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William Trafford, the last Abbot of Sawley, was Staffordshire) and was acquainted with the Dickens executed for his share in the Pilgrimage of Grace, family; but I do not remember them claiming any which took place in 1536, as was also John Pas- kinship to the author of ' Pickwick.' I think that lew, the last abbot of the adjacent abbey of Whalley. Dickens always prided himself on being “a man of In the chancel of the parish church of Whalley are Kent," and I also think that, like "the grand old some finely carved oak stalls with pillars and gardener,” he was one who " suniled at the claim tabernacle work, brought from the abbey at the of long descent.”

CUTHBERT BEDE. time of the Dissolution, and of a date only a little prior to it. Over the stall once occupied by the

SPIDER-COT.-As this word does not find a place abbot is inscribed, “Semper gaudentes sint ista in Latham's or Richardson's dictionaries, nor even sede sedentes”-anything but a true prediction. in Ogilvie's last edition, it may be well to record He was buried in the church at Whalley after his its use for the ' N.E.D. The Rev. F. O. Morris, execution, under a slab yet bearing the simple in- in his 'Nests and Eggs of English Birds,' London, scription "Miserere Mei.”

1853, royal 8vo., vol. i. p. 149, makes use of it in JOAN PICKFORD, M.A.

his description of the chaffinch's nest, “ Others are Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

without any wool, its place being supplied with

thistle-down and spider-cots.“KIND REGARDS.”—Mr. Albert Gray, in the

W. E. BUCKLEY. second volume of his translation for the Hakluyt Society of the Voyage of François Pyrard,' says

THE SCHOOLMASTER WANTED.—The following in a note, p. 80, “Port. recado, a message or errand: note (verbatim et literatim) was received a short the plural recados is used as our compliments.' time since by the secretary of a hospital in the The expression seems to have been taken up by

North-East of England :the English of Bombay and Surat, as in 1675 we

"Sir eye receved afue lines requesten the westleans to find Dr. Fryer (p. 71) stating that a Jesuit near best for you.—R. C.”

make acolection for the......hospetle whe have dun our the former place 'sent his Recarders with the pre

SEPTUAGENARIUS. sents of the best fruit and wines, and whatever we wanted.' Unless Dr. Murray and his coadjutors

"ARRANT Scot.—In the 'Poems of William can give earlier authority, I venture to think we Drummond of Hawthornden,' London, 1656, at have here the original of our modern phrase "kind p. 187, is ' Aretinus Epitaph ':regards.'” The word recado is Spanish, and sig

Here Aretine lies most bitter gall, nifies “message," as in Portuguese, but it also

Who whilst he lived spoke evill of all, carries several other meanings. Recadero is a mes

Only of God the Arrant Scot

Naught said, but that he knew him not. senger. I shall be glad to know if Mr. Gray's sup. Had the author been of any other nation it might position holds good. There is a passage in the ‘Don have been surmised that he had some grudge Quixote,' pt. ii. chap. XXV., acabar de dar recado á mi bestia,” where, of course, the word means Drummond to use the term very much as we apply

against “dear old Scotland ”; but how comes "provender”; and in chap. xlviii. another, " todo Tecado amoroso,” “all love messages," as one may

it in the phrase an arrant rogue"?

W. E. BUCKLEY. translate it; and again another, “Yo recado de nadie,” which may be rendered "I regard no one,” HALKETT AND LAING'S 'DICTIONARY OF ANONYexpressed with indignation. The word also means MOUS AND PSEUDONYMOUS LITERATURE': A CORa "tool," and I may have been once misled by this RECTION.-Halkett and Laing (vol. iii. p. 2216) subordinate rendering. I should like to know. ascribe, on the authority of the Manchester Free

A. J. DUFFIELD. Library Catalogue, to R. B. Aspland the authorDevereux Chambers, Temple.

of The Rise, Progress, and Present Influence

The CUMBERLANDISM. – According to La Vraie of Wesleyan Methodism, London, 1831. France, July 11, 1887, the word Cumberlandism pamphlet was, however, written by John Relly has been introduced into France from America to Beard, D.D., whose autograph inscription “From denote that kind of spiritualism of which Mr. the author" is in the Manchester Free Library Stuart Cumberland is the exponent.

copy, while it is advertised as “by the same author" W. C. B.

at the end of Dr. Beard's 'Extinction of Slavery,' 1838.

E. A. CHARLES DICKENS'S ANCESTORS. — Under the head “Churchill,” in the fourth volume of 'The CLERKS OF THE PEACE. (See 3rd S. x. 148, Rambler in Worcestershire,' 1854, p. 251, Mr. 315.)—The question as to the authority by which Noake says:

clerks of the peace were in the habit of affixing “The Dickens family, of Bobbington, were lords of their names to papers without the Christian name this manor from 1432 to 1657, and it is said that from was examined in 'N. & Q.,' 3rd S. x. 148, 315, this family Mr. Dickens, the author, is descended.” with only a negative result. A recent number of In 1857-8 I lived at Bobbington (near Enville, the Justice of the Peace, vol. iii. p. 684, October 27,

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has a similar query, from which it appears that his notes was doubtless sufficient for Spence, who nothing more is known of the custom than there is could not have foreseen that a future editor would in the statement of Mr. F. Rule at the reference attribute the poem, at least indirectly, to Ambrose above (p. 315):

Phillips, passing its author, John Phillips, without "It is customary in many counties for the clerk of mention. The interest of the book is increased by peace to sign only his surname in that capacity. Can knowing what we can of the persons named in it; you tell me whether this is a sufficient signature, and and though it is a work never likely to be popul. r, also the origin of the practice?-C. P.

" Answer: --.We are unable to state the origin of the it is one that will always be prized by the lovers of practice, but it is very common, and we think such a


literary anecdotes. signature quite sufficient."

3, Earl's Terrace, Kensington, W. ED. MARSHALL.

BEARDED DARNEL AND BARLEY.-The followSPENCE's 'ANECDOTES.'— These anecdotes were ing paragraph occurs in Mr. J. E. Taylor's 'Hall first published in 1820, when two editions ap- Hours in the Green Lanes,' fourth edition, 1877, peared, one edited by Malone, the other by S. W. p. 275. Is the statement fact or folk-lore ? From Singer. In the former the arrangement of Spence's the way the author presents it to his readers one material was altered by bringing together all that would imagine that he had evidence for its truth. directly concerned Pope under the heading of I have been a barley-grower for nearly forty years, “Popiana," and the book, being without an index, but have never heard of it. Darnel seed could not is practically useless for reference. Singer's edition be mixed with barley unless it were done on puris a transcript of the notes, and I wish to point out pose. It is so much smaller and lighter than every that here and there errors and obscurities have inferior barley that it must assuredly be remove been retained in the text, also that more informa- by the winnowing machine :tion about persons mentioned might with advan- “The Bearded Darnel (Lolium temulentum), 80 called tage bave been supplied. The editor seems, indeed, on account of its long awns, is supposed by some writers to have been aware of some shortcomiogs, for in to be the 'tares' to which the Saviour alluded in his his preface he writes :

parable of the tares and wheat. The seeds of this species

have a very peculiar intoxicating effect. When malted “ The notes are merely such as occurred to me in with barley the ale brewed from the mixture produces transcribing the work for the press; more timo or more speedy drunkenness; and if they are ground up with convenient access to books would have enabled me to en-bread-corn the bread, if eaten hot, produces a similar large them,"

effect." A second edition of this book was issued by J.

A LINCOLNSHIRE FARMER. Russell Smith in 1858, but it is a mere reprint in

CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES. - In turning a smaller form. The spelling of proper names was somewhat zine for 1824, I have come upon an exposure or

over the leaves of a volume of Blackwood's Magaarbitrary formerly, and Mr. Singer seems to have explanation of a joke against the people of the taken them as they stood without inquiry. Thus United States, that has passed current among the mention is made of " Mr. Manwaring" in both text small change of conversation from a period stretchand index, and it is only when later (p. 338) he is ing back beyond the time that the present readers stated to have been a member of the Kit-Cat Club of and writers in N. & Q.' were born. People we diecover that Arthur Maynwaring, the poli- tell each other, with grave countenances, that the tician, wit, and friend of Mrs. Oldfield, the actress, American Congress, once upon a time, passed a is referred to. “Prior” and “Pryor” both occur, to resolution or an act—the form the thing took is the disfigurement of the text. The prefix " Mr.” somewhat vague--that the citizens of the United is used without the name by which the identity of

States are the most enlightened people upon the person is recognized. Thus we have “Mr." earth.” The writer of the review of a book called Allen and “Mr.” Richardson, junior. A reference A Summary View of America,' by an Englishman, to Prior Park is all we have to show the former to took the trouble to hunt this fable to earth. Its be Ralph Allen, whilst the clue which proves the

origin, it seems, was thus :latter to be the painter Jonathan Richardson the younger is a foot-note giving the title of a book ton was ready to retire from public life, the American

“Some twenty-eight years ago, when George Wasbing. he wrote, by which we trace the author.

Congress passed a resolution of which these words were The name of “Mrs.” Blount occurs at p. 357, a part: 'the spectacle of a free and enlightened nation.'" and a note informs us that Martha Blount, " called | -- Vol. xvi. p. 634. Mrs., though unmarried, in accordance with the Upon these words, and upon them only, it seems custom of the period,” is referred to; but we are that the story has been founded. It is pleasant to not told whether this applies, as I suppose it does, be able to trace a fable to the vanishing point. wherever the name appears, and the index gives Perhaps some reader of 'N. & Q.,' English or seven entries to the former and but one to th latter. American, may be able to do a like service for At p. 174 we read Phillips in his 'Cyder' has another fragment of what may not unfitly be called ' succeeded extremely well,” &c. This entry in historical folk-lore. I have been gravelý told more

than once that in the early days of the American reached its destination, and was deposited at republic a Congressman moved that, as the United Metz. Is either of these now in existence; and, if States had now become an independent nation, it so, where ?

Si Vis. was important that it should have a national language, and not remain any longer the slave of

St. GREGORY.-Is there any valid reason for the old country in its speech. He had been attributing to St. Gregory the Liber Responsalis i formed, he continued, that Greek was the noblest sive Antiphonarius,' which is published in Migne's of all languages, and it was the mother tongue of

Patrologie,' as taken from the Codex Compen.

Si Vis. men who were as devoted to republican institutions diensis' of the ninth century ? as they were themselves. He therefore moved that

Codex COMPENDIENSIS,'—Is the 'Codex Comfrom that time forward Greek only should be taught pendiensis' of as early a date as the ninth century; in the state schools, and that all official documents or is it now generally regarded as a compilation of should, for the future, be written in this language.

a later period ?

SI V18. It is an amusing tale, but no one, I suppose, believes it to be true. Like the other story, it probably has Execution of MongkoT. - In the eighteenth some foundation.


century a man called Mongéot was broken on the wheel for robbery. The crime was committed for

the benefit of a woman named Lescombat, who Queries.

died in 1755. During the execution the victim's We must request correspondents desiring information skin turned red, on which the heartless Lescombat, on family matters of only private interest, to affix their who was present, remarked, " Il fallait bien celà lamos and addresses to their queries, in order that the pour faire rougir Mongéot.” In what French answers may be addressed to them direct.

author is this incident narrated ?

GALLOPHILUS. CARBONARI OF NAPLES.- Who wrote ‘Memoirs of the Secret Societies of the South of Italy, par, in the Science and Art Museum, Dublin, a very

WOODEN BRIDGE AT SCHAFFHAUSEN.—We bave ticularly the Carbonari,'translated from the original MS., London, John Murray, 1821 ?

beautiful skeleton model of Grubenman's famous CARLO Locais.

bridge, which was burnt by the French in 1799. Ponte S. Pietro, per Bergamo, Italia.

The model was presented to the museum in 1771

by the fourth Earl of Bristol, then Lord Bishop of LORD Mayor's Show.-I shall be grateful to Londonderry. It is thought that it is an original, any readers of ‘N. & Q.’ who will assist me by made by Grubenman himself at Schaffhausen. naming authors or books to be consulted in regard of this we are seeking for proof. Can any reader to the earlier days of the Lord Mayor's show. say how and when it was acquired by the Earl of J. C. Bristol ?

V. BALL, Brooklet, Winchmore Hill.

Director S. and A. Museum. Book ILLUSTRATING, by which I mean Gran SIR JOHN FRIEND. Can any reader of gerizing, or adding to a work portraits, views, and N. & Q.' inform me if there is any pedigree, subjects not orginally done for that work or edition printed or otherwise, of Sir John Friend, executed of the work. I seek the best authorities on this sub- by William III. ? Is he mentioned in the Friend ject. This art, I understand, is extensively prac- pedigree printed by the Harleian Society ? tised in the United States. Perhaps some of your

J. H. L. DE VAYNES. correspondents on the other side of the Atlantic may 6, West Cliff Mansions, Ramsgate. be able to indicate books published in America and less generally known here.

H. S. A.

“GOFER" BELLS : “GOFER” Money.-Can

any one give the meaning of the term gofer? At Younger's ComPANY.-In the ‘Dictionary of certain doles given at Bridport, Dorset, applicants National Biography' it is stated that Charles Dibo say that they are going for the gofer money. I din, the song-writer, went to Birmingham in the bad thought this to be some corrupted local term, summer of 1763 with Younger's company, and but a few days since I saw in the Inquirer newstook some extra work at Vauxball there. Can paper the words gofer bells.

A. J. any kind contributor guide me to information about

COUNTESS OF BLESSINGTON. Io Maclise's this Younger, who would seem to have been a sketch portrait of the Countess of Blessington travelling theatrical manager?

(Fraser's Magazine, vol. vii. p. 267, 1833, and E. G. YOUNGER, M.D.

Maclise's Portrait Gallery, p. 159), a portrait of POPE ADRIAN I. AND CHARLEMAGNE.—Two the countess is shown upon the wall in the backantiphonaires were sent by Pope Adrian I. to ground. Does this represent the picture by Sir Charlemagne. One of these was given by its Thos. Lawrence which was bought by the Marquis custodian to the monastery of St. Gall. The other of Hertford at the sale at Gore House in 1849 ?

And who executed the mezzotint engraving of this arms of Johnstone of Annandale, with a change of portrait ? Sir Thos. Lawrence exhibited a por- tinctures and the wings omitted.) Below the arms trait of Lady Blessington at the Royal Academy is this inscription: " THOMAS JOHNSON, HALIFAX, in 1822.

JOIN Bilson. JULY 7, 1776," just three days after “the declaraHull,

tion of independence.” The reverse exhibits a CORFE CASTLE.— I have seen it stated books

coast view, with a house in the middle, a church of reference that King Jobn caused twenty-two

with a spire to the spectator's left, and a mast with noblemen to be starved to death in the dungeons colours at the stern, a boat with oars to the left;

a flag to the right; in the sea a ship with British of Corfe Castle. Can


your readers inform me the authority for this statement, and if it is and one with sails to the right. The edge is milled trustworthy. Were they the prisoners taken in with a pattern. Thomas Johnson was doubtless a Rochester Castle A.D. 1215, and sent to Corfe? Royalist. Is anything known respecting him and If not, is there any record of what became of these his family, or the medal above described ? I supbarons or of their release ?

E. P.

pose the Halifax referred to is that in Nova Scotia,

but there are other towns so named in North MACARONI.—Who first applied this term to the America.

ALPAEGE. inane fop or dude of the latter half of the eighteenth century? I find the creature thus described

PARODY WANTED. —Can any of your readers in the Oxford Magazine for June, 1770, vol. iv. supply the full text of the skit of which the folp. 228, col. 2 :

lowing are portions? It appeared in consequence “There is indeed a kind of animal, neither male nor House near London Bridge :

of some failure in the foundations of the Custom female, a thing of the neuter gender, lately started up amongst us. It is called a Macaroni. It talks without This is the house that Jack built. meaning, it smiles without pleasantry, it eats without This is the sleeper that lay in the house that Jack built. appetite, it rides without exercise."

This is the pile

F. J. FURNIVALL. That was short all the while, THE GARRARD FAMILY.-1. The original name

That propped up the sleeper

That lay, &c. of this family was written Attegare. How is this This is Mr. Peto accounted for? The first bearer of the name was Appointed to see to Alured Attegare, of Buchland, in Sittingbourne, The driving the pile Kent. Can any one give me the date ? Not given That was short, &c. by Berry or any of the pedigrees I have seen.

This is Lang the surveyor, 2. Benedict Garrard, or Garret, brother of Sir Who took such care John Garrard, the first baronet, created 19 James To order the spandrils stout and thick

To be filled up with rubbish instead of brick. I., bought Ifield Court, Northfleet, Kent, in the reign of Charles I., and his descendant (Hasted's Who gave 300,000 pound

This is John Bull, with his pockets so full, Kent'), Edward Garrard, possessed it in 1704. For a tumble-down house that fell to the ground. How can I find the intermediate descendants ? Who paid all the fees

3. Edward Garrard bad four daughters coheiresses, With a great deal of ease all of whom married, and they sold Ihield Court in To all the grave counsellors bouncing and big, 1766. The third daughter married Thomas Light, In Westminster Hall,

Every one in his three-tailed wig, of London, merchant. How can I trace the latter So lofty and tall, &c. and his descendants ? PERCY CLARK.

J. ALFRED GOTCH. 24, Duke Street, St. James's.

Kettering. GEORGE FLEETWOOD.-In Noble's 'Lives of the John Rollos.—I have before me an order, Regicides' it is stated that George Fleetwood after dated June 1, 1731, commencing :his release from imprisonment "passed over to “By virtue of his Ma's General Letters Patent DorAmerica, and lived with those whose sentiments mant bearing date the 22d day of June, 1727. That you were congenial to his own" (i. 245). Can any one deliver and pay of such his Ma's Treasure as remains in inform me of the date of George Fleetwood's death, your charge unto John Rollos, Gent., Chief Engraver of and of any evidence confirming the fact of his emi

bis Ma's Signets and Seals, or his assigns, the sum of

Three hundred ninety five pounds ten sbillings and two gration to America ?

C. 8. FIRTH.

pence balf penny due to him for making and engraving 33, Norham Road, Oxford.

the several Seals and Signets under mentioned used in

England, and for Silver duty and other materials fitted MEDAL OF THOMAS Johnson, Halifax (NORTH for the same according to an Examination upon his Dec AMERICA), 1776. - I have seen an engraved silver mands by the Officers of bis Ma' Mint in the Tower of medal, rather more than 1} in, in diameter. On London, vizt.,” &c. the obverse is a coat of arms: Gules, a saltire or, The document then sets out the items of the on a chief of the second three square cushions, not account, and ends with the receipt of John Rollos, tinctured. Crest: a spur, no wings. (These are the dated June 18, 1731. Where can I find any

account of this engraver and medalist ? The at the disposal of its rightful owners, free of cost, work charged for in this account comprises : if they will write to me. E. WALFORD, M.A. "A large double Judicial Seal in silver for the Countys

7, Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. of Denbigb, Montgomery, and Flint. "A large double Judicial Seal in Silver for the Countys

Erasmus.—In the 'Journal des Voyages de of Glamorgan, Brecknock, and Radnor.

Monconys' the invention of turf for burning is "A large double Judicial Seal in Silver for the Countys attributed to Erasmus, of all men in the world. of Carnarvon, Merioneth, and Anglesea. "A large Judicial double Seal in Silver for the Countys

Can anybody suggest a reason for this extraordinary error ?

C. A. WARD. of Carmarthen, Cardigan, and Pembroke. “A large double Seal in Silver for the most Noble Order

Walthamstow. of the Garter, Engraven on one side with the effigies of St George on Horseback fighting with the Dragon with an

BUTTERFIELD.-Was he & watchmaker ? He Inscription, and on the other side with the Arms of the invented an odometer, and contributed two papers said Order within the Garter.

to the Philosophical Transactions. Is much “Engravin a Signet in Steel for the said Order with known of him ? I am not able to refer to the the Arins of the Order impaled with his Ma“ Imperial | Dict. Nat. Biog.' conveniently. Arms."

C. A. WARD. The description of the engraving on the seals is set Walthamstow, out in each case similar to the garter seal and signet. [The dictionary in question does not mention the

T. N. Butterfield you indicate.] French TWENTY-Franc PIECE.—On one side is “The Fox and VIVIAN.”—There is in Leamingthe head of Napoleon I. and the inscription “Napo- ton a public-house called “The Fox and Vivian." leon Empereur"; on the reverse“ 20 francs,"sur- What is the origin of this sign ? F. G. D. rounded by a wreath and the inscription, “ Republique Française. An 13"; and a small figure,

MANTLE STREET.—In a small town in Somersetintended, I believe, to represent the French cock! shire there is a street called Mantle Street. Can Round the edge of the coin are the words, “ Dieu any one suggest a derivation for this street name? protege la France." How is it that this coin com- Could it be connected with the “mantells” which inemorates both the empire and the republic?

in Manor Court Rolls are often presented as being E. H. dangerous or out of repair ?

A. L. HUMPHREYS. LOVELYN'S ‘POEMS,' &c.—I am told that the 26, Eccleston Road, Ealing. copy of these which I possess is valuable. Can any one tell me of the author, or of the value of his book? The title-page is as follows : “ Latin

Replies. and English Poems, by a Gentleman of Trinity Col. lege, Oxford. 'Nec lusisse pudet, sed non incidere

DRESS OF LONDON APPRENTICE TEMP. ludum.'-Hor. London, printed in the year

ELIZABETH. MDCCXXXVIII." With this is bound up

“ Moral

(76 S. vi. 467.) Tales, a Christmas Night's Eatertainment. Ву It is to be inferred from, if not actually stated Lady A new edition. London. Printed in, Planché's History of Costume that the for T. Becket, Pall Mall, M.DCCLXXXIII. Price costume of London apprentices in Elizabeth's half a crowd. The book contains manuscript reign was very little (if any) different from that notes connecting some of the persons mentioned of the same class in the reign of Edward VI. with certain portraits in Hogarth’s ‘Rake's Pro- and Mary, though that of the higher classes had gress.'

F. W. P.

been gradually changing through and from the (Latin and English Poems,' Lond., 1738, 4to., appears reign of Henry VIII. until the long doublets, to be by Loveling, not Lovelyn. A copy is in the Bod- stuffed and slashed trunk hose, and large ruffs ap: leian. It was reprinted, 12mo., 1741. A copy of the early edition sold for 78. in the Dent sale, and one of the peared in all their full-blown magnificence in the later for 5s, 6d. in the Hibbert.)

good queen's reign. The costume of the boys of

Christ's Hospital was doubtless a near approach to COMITATUS CERETICOS. What earldom or the dress, if not the dress itself, of the apprentices county is this? I ask because I lately picked up of the reigns of Edward and Mary, with a probable a copy of 'Lemon's Etymological Dictionary variation in its indoor and out-of-door character, (1783) in which is the following book-plate in for Planché says :-scription:-“ Collegio Sancti Davidis apud Llan “ The small, flat, round bonnet, worn on one side of bedr in Comitato Ceretico d. d. d. Thomas Phillips the head, and, indeed, the whole dress, was the costume de Brunswick Square apud Londinenses Armiger, of the citizens of London...... Blue coats were the common 1841." I can find in the Clergy List' only one ings were very generally worn. The jackets of our fireLlanbedr, but this is in Brecknockshire. If the book belongs to a church or college library, it is made in metal, and placed on the sleeve in the sixteenth

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