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for it is not until Desdemona has left sisted of some 20 soldiers only, and the the Indians met by our party none the room in this same scene, when the following officers and artists, besides the have ever been into our settlements. Moor and lago are left alone, that the two officers already mentioned : Lieut. They appeared to be wholly ignorant former first receives an intimation of Graham, Lieut. Smith, Dr. Say, Dr. of the existence of such a people as any thing to rouse his jealousy. But Jaines, and Messrs. Seymour and Peale, those of the United States, or indeed when Othello discovers the meaning of designers and painters.

of the existence of any people of a fairthe ambiguous sentences of lago, Mr. The expedition set out from the Coun-er complexion than the inhabitants of Kean gave an effect both striking and cil Bluffs, on the 6th of June, direct- Mexico, or the adjacent Spanish proiimpressive; his looks, his action, and ing their course first to the Pawnee vil vinces, of whom, it appeared, they had the wild stare of his countenance, were lages, on a Fork of the La Plattee, dis- some knowledge. Being made to una splendid picture of the effects of jea- tant about one hundred and twenty derstand the existence of such a golousy on the heart of a Moor. The miles from the Council Bluffs, and vernment, its power, and its humane shock was electric, and Mr. Kean gave thence proceeded to the Rocky Moun-policy, as exemplified in its treatment it full force. Indeed, the whole scene tains, distant about four hunded miles of other Indian tribes, they expressed a with lago was ably executed, although from the Pawnee Villages. The inter- great desire to be taken by the hand by we should not be displeased to see val is a rolling prairie country, of course the United States, and to place themomitted those specimens of pantomi- destitute of hills and wood, so that the selves under our protection. mical evolutions,' performed not only in mountains are visible at the distance of The topographers, medical gentlethat scene, but frequently in other parts one hundred and twenty miles. Time men, and painters, attached to this exof the play, as we conceive that the ef- has not yet allowed a calculation of the pedition, have collected abundant mafects from the supposed faithless con- observations, which were made as accu- terials for correcting some of the gross dact of a beautiful wife on a loving hus- rately as circumstances would allow, errrors in the received geography of band, can well be shown without them. but it is supposed the greatest height this part of our country, for making imWhen Iago observes to him, that she of the ridge does not exceed the eleva- portant additions to medical botany, deceived her father marrying him, the tion of four thousand feet above the base and to the stock of our geological reply, of the mouutain.

knowledge of our own territory; and "And so she did.'

The expedition separated into two the painters have many interesting and was uttered in a tone that evinced the parties near the point on the Arkansas, valuable sketches of the prominent feaanguish of his heart, and was feelingly desigrated on the maps as Pike's block tures of the country. Besides possesand appropriately delivered. We felt house.

sing the government of such informa. a sympathetic thrill for his own un- The one party, under the command tion as was indispensible to judicious happy situation. In the chamber of Maj. Long, proceeded thence with a arrangements for the support and pro. scene we were much disappointed; it view to strike the head waters of Red tection of the American populatiou pewas a lame performance, and though, River. But, it appears, the maps which netrating into that country, this eupehere and there, we could witness speci- we have are very defective, the courses dition ought, and we hope will, form mens of fine acting, we decidedly think of the rivers being almost wholly con. the subject of one of the most attracwe have seen that part of Othello atjectural, and often entirely fabulous. tive works ever published in this counleast as ably, if not better, executed. The expedition did not attain the ob- try. - The American, Dec. 1, 1820. ject sought, because it was not to be What strnck us most impressively in

found where it is laid down on the maps, this brief narrative was, that some

and fell upon the waters of the Cana- thousand miles on this side of our utLiterature and science. dian fork of the Arkansas, which it pur- most western boundary, or, in other

sued, and terminated its tour at Belle words, about half way between the (From the National Intelligencer.) Point, on the Arkansas, the post men- Mississippi River and the Pacific Of the North-western region of the Uni- tioned in the late message of the Presi. Ocean, an exploring party has met with ted States. We were yesterday grati-dent to Congress, as being the ad- several tribes of men, the aborigines and fied with a few minutes conversation vanced post of our cordon in that di- proprietors of the soil of the conntry, with Capt. J. R. Bell, who arrived in rection.

who were ignorant, not only of the exthis city on Tuesday, from Cape Girar- The other party, under the command istence of the people of the United deng, in Missouri ; which place he left of Captain Bell, proceeded down the States, but of ehe existence of a race of on the 13th October last. The infor- Arkansas to Belle Point, which place white people! It gives us an awful tation derived from him was so inte. they reached on the 9th of Sept. after idea of the magnificent extent of the resting to us, that we believe our rea- an absence of three months from the domain of the republic. ders will be pleased with some account haunts of civilization.

Below the first fork of the Arkansas, Capt. Bell was second in rank of an as it was named by Pike, they met se

The Bee. exploring expedition, under the com- veral hunting parties of strange Indi- Floriferis ut apes in saltibus omnia limant, mand of Major Long, the objects of ans, whose names even have rarely, if

Omnia nos itidem depascimur aurea dicta.' which were topographical and scientific ever, been heard of before, belonging information respecting the vast wilder- to the tribes of the Arrapahoes, the Cornwall Coin. At the sale of Dr. ness of country which stretches from the Kaskayas, the Kiawas, and the Chay. Disney's collection of coins, in 1817, a Council Bluffs

, on the Missouri, to the ennes.' They are frequently, and per- fifty-five shilling piece of Oliver Cromfoot of the Rocky Mountains, of which haps at present, engaged in war with well, and known by the name of Oliso little is yet known. The expedition, the Pawnees, Osages, and other tribes ver's Broad, sold for 109). being wholly pacific in its objects, con-' of whom we have some knowledge. Of A potatoe inerchant, in the neigh

of it.


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No. 89.

Price 6d. LONDON, SATURDAY, JANUARY 27, 1821. Review of New Books.

sons who have an influence in the di-pears to have published his Enquiry rection of our national concerns. purely in consideration of the effect

If an author,' observes Mr. Godwin, which Mr. Malthus's doctrine, while An Inquiry concerning the Power or in the begining of the nineteenth cen- uncontradicted, has had and continues

Increase in the Numbers of Man. tury of the Christian era, comes forward to have upon our political regulations, kind, being an Answer to Mr. Mal- to teach us a new creed, and to persuade affording, as it does, a plea for many of thus's Essay on that subject. By

us to abandon that which the concurrent those oppressive measures to which our

wisdom of Wm. Godwin. London, 1820.

ages One of the most important questions surely not attempt to do this by the sole rulers are unhappily too prone.

The ground-work of Mr. Malthus is which have occupied the attention of should have gone through the annals of simply this ; that in the United States politicians within the last five and antiquity, and have shewn us where, in of North America, the population has twenty years, is that which relates to all famous nations and states, the evil crept gone on doubling itself every twenty-five the power of increase in the numbers in. The fact is completely against him. of mankind. The question itself is The fact is according to the evidence of years for the last century and a half, and,

as Mr. Malthus states, by procreation by no means new, but its immediate all history, that population does not reimportance originated with Mr. Mal- quire the vigilance of governments to keep only. From this he concludes, that it down.'

mankind have the power of increasing thus's Essay on Population. Few of our readers can stand in need of being Malthus to assert, that population increase were they not restrained by

It was sufficient, however, for Mr. at this rate, and would every where so reminded of the frightful doctrine would increase if unchecked in a geo-vice and misery, whose operation is there inculcated, and, unfortunately, metrical ratio, while the means of sub- rendered necessary and unceasing by too generally received, that no reform, sistence could not possibly be increased the slow rate at which the means of moral or political, ought to be or can

Mr. be introduced into society, on'account tical ratio ; it was sufficient for Mr. Godwin takes up his pen to refute all

more rapidly than in an . arithme- subsistence can be increased. of the prevailing tendency of mankind Malthus to assert this, for the asser- this, but chiefly to shew that the auto increase beyond the limits of the zion to be credited by the class of thentic history of mankind in all ages means of subsistence; that against these limits mankind would ever be The ratios of increase were taken for cipal laws with which we are acquainted

piersons to whom we have alluded. and in att nations, as well as the prinpressing hard, and that the reign of vice and misery must and would be Surely one might have supposed that man species, or to prove the utter

granted, and the rest followed of course. relative to the propagation of the huuniversal and eternal. When it is considered what effect Mr. Malthus has important consequences, so disgusting constant increase of population as that

a doctrine so new and so pregnant with impossibility of such a regular and produced in all parliamentary and so- by its selfishness, and so appalling by of the United States by procreation cial regulations, changing the very its cruelty; so lamentable if true, and only. The author of the Enquiry principles of political economy; and

so impious if false, would not have shews, that in ancient times, under cira that an important revolution in these found a very hasty reception ; on the cumstances the most favourable to porespects must follow upon his total

contrary, that if it had not been sus pulation that can be conceived, mandiscomfiture, the importance of the tained throughout by the most irrefra- kind never did increase at any thing like volume before us will be easily con gable proofs, so that not a part should that rate, and in the first book takes an ceived. It is from the pen of one of exhibit the least sign of rottenness, it enlarged view of the population of the first moral philosophers of this age, would have been promptly and utterly Europe, Asia, Africa, and South and, in taking it up few persons, how rejected, or at least, that it would not America. Perhaps the strongest arever satisfied of the impossibility of have caused us to swerve, in the slight- gument against Mr. Malthus's doctrine


est degree, from the old and established is afforded by the examples of ParaMalthus, can doubt of receiving a principles of charits and benevolence. guay and Sparta. We give the folconsiderable portion of instruction and delight from a production of the author hence, in a scientific contest like this, book:

Such, however, was not the case, and lowing extract from this part of the of Political Justice.

no man is bound to refute that which Paraguay was a settlement formed by Our limits do not admit of our en is not supported, any more than in law | the Jesuits, in the interior of South Ame. les for doing justice in our extracts, negative ; and an assumption like that They were shocked, as it was natural that to the book before us. But it may be which formed the basis of Mr. Mal, the contagion of the world should be, at proper, though it is certainly painful to thus's doctrine might have been suffered the atrocities acted by the Spaniards in femark, with what facility the doctrines to stand for what it was worth, or at this part of the world ; and they formed a of Mr. Malthus found their way into the best have been met by counter-as- strenuous resolution to endeavour by an sipds of a great portion of those per- I sumption. -Mr. Godwin, however, apa? experiment of the utmost gentleness and . .


humanity, to atone to the unhappy natives have us do, against the tendency in tined to the happiness of an immortal for the cruelties acted upon their country- mankind to increase beyond the limits existence. Our first question, and that men in other parts of the continent. They of the means of subsistence, than to regarded as a most difficult one, was, took for their model the history of the fear with Montesquieu that population how he was to be maintained in it was rule of her Incas, and the whole trans.every day grows thinner, and that if not enough that he was born with the imaction will redound to their immortal it goes on at the same rate, in one thou- plements and the limbs, by which exube

rant subsistence is to be produced. It honour. Their establishment began sand years more the race of man will be

was not enough that there was room about the year 1610, and the Jesuits were extinct.

for many millions of human beings more finally expelled from it, by authority of The argument afforded by Para- than now exist on the face of the earth. the King of Spain, in 1767.

guay is strongly borne out by that of We were reduced, (oh, miserable slaWhat Abbé Raynal says on the sub- Sparta :

very!) to inquire whether he was born ject is so much to my purpose, that I shall do little more than transcribe it.

Lycurgus employed every means he among the easier orders of society, whether

could devise to insure a numerous and he was the son of a father who had a It might be expected that man: healthy population. He encouraged mar. fair prospect of being able to support a kind would have most extraordinarily riage, he tixed a stigma on celibacy, and family. We were learning fast to calum. multiplied themselves under a govern- he provided for the support and education niate the system of the universe, and to ment where no individual was idle, and of the children that should be born, from believe that the first duty it required of none were destroyed by excessive labour; the funds of the republic. His institu. us, was to prevent too many human beings, where the nourishment was wholesome, tion continued unimpaired for the space (that last work of God, that sole, ornaabundant, and equally distributed to all ; of five hundred years. Yet it is apparent ment and true consummation of the orb where all were fully supplied with neces- that the state perished through the dimi- we dwell in) froin being born into the sary clothing; where old men, widows, nution of its numbers. During the in- world.' orphans, and the sick, were attended with terval in which Sparta makes the most

Mr. Godwin nexts proceeds to exa care unknown to the rest of the world ; splendid figure in the page of history, it amine very rigidly, the authorities of where every one married of choice and was reduced to employ various expedients Mr. Malthus, which, to say the truth, without motives of interest ; where a nu- for the purpose of increasing the amount are miserably slight and insignificant, merous family of children was a consola- of its citizens by extrinsic accessions. In and to bring the inquirer more closely tion without the possibility of being a the period of which Aristotle treats, the to the consideration of the principles ble from idleness, and which assails equally from ten thousand to one thousand men; respecting the increase or decrease of the rich and the poor, never hastened the and in the reign of the latter Agis, about the numbers of mankind. On this approach of infirinities or old age; where one hundred years later than Aristotle, they subject, his reasoning, which is both nothing occurred to excite the artificial counted no more than seven hundred citi- lacid and profound, is illustrated by passions or to oppose those which are conforınable to nature and reason ; where conceive to be utterly incompatible with dish accounts of population, the best

zens. These are phenomena, which I an excellent tabular digest of the Swethe advantages of commerce were reaped any hypothesis that affirms the rapid inulo documents of their kind in existence. without bringing in their train the vices tiplication of the human species.' of luxury; where abundant magazines Having taken a view of the popula-and, we think, with perfect success,

From these, it is attempted to be shewn, and succours, mutually communicated from tribe to tribe, insured them against South America, in ancient and modern

tion of Europe, Asia, Africa, and that the human species, abstractedly famine and the inconstancy of the sea

considered, has very small power of insons; where the administrators of justice times, Mr. Godwin indulges in some

crease, and that, practically, its numbers between man and man were never reduced deep and finely toned sentiments on do not increase, that nearly all the to the sad necessity of condemning one the state of man and society, and children are born that can be born; and individual to deatli

, to disgrace, or to makes the following truly manly re- that the American increase cannot have any punishinent but what was momentary; Alection on some of the effects of Mr. been by procreation only. This branch where taxes and law suits, two of the Malthus's book :greatest sources of affliction to the human


of the inquiry leads to an investigation race, were utterly unknown: such a coun. this island has been hardening, through the numbers of inankind is reduced or

• For twenty years the heart of man

of the causes, by which the amount of try, I say, might have been expected to the theories of Mr. Malthus. What perprove the most populous ,on the face of manent effect this may have upon the restrained. We regret, that we cannot the earth. It was not so.'

English character I know not, but I am make such extracts from this part of Various causes have been assigned sure it was high time that it should be the volume, in which the very..pith of for the decrease in the numbers of this stopped. We were learning, at least as the question is contained, as, establishment, none of which causes are many of us as studied the questions of ample justice to the author, but the substantial, and Paraguay remains ac- political economy, and these are by cordingly an incontestible proof, not no means the most despicable part of the following passages place the fallacy of

Mr. Malthus's hypothesis in so clear a only that there is not in mankind an cominunity, to look askance and with a

light, that we feel compelled to give abstract and certain power of increase suspicious eye upon a human being, par

A woman

them :ing their numbers, but that, in an walking the streets in a state of pregnancy

- If Mr. Malthus's doctrine were sound, experiment inade on a particular por- was an unavoidable subject of alarm. and his novelties constituted a real discotion of mankind, there has sometimes A man who was the father of a numerous very, the history of the population of the appeared to be a positive absence of family, ifin the lower orders of society, was earth would be very different from the the power of supplying even a succes. the object of our anger. We could not thing that it is. But his theory sustains sion of generations of the same nume- look upon a human being with the eye of the common fate of every mere hypothe. rical magnitude ; and, judging by facts a painter as a delicious subject of con sis ingeniously contrived to account for rather than pursuing the consequences philosopher as

templation, with the eye of a moral the phenomena around us. It may look a machine capable of in some degree plausible in itself

, but it of an unwarranted assumption, it adorning the earth with magnificence and will never truly tally with the facts it is seeins that there is much less reason beauty, or with the eye of a divine as a brought to explain. It pays us with words: to provide, as Mr, Malthus would creature with a soul to be saved, and des. I but it does not clear up a single difficulty.

will do

• The population of every old country, by Mr. Malthus, the reduction of the lation of the United States of America according to Mr. Malthus, is kept down number of those who cried out for the has been ascertained to have proceeded by pressing hard against the limits of the means of subsistence. Why are they at from procreation only? We would remeans of subsistence. If this were true, present unconscious of their happiness, commend it to Mr. Malthus, if he has what would be the real state of the case and why do they not diligently apply in the history of all the nations of the themselves to increase their numbers an opportunity, to ask any intelligent earth. A periodical fluctuation. That I think, I inay venture to say, that in no American how many of the families of there is a change, I admit, and that nations one instance has the thing happened as his native country, with whom he is Mr.

acquainted, can trace back their anthe numbers of their people. But, the

Having thus arrayed against the the- cestors for a century and a half, withcause of these changes has never, yet ories of Mr. Malthus, whatever know out finding them on this side of the they square with Mr. Malthus's hypothe - ledge on this subject the authentic his-Atlantic. Mr. Godwin has, however, sis. To proceed in the statement and torg of population in past and present with most exemplary diligence and his refutation of the views exhibited in the times affords, together with a very pow

usual acuteness, proceeded farther with Essay on Population: Every country, as erful train of close reasoning on the this inquiry, and, in our opinion, perwell as North America, in the proportion principles which relate to this part of lectly succeeded in establishing the fact of its area and its soil, is capable of sub- the moral system of the world, Mr. from the documents which form the sisting a given number of its inhabitants : Godwin enters directly on the subject only true means of judying of the state when this capacity has been used, and the of the alleged increase of the United of any given population, that the same country has been replenished with men, States of North America, from which laws regulate the progress of the huthat district, a portion of the globe, will refuse to receive a greater number. But, alleged increase alone, Mr. Malthus man species in North America, as apa it is perhaps the nature of every check or drew his portentous and calamitous ply to it in every other part of the reaction to operate somewhat beyond the doctrine of the geometrical ratio. We world, and that the principle of proextent of the impulse that gave it birth. must confess, that we do not look upon creation operates there with precisely the Hence, we will say, comes the depopula- this division of the book as the most same effect as it does every where else. tion which forms so memorable a portion important, because, had we


The fifth book, which treats of the of the records of universal history. That heard of the United States of America present state of the globe, as it relates we may not fall into the error, so incident to the limited faculties of man, of con- as a place peopled entirely, and at va- to human subsistence, and the sixth, founding ourselves amidst the complica- rious times, literally from year to year, on the moral and political maxims in tion of very large numbers, let us take by settlers from Europe, --as a portion culcated in the Essay on Population, a district, or island fully competent to of the globe, which was looked to at all though engaging in themselves, and the subsistence of one thousand human times, and more particularly within the highly valuable for the enlarged views inhabitants. The power of procreation, last fifty years, by the discontented, which they contain of the state of sowe will assume, continually tends to in the unhappy, and the destitute of every ciety and its possible improvement, are crease the numbers of mankind. The population of this district, therefore, mise, the last retreat of independence, nation of the grand question; for,

kingdom of Europe, as the land of pro- by no means essential to the determihaving arrived at one thousand, has an abstract tendency to extend itself further. the happy soil on which they might with respect to the one, Mr. Malthus But here it is stopped by the most pow-dwell and be at peace, we should have never professed to do more than assume erful of all causes. Calamity invades been perfectly satisfied, before our ar- the arithmetical ratio to be the ratio of this devoted race of men, poverty, ex- rival at this part of the Enquiry, of the increase of the means of subsistence, amples of terrible distress, and the want absolute impossibility of such an in- and, with respect to the other, the corof the means of subsistence, Hereupon, crease, as a doubling every twenty-five rection of the fundamental inischiefs No man need look far for the most im: / years, for a century and a half, having of Mr. Malthus's book was, we should pressive examples of depopulation. We

been produced by the principle of pro- have thought, a sufficiently useful oce will imagine the number of inhabitants

creation. To satisfy, however, such cupation to satisfy the beneficent yearnreduced to five hundred. What will be persons as desire to see that proved to ings of the author of the Enquiry. Be the consequence of this? The area and be false, which it has already been that as it inay, we cannot but be pleased the soil were fully competent to subsist proved cannot be true, this division of with the reflections contained in the twice that enaber. Strips and acres of the book is, we think, perfectly com- last book. The Essay on Population land now seem to call loudly for the hand petent. Mr. Godwin gives a history was first suggested by a paper in Mr. of the cultivator. The whole country of emigration from Europe to North Godwin's Enquirer, and Mr. Maltbus, pines, and is sick for the ploughshare and America, in the seventeenth century, in a subsequent edition of his Essay, evident upon Mr. Malthus's scheme, than and likewise from 1700 to the present expressly declared the motive to his that this region will speedily recover time, beginning with the Brownists | publication to be, that he really thought its lost population. Want of the means and Puritans, flying from the intole that there should be somewhere on of subsistence, put it down; that want be- rance of James the First, to the radicals record an answer to systems of equality ing removed, the principle of increase (if that terin is meant to be used in so founded on the principle of populainherent in the human species will raise it comprehensive a sense) who are escap- tion. On this account, Mr. Godwin up again.

ing from the taxation and restrictions of seems to feel it peculiarly incumbent But is this really the case in the his, the reign of George the Fourth. Now, on him to refute every part of the thetory of the earth? Let us look through without proceeding further with this ory of Mr. Malthus which appears to by Montesquieu.* They have been part of the question, can any person, bé opposed to the improvement and amply blessed in the remedy prescribed except Mr. Malthus, who casts his eye happiness of mankind, and to furnish

Italy, Sicily, Greece, Spain, France, the over the history of Europe for the last an antidote to the poison of the appearwhole North of Europe, Turkey, America, century and a balf, have the hardihood | ance of which he has iņuocently been Asia Minor, Persia, Egypt, &c. &c.' to assert thựt the increase in the popu.I the cause,

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