the gale, and scent the ambient air : While thy long pods, full fraught with nectared

sweets, Relieve the bowels from their lagging load.


THE ASATA. Nor, chirimoia, though these torrid isles Boast not thy fruit, to which the anana yields In taste and flavor, wilt thou coy refuse Thy fragrant shade to beautify the scene. But, chief of palms and pride of Indian groves, Thee, fair palmetto, should her song resound : What swelling columns, formed by Jones or Wren, Or great Palladio, may with thee compare ? Not nice-proportioned, but of size immense, Swells the wild fig-tree, and should claim her lay: For, from its numerous bearded twigs proceed A filial train, stupendous as their sire, In quick succession ; and o'er many a rood, Extend their uncouth limbs ; which not the bolt Of heaven can scathe ; nor yet the all-wasting rage Of typhon or of hurricane destroy. Nor should, though small, the anata not be sung : Thy purple dye the silk and cotton fleece Delighted drink; thy purple dye the tribes Of Northern-Ind, a fierce and wily race, Carouse, assembled ; and with it they paint Their manly make in many a horrid form, To add new terrors to the face of war.


But let some ancient, faithful slave erect Ilis sheltered mansion near, and with his dog, His loaded gun, and cutlass, guard the whole : Else negro-fugitives, who skulk 'mid rocks And shrubby wilds, in bands will soon destroy Thy laborer's honest wealth, their loss and yours.



Perhaps of Indian gardens I could sing, Beyond what bloomed on blest Phæacia’s isle, Or Eastern climes admired in days of yore : How Europe's foodful, culinary plants, How gay Pomona's ruby-tinctured births, And gaudy Flora's various-vested train,

ALCOVES ; GARDEN STREAMS ; FOUNTAINS. The Muse might teach to twine the verdant arch, And the cool alcove's lofty roof adorn, With ponderous granadillas, and the fruit Called water-lemon, grateful to the taste : Nor should she not pursue the mountain-streams,

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