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to meet [Feb. 4th, 1588] in order to defray the extraordinary expences of the year, and make some new laws against the papists. The puritans having expressed their zeal for the Queen and the protestant religion, by listing in her army and navy, thought it adviseable once more to address the houses for some favor in point of subscription. Upon the delivery of the petition, one of the members stood up and moved, that an enquiry might be made, how far the bishops had exceeded the laws in the prosecution of her majesty's protestant subjects. Another moved, for reviv. ing the bill against pluralities and non-residents, which was brought in, and having passed the commons was sent up to the lords.—This alarmed the convocation, who addressed the Queen to protect the church ; and having flattered her with the title of a goddess, O dea certe! they tell her, “ That the passing of the bill will be attended with

the decay of learning, and the spoiling of their livings; that it will take away the set forms of prayer in the church, • and bring in confusion and barbarism. They put her in

mind, how dangerous innovations are in a settled state ; (and add, that all the reformed churches in Europe cannot compare with England in the number of learned ministers. We therefore, (say they) not as directors, but as « humble remembrancers, beseech your highness's favor• able beholding of our present state, and pot to suffer the

bill against pluralities to pass.”+ Hereupon the Queen forbad the House of Lords to proceed and sent for those members of the House of Commons into custody who had dared to break through her orders, of not meddling with affairs of religion without her special allowance ; which put an end to all expectations of relief for the present.

This year died the reverend and learned Mr. Thomas Sampson, of whom mention has been made already; he was born about the year 1517, and educated at Oxford; he afterwards studied at the Temple, and was a means of converting the famous martyr John Bradford to the protestant religion; he took orders from archbishop Cranmer and Ridley in the year 1549, (who dispensed with the habits at his request) and became rector of Allhallows, Bread-street : He was a

+ Life of Whitgift, p. 280.

famous preacher in the reign of King Edward ; but upon the accession of Queen Mary he fled to Strasburgh,* and was bighly esteemed by the learned Tremelius.

When Queen Elizabeth came to the crown she offered him the bishopric of Norwich, which he refused for no other reason, but because he could not conform to the habits and ceremonies. In the year 1561, he was installed déan of Christ church, Oxon; but soon after, in the year 156+, was deprived by sentence of archbishop Parker for non conformity. He afterwards contented himself with the mastership of an hospital in Leicester, where he spent the remainder of his days in peace. He was seized with the dead palsy on one side many years before he died; but continued preaching and writing to the last, and was in high esteem over all England for his learning, piety, and zeal for the protestant religion. He died at his hospital with great tranquillity and comfort in his non-conformity, the latter end of March or the beginning of April 1588-9, in the 720 year of his age.t

Soon after him died the very learned Dr. Lawrence Humphreys, a great friend and companion of Sampson's ; he was born at Newport-Pagnel in Buckinghamshire, and educated in Magdalen college, Oxon, of which he was perpetual fellow. In the reign of Queen Mary he obtained leave to travel, and continued at Zurich till Queen Elizabeth's accession, when he was made Queen's professor in divinity; he was afterwards president of Magdalen college, and dean of Glocester, which was the highest preferment he could obtain, because he was a non-conformist from the ceremonies of the church. The Oxford historian says, he was a moderate and conscientious non-conformist, and stocked his college with a generation of that sort of men that could not be rooted out in many years: He was certainly a strict calvinist, and a bitter enemy of the papists; he was a great and general scholar, an able linguist, and a deeper divine than most of his age : He published many learned works,

* The particular cause of his leaving the kingdom was a discovery, that he was concerned with Richard, a zealous protestant, in collecting money in the city of London, for the use of poor scholars in the universities who had imbibed the reformed doctrines. British Biography, vol. iii. p. 20. the note. ED. + Wood's Ath. Ox. vol. i. p. 192.

and at length died in his college, in the 63d year of his age, 1589, having had the honor to see many of his pupils bishops, while he who was every way their superior was denied preferment for his puritanical principles.

To these we may add the venerable Edwin Sandus, archbishop of York, an excellent and frequent preacher in his younger days, and an exile for religion in Queen Mary's reign. He was afterwards successively bishop of Worcester, London and York, and a zealous defender of the laws against non-conformists of all sorts ; when arguments fail

. ed he would earnestly implore the secular arm; though he had no great opinion either of the discipline or ceremonies of the church, as appears by his last will and testament, in which are these remarkable expressions : “I am persuad6ed that the rites and ceremonies by political institution appointed in the church, are not ungodly nor unlawful, but may for order and obedience sake be used by a good cbristian-But I am now, and ever have been persuaded, that 6 some of these rites and ceremonies are not expedient for * this church now; but that in the church reformed, and in

all this time of the gospel, they may better be disused by lit<tle and little, than more and more urged."* Such a testimony, from the dying lips of one who had been a severe persecutor of honest men, for things which he always thought had better be disused than urged, deserves to be remember. ed. He diedt in the month of July, 1588, in the 69th year of his age, and was buried in the collegiate church of Southwell, where there is a monument erected to his mem. ory, with his own effigies on the top, and a great number of his children kneeling round the sides of it.

* Life of Wbitgift, p. 287. + Bishop Sandys was one of the translators of the Bible in this reign, and the author of a volume of sermons esteemed superior to any of his eontemporaries. The words of his last will, quoted above, agree with his former declaration to bishop Parker, produced by our author, p. 173. But his treatment of the puritans was a contradiction to both; and is one proof amongst the several instances furnished by these times, of the influence of preferment and prosperity in corrupting the human mind, or blinding the judgment. For, in the same will, he entered his serious protest against the platforms offered by the puritans. See Maddor's Vindication, p. 352. ED.


From the SPANISH INVASION to the Death of Queen


WHILE there was any hopes of compromising matters between the church and puritans, the controversy was carried on with some decency; but when all hopes of accommodation were at an end, the contending parties loaded each other with the heaviest reproaches. The public printing presses being shut against the puritans, some of them purchased a private one, and carried it from one country to another to prevent discovery: It was first set up at Mouldsey in Surrey, near Kingston on Thames ; from thence it was conveyed to Fawsley in Northamptonshire; from theuce to Norton, from thence to Coventry, from Coventry to Woolston in Warwickshire, and from thence to Manchester in Lancashire, where it was discovered. Sundry satirical pamphlets were printed by this press, and dispersed all over the kingdom ; as,

Martin Mar-Prelate; written, as is supposed, by a club of separatists, for the authors were never discovered : It is a violent satire against the hierarchy and all its supporters ; it calls the lord bishops petty antichrists, petty popes, proud prelates, enemies to the gospel, and most covetous wretched priests.-It says, “ That the Lord has given many of our • bishops over to a reprobate sense, because they wilfully oppose and persecute the truth ; and supposes them to

have committed the unpardonable sin, because they have ó manifested in their public writings, &c. most blasphemous and damnable doctrines." The author then addresses himself to the clergy who had subscribed, and who were for pressing subscription upon others in such punning language as this, “Right puissant and terrible priests, my cler

sy masters of the confocation or conspiration house, whether fickers (vicars] paltripolitans, or others of the holy

• league of subscription. Right poisoned, persecuting and 6 terrible priests ; my horned masters, your government is 6 antichristian, your cause is desperate, your grounds are

ridiculous—Martin understands all your knavery ; you 6 are intolerable withstanders of reformation, enemies of the 6 gospel, and most covetous, wretched, and popish priests, . &c.'* There are a great many sad truths in the book, but delivered in rude and unbecoming language, and with a bitter angry spirit.

The titles of the rest were,

Theses Martinianae ; i. e. certain demonstrative conclu. sions set down and collected by Martin Mar. Prelate the great, serving as a manifest and sufficient confutation of all that ever the college of Cater Caps, with their whole band of clergy priests, have or can bring for the defence of their ambitious and antichristian prelacy. Published by Martin junior, 1589, in octavo, and dedicated to John Kankerbury [i. e. Canterbury.] The author of this tells the bishops, that he would plant young martins in every diocese and parish, who should watch the behavior of the clergy, that when any thing was done amiss it might be made public.

Protestation of Martin Mar-Prelate ; wherein, notwithstanding the surprising of the printer, he maketh it known to the world, that he feareth neither proud priest, antichristian pope, tyrannous prelate, nor godless cater cap, &c. Printed 1589. Octavo.

His appellation to the high court of parliament from the bad and injurious dealing of the archbishop of Canterbury, and other his colleagues of the high commission, &e.tPrinted 1589. Octavo.

Dialogue, wherein is plainly laid open the tyrannical dealings of the lords bishops against God's children. Prin. ted 1589. Quarto.

A treatise, wherein is manifestly proved, that reformation, and those that sincerely favor the same, are unjustly charged to be enemies to her majesty, and the state

. Printed 1590. Quarto. Ha' ye any work for the Cooper. This was written * Life of Whitgift, p. 290. + Atb. Oxon. vol. i. p. 259.

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