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might be adduced upon this large ceding version back to the time of gubject. So far however from Wickliffe. To what but to this renewed examinations of our au- can we attribute it, that the same thorized version abating our con- word (γνωριξω) should be rendered fidence in it, they greatly augment inake known, declare, certify, give it. We feel astonished that in so to understand, and do to wit ? short a space of time, about three Abstractedly, and were a translayears, king James's translators, tion to be made de novo, this would even with the aid of the previous neither be necessary nor advisable; English translations, and all other nor even to have for διαγγέλλω helps, and their own mature bib. preach, signify, and declare; or for lical attainments, should have been diakovew, serve and minister ; or for able to put forth this unequalled duw, two and twain; or for Enijevw, version. It was not commenced continue, ubide, and tarry; or for till the year 1607 ; it took three evews, forthwith, struightway, and years in preparation, and it was immediately; or for Sndos, zeal, published in 1611. The plan indignation, envy, fervent mind, pursued of each divine's handing jealousy, and emulations, (where in, for careful scrutiny, a new or two terms, the one of Sndos in its an“ amended” translation of his laudatory, the other in its culpaown portion, though excellent for tory sense, say zeal and envy,might procuring faithfulness of render- suffice;) or for Ongavpišw, lay up, ing, inevitably produced variations treasure up, and keep in store; or which could not easily be brought for coxus, strength, might, power ; to one standard. It is true that or for kompawpai, 1 Cor. vii. 39, at the close of the business a com- be dead, when in every other pasmittee of six was chosen, two by sage it is to sleep, and almost althe Oxford divines, two by the ways in the sense of to be dead; Cambridge, and two by the West- orfor xpela, need, lack, and necessity; minster, to take a survey of the ayopasw, buy and redeem, (“ye are whole work; and Dr. (afterwards bought with a price”; “ the Lord Bishop) Smith and Dr. Benson that bought them "; why not then undertook a final review ; but this “ These were bought from among could not have extended to such men?” and “ which were bought general matters as we have no- from the earth";) á yaa'w, halticed; for the Old Testament lowed, sanctified, holy; or for ao. alone would have occupied more devns, sick, weak, impotent, feeble, years than the committee or referees without strength; with hundreds employed months, if the whole of other words, which, though they was to be revised word for word. form a very good translation, and For, be it remembered, that not separately to be ob. though the version was new, in jected to, yet by their variety lead the sense of every passage being a reader to suppose there are va, newly conferred with the original, rious words in the original, where yet that it was copied for the most there is but one; and to look for part from preceding versions, the difference of meaning where there rule laid down being, “ The Bi. is none. shop's Bible to be followed, and Such is our view abstractedly; as little altered as the original will yet looking to all the circumpermit;” and preceding versions stances under which king James's had grown up from time to time version was executed, and indeed without any settled plan or con- as a general maxim, there was cert; so that the Bishop's Bible much wisdom in the rule that had expressions from every pre- there should be no unnecessary
alteration; and where a word was Smith, though it was adopted by good, and had been long in use, the whole body) says that it was in any passage, there was doubt- considered a useless operation. less great inconvenience in hastily Yet it might have been done ; and changing it for the sake of uniform- if well done, it would have been very ity of rendering; and we are far useful. Professor Robinson gives from imputing blame as to the four shades of meaning to this course pursued. All that we say is, word loyesomai, namely, to reason; the final revision could not possi- to conclude, having reasoned; to bly have embraced the classifica- reckon, as, or for, a thing ; and tion which we have spoken of. to reckon to any one.
'The English Indeed had such a plan been pro- word “reckon "includes all these posed, it should have been laid varieties ; though its use in regard down as a preliminary arrange- to some of them has become too ment, and not merely kept in mind quaint, or singular, or ambiguous, in the final correction. If, for in- or ludicrous, to allow of its introstance, there was no pre-arrange- duction in this latitude ; but this ment as to whether a certain Greek was not the case when our transword should be expressed in Eng- lation was made. We will quote lish in a defined manner (whether the English translation of all the by one word, or by two or more, passages in which loyisopal ocaccording to its supposed shades curs; which will save our readers of sense, only keeping to the same some trouble of reference ; for they word under the same circum- cannot find them by running the stances) it would have been a work eye down either a Greek or an of much time and great labour to English Concordance; but must have reduced the whole volume, either have both at hand and colafter it was finished, to this ap- late them, or else have the Greek proach to uniformity; especially Concordance and turn to every as from the circumstance of its passage in the English Testament; being a new (or newly-modified) or else find all the above thirteen version, there were none of the words in the English Testament, facilities of English concordances, and then find in the Greek Testaverbal references, or even me. ment all the passages referred to, mory, to aid the collation. When, in order to glean out those in for instance, the revisors, in turn- which loyišouai occurs; or else ing to a few places where the read through the whole Greek and word loyičoval occurs, found that English Testament side by side. no classification, much less uni. We will copy all the passages, givformity, of phrasing had been ing the word “reckon" in brackets, adpoted in regard to it; the word in all those places where some being translated reasoned,numbered, other word is given. We should reckoned, despised, think, think on, prefer that this word were used in counted, conclude, impute, account- every text in which the sense is ed, estcem, lay to, and suppose ; and clearly and fully expressed by it; these words being in turn given and that a classification were as the representatives of a great made of the other senses. Had number of Greek words besides it been used in all the passages in Loyisouar; it would be very labo- which“ impute" is employed, (as rious, with a new translation, even it is in some of them) it would have to find out all the passages in rendered the meaning clearer to which all the words occur ; and to unlearned persons.
“ Count attempt to classify them would be also in its proper sense), and “acto go over the whole work anew; count,” might be superseded by and the writer of the preface (Dr. it, and so on of others. To“reck" is to think; therefore to “reck on" that we do not of course mean is to “think on." Thus our an- that the word “reckon” (especially cestors would have said, “ If there as now used)would do for them all, be any virtue, and if there be any or that it is better than “impute," praise, reck on these things "- “account," &c., but we would which alas ! too many are reckless make one word the rule and others of. Tyndale has it," If there be the exception; instead of taking any virtuous thing, if there be any the casual mixture caused by laudable thing, those same have successive versions, without any ye in your mind." The following attempt at classification. are the passages. We only repeat
Mark xi. 31. They reasoned [reckoned) with themselves.
xv. 28. He was numbered (reckoned] with the
26. Shall not his uncircumcision be counted (reckoned] for circumcision?
4. Is the reward not reckoned of grace, but
24. To whom it shall be imputed (reckoned]
36. We are accounted (reckoned) as sheep for. is. 8. Are counted (reckoned) for the seed.
xix. 14. But to him that esteemeth [reckoneth) any thing 1 Co. iv. 1. Let a man so account of [reckon of] us. xiii. 5. Not easily provoked, thinketh [reckoneth] no evil.
11. I thought (reckoned) as a child.
v. 19. Not imputing (reckoning) their trespasses unto them.
as if we walked.
11. Let such an one think [reckon) this, that such,
xii. 6. Lest any man should think [reckon) of me above Gal. iii. 6. It was accounted (reckoned) to him for. Phil. iii. 13. I count (reckon] not myself to have.
iv. 8. Think on [reckon on] these things. 2 Ti. iv. 16. It may not be laid to (reckoned to] their charge Heb. xi. 19. Accounting [reckoning) that God (was) able to raise James ii. 23. It was imputed (reckoned) unto him for 1 Pet. v. 12. Faithful brother unto you, as I suppose, [reckon.]
We have allowed ourselves to discern more nicely than his unrun on with these cursory obser- learned neighbour the shades of vations, “provoked" (in its clas- meaning of the inspired word, we sical sense) by the title of “ The rejoice to add that, as concerns Englishman's Greek Concord. every particular of faith and prace ance." In the review, while we tice, there is not perhaps a version cannot but congratulate the bib. extant (except such as are express. lical scholar that he is enabled to ly constructed to serve some dis
honest end, of which there are very of their souls, to make them meet few) which does not open to the for the inheritance of the saints vernacular reader or hearer a clear in light. knowledge of the divine will; and in the case of our own version, and in which the English reader is disadvanin some others, such as Luther's, taged by the same rendering being used for with a minute correctness which two distinct words. We read, John xiii. all but supersedes the use of the
“ And he poureth water into a
bason, and began to wash the disciples' original ; nay, for popular use, feet And Peter said unto Him, quite supersedes it; for it could Lord, dost thou wash my feet.... Thou not be the intention of Divine shalt never wash my feet. Jesus an
swered him, If I wash thee not, thou Providence, that intricate Greek
hast no part with me. Simon Peter saith and Hebrew philology should be unto Him, Lord, not my feet only, but essential to those who have it not also my hands and my head. Jesus saith in their power to addict themselves
unto him, He that is washed needeth not to it. And with regard to that whit." Here the English reader in
save to wash his feet, but is clean every divine unction and spiritual under- evitably supposes that the word “ wash,” standing, without which the bare which occurs so often in this passage, text is but a dead letter, and the represents throughout the same word in most profound learning but a beg
the Greek; and he in consequence loses
much of the force of our Lord's reply ; garly element, He who was the “ He that is washed needeth not save to inditer of holy writ can and will wash his feet, but is clean every whit.” open the hearts of all who humbly How can the only washing which had seek his heavenly instruction, that been mentioned, and which was but par
tial, whether applied to the feet, or even, they may receive the sacred word
as St. Peter asked, to the hands also and for their soul's health, taking of head, be said to cleanse the whole body? the things of Christ and revealing A person might have this local cleansing, them to their souls; bestowing
and yet not be “clean every whit.
But the difficulty does not occur in the upon them faith, and holiness, and
original ; and it would not have arisen in peace; being their lapakintoc, the translation, if the reader had been and leading them to Him who is apprised by a change of rendering that also their Παρακλητος (we give the
two Greek words are used; namely,
the word νιπτεσθαι, which is employed original word, because the distinc
throughout the passage, except in our tion of “ Comforter," as applied Lord's last reply, and which means a to the Holy Spirit, John xiv. 16,
partial ablution ; and the word lover, also 26 ; xv. 26; xvi. 7; and “ Ad
used by our Lord in conclusion, and
which expresses the ablution of the whole vocate," as applied to Christ, i
body. It may be intelligibly rendered John ii. 1, is the comment of by our English word “ bathe ;” though translators ; the Greek being the our customs being different to those same, though the diversity of the
of the orientals in hot climates, who
practise constant immersion in pools rendering may be proper,) that
or rivers, we have not any word the they may have fellowship with the familiar associations of which are perFather and the Son; and that fectly coincident. He that is bathed being justified by faith, through is perfectly cleansed ; and needs only, in
fine, to wash from his feet the dust or the blood of Christ, they may sand which adheres from stepping out constantly receive the cleansing* from the bathing place. Or our Lord
might perhaps allude to the immersion We had no special reference in our used by the Jews at the consecration of minds to any particular text when we priests and the initiation of proselytes, wrote as above," the cleansing of their which was not repeated; the subsequent souls;" but, as when one is thinking of a daily purifications being only by pouring subject, illustrations spontaneously arise water, or dipping the hands or feet. on all sides (as in the foregoing inciden- Bishop Hall says: “ In respect of the tal allusion to the varied renderings of main business of regeneration washed Παρακλητος) it occurs to us to notice a from your sins; yet even in the best of passage concerning this spiritual cleansing, men, there are some remains of worldly VIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS. The question of questions which addition to the labours of an Estapresses upon the anxious attention of blished Church, and a proper fruit of its erery wisely-judging Christian man exertions ; but it is a very inadequate throughout her Majesty's dominions, is substitute for its rightful system. the religious instruction of the people ; When Dissenters say, What has the and this divides itself into two branches, Established Church effected ? we reply, the instruction of the adult and of the Much, and more perhaps than can be infant population.
estimated; but we refuse to be tried by With regard to the adult population, this test, for in too many places we the urgent want is new churches and have little more than the name, the new ministers to supply them. We shadow of an establishment; and in have an ecclesiastical establishment, very few is its system fully carried out and blessings manifold has it been the into full action. We remember seeing, instrument of conveying to the people; more than five-and-twenty years ago, in but it has been crippled and curtailed, Bristol, a steam-boat which was the ri. instead of its operations being carried dicule of the multitude. To think of out to the full measure of its duties. impelling vessels by steam, was proStrange to say, while population was nounced to be preposterous. At length, rapidly increasing, and mighty towns however, the little boat was launched were springing up, where but recently on its passage to Bath ; but its engine there were only small parishes or a few was too small, and then truly the railers scattered villages, the National Church had an excellent triumph. Now it would was not allowed to lengthen its cords be just as absurd to argue that the or strengthen its stakes, but was stinted National Church principle is not effi. to its ancient capabilities : nay, far cient because in its present inadequate more work was demanded, with dimi- state it cannot effect its objects, as that nished power; for the ecclesiastical
a steam voyage down the Thames – to apparatus was less adequate than it had say nothing of one across the Atlantic been in the days of popery, before the - is a dream of enthusiasm because Reformation ; whereas the population the worthy coroner of Bristol's boat was immeasurably increased; and what was fitted up with too small an engine. was worse, too many who professed We rejoice to see that the necessity themselves to be zealous chirchmen, and duty of enlarging the agency of the were so jealous of what they considered National Church, by the aid of the legis. innovation, that they opposed the mul- lature, so as to render it more adequate tiplication of churches and the division to its arduous duties, is beginning to be of overgrown parishes; so that property, strongly felt among the sound-minded and patronage, and ignorant jealousy, part of the nation ; though we lament and even Conservative principles, were to say that no specific measure for set in array against church extension.
the purpose has been laid before parlia-Happily this day has gone by ; the le- ment. A most influential public meetgislature has afforded considerable facili- ing was lately held at Freemason's Hall, ties for church building, and though the at which this duty was strongly urged strings of the national purse are kept and a petition to Parliament has been closely drawn, private Christian zeal prepared, enforcing the principle. The has not been wanting in erecting and petitioners justly state that "the addipartly endowing many sacred edifices. tion of more than six millions to the But this is not enough. We rejoice, population of England and Wales, since indeed, to witness this voluntary agen- the commencement of the present cency; but it does not exempt the nation in tury, without any commensurate addiits corporate capacity from addressing tion to the Church Establishment, renitself to the work. It is an excellent ders it necessary that some adequate
affections, some worldly defilement, which of the original, as he might have by a must still be purged away.” There may distinctive rendering. Where this very also be an allusion to baptism (in the word over is used thirteen times in the mode of immersion) which does not Septuagint version of the Old Testament, require to be repeated, and the sanctifying for the ablution of the whole body by iminfluences of the Holy Ghost which must mersion, our translators have very probe perpetual. The drift of the passage is perly given “bathe ;" so that the word clear enough ; we only mean that the ver- would not have been unfamiliar to the nacular reader
has not the full advantage English Bible reader.