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of no consideration in the account of his may need a complete revisiun: and I am feelings or his purse, and so may refuse told that a person, high in the law, someto notice them; whilst it appears that time ago alluded to it in the House of there is no other person on whom the law Commons, and promised to bring forward casts the obligation to feed them. a bill which had this for its object. It may happen also that the lord may

Your's, &c. Reglect to seize and proclaim them as Stroud,

P. H. F. estrays; or the time which intervenes be April 20th, 1807. tween their being inpounded and the proclamation may be great; whilst it ap- To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. pears that he is not in the interim obliged SIR, to provide them with food. And though

. TEuropean countries for Oriental Litethe bayward, if he be a humane man, or in the hope of being repaid, or by the rature, promises to contribute much to the command of the lord (in the expectation improvement of philology and learning: of its becoming an estray), will sometimes and when classic scholars engage in this feed the distress; and though the owner, pursuit, the more eminent Greek writers if he be a humane man, will not fail to ren will richly share in the general benefit, pay him for it: yet this does not, and by light reflected upon them from the cannot always happen for obvious rea- East. The acknowledged derivation of sons. So that as the law now stands, in the Greek from the Asiatic languages, the this age of benevolence and feeling, a dis- high antiquity of Homer, his frequent use tress of cattle (often very valuable ani- of terms in the sense which they bore in mals) taken damage-feasant, muy perish in the parental tongue, are circumstances the common pound for want of sustenance: thatoccasion obscurities in many places of nay, it would often perish if humanity did bis immortal works, which the skill of those not prevent it.

acquainted only with later Greek authors Whilst such a case as this can exist, has been by no means. able to remove. how unfrequent soever it may occur, it is Such obscurities the critics and commena reproach to the Law; which should not tators, instead of elucidating by more en, leave what ought to be done to the dis- lightened criticism, have, from their want cretion or feelings of any man, but should of acquaintance with the langnages of PerInake it compulsory on him; which should sia, Arabia, Chaldea, Egypt, and Judea, take to itself the merit of commanding passed over unobserved, or at least uner. what is right and prohibiting what is plained. As this subject is new and, wrong," without borrowing any thing from as I conceive, important, I propose, the refinement of public manners or indi- through the medium of your useful and vidual compassion.

well conducted miscellany, to submit an If it were my object to interest the example to your classical readers; and if feelings of the reader, I might justly draw it should appear worthy of their attention, a very affecting picture of the misery of I shall send for publication a series of te dumb animals confined for days without marks upon the several books of the Llar, food, in a small inclosure, without any combining, in the order of those books, shelter from the weather, or any thing to critical obscrvations with ctymological ealie down upon but mire and dung. I quiries. might speak of the inute language of their I select that example which first ocpain, which no passenger stops to con- curs to my memory, thougb perhaps not strue; and their patiently standing hour af- the most striking that might be adduced. ter hour, with eyes closed and head droop- Hector, it appears from many passages ing, in a corner of this wretched place, which of Homer, was the cbiet, if not the only no passenger sees. But those who are means of repelling the Greeks; and in se boruto be the champions of humanity need knowledgment of his courage, skill, pru. not themselves be tortured in order to dence, and vigilance, in the defence of teach them the rights of suffering crea- Troy, his fellow-citizens had the gratiturle tures: it is enough that they see or are to appropriate a tract of laod to his only told what justice and humanity require. son, who was born during the latter perzul A reformation might easily be effected of the siege, and whom the father, a in the case before us by making the year commemorate a circumstance which we and day begin to run from the time of im- flected so much honour opon bis valour, pounding; and by giving a lien on the caled Zamindar, which, in the language of distress for the costs of kcepiug from that the Persians (no very distant neighbours) timpe. But perhaps the law of distress signifies lord of the land, and wluch 14


this day, in Hindostan, denotes a land- Most be his lot, since others will remove holder. This the Greeks, with little va. At will his land-marks and possess his fields. riation, pronounced Scamandrius. On the

Il. xxii. near the close. other hand, the citizens, wishing to per

How natural was it in maternal tenderpetuate the incident for which the land ness to apprehend, that, as the prowess of was bestowed, and at the same time inti- Hector had now proved ineffectual for mating that his son when grown to ina

the defence of the city, his son should turity had the fairest title to rule a city be stript of the land, and to lament that which had been saved by the bravery of he was now likely to become a mendihis father, gave the child, though yet an cant and a slave in those domains of which infant, the honourable name of Astyanax

he had once the prospect to be lord and or king of the city. For this fact I have sodereign? Yet, for want of attention to only the indirect authority of Homer; but this circumstance, most critics,ancient and as it is a fact which, in itself by no means

modern, have supposed this last passage improbable, serves to explain passages in- to be spurious, as unworthy of Homer. imitably beautiful and appropriate, but

“ For while Priam lived, they say) inexplicable on any other supposition, what probability was there, that his any additional evidence for the truth of it land-marks should be removed, and that will hardly be deemned necessary. When he should be considered in all companies the amiable, but by the national preju- as an intruder and a vagabond?” “To this dices of Homer, mucb-injured, Hector may be added (says Cowper) another met for the last time Andromache, she reason, and perhaps not less weighty, for had, it is said, her infant with her, in the which its authority may be suspected. arms of its nurse.

There never lived a more perfect master Παιδ' επι κολπον εχουσ' αταλαφρονα, νηπιον would touch the passions, he does it is

of the pathetic than Homer, and when he AUTO, Εκτοριδην αγαπητον, αλιγκιον αςερι καλό

the only effectual way, that is without Toy Extag naalsué Enapard geov, avtag a seeming to do it. But in this passage

there is an evident strain, an effort, a laΑςυαναντ', οίος γαρ ερυετο Ιλιον Εκτωρ.

bour, to get at them:-a stile of writing

Il. vi 400-404. that always disappoints itself, and is pea Which is rendered by Cowper,

culiar to poets who, feeling nothing theinThus winged with haste she came, and witla selves, have yet an ambition to work on like haste

the feelings of others.” Heyne, ivdeed, The virgin nurse, infolding in her arms the learned editor of Homer, pleads for His yet unweaned and helpless little one, the genujueness of the passage; yet, after Fair' as the star of morn. Him Hector adducing the arguments in its favour, acnamed

knowledges it to be incoherent and inapScamandrius; but the citizens of Troy, propriate. I camot help observing farAstyanax; for other guardian aid

ther, that Plato comments upon the two Effectual, none than Hector's Hium knew,

names given to the son of Hector, and apNow, when Ilector was delivered by fate pears, like modern commentators, to have to the hands of his savage enemy, Achilles, been an entire stranger to the meaning of what sentiments were likely. to rise on the Scamandrius; from which we may conoccasion in the mind of the widowed clude that he had no knowledge what princess? On being informed of the sad ever of the Persian language. Even the event, and, by the restoration of her title Astyanax he seems rather to perplex senses, of which the information deprived than explain, and the perplexity is felt by her for a time, rendered capable of la- modern annotators. « Nec tamen (says menting her fate, she proceeds in this pa- Heyne on the place) nominis pirioris thetic strain :

caussa est aperta; nec satis convenire He, doum'd himself etymon dices alterius; si arzt a stos est, To sorrrow, me, more sorrowfully doomed, quo modo convenit cum eo qui equito Sustained in helpless infancy, whom, oh!

asu?" The answer to this question is, that That he had never begotten! Thou de. the title was intended by the citizens to

scendest To Hades and the Stygian caves forlorn ;

perpetuate the reinembrance of Hector's Me leaving here a widow : and thy boy,

prowess, and at the same time to intimate Fruit of our hapless loves, an infant yet,

that the city which the father had saved, Never to be hereafter thy delight,

the son would, in preference to all other Nor love of thine to share or kindness more.

claimants, have a right to rule. The child, Forshould he safe survive this cruel was therefore, if he had lived, and the TroWith the Achaians, penury and toil jans proved successful in defence of their

upon .


city, would have borne in his name a living passage in one of these from Canton to monument of his father's glory, and a Wampoa. pledge of his right to ascend the throne Mid-way between the two last mene of Priam in preference to any other of tioned places, we passed a beautiful white his descendants; and her disappointment pagoda, called the Middle Pagoda; it is in this respect led the weeping mother, very high, slender, and apparently of exwilla inuch propriety and pathos, to dwell quisite architecture. At some distance

the sad reverse of fortune which now froin the factories we passed the ruins of mevitably awaited her only child. T. two European forts, called the Dutch

and French Folies; one of them situated

on a little island in the middle of the river. JOURNAL of a voyage performed in the

From hence to the European factories, INDIAN SEAS, to MADRAS, BENGAL, the crowd of boats was so immense, that CHINA, 6., 8c., in HTS MAJESTY's SHIP CAROLINE, in the years 1803-4-5. night came on before we could reach the

our progress was exceedingly slows and Communicated to the MONTHLY MAGAZINE city: this, however, is perhaps the best

lay an OFFICER of that ship. time for a stranger to approach Canton: PROCEEDING up Junk river to for then the concourse of boats and res

sels of various descriptions, all highly iland more interesting every mile; the luininated; the chop houses on shore benandarins' seats more numerous, the decked with great number of globular grounds better cultivated, and laid out pil-paper lamps ; the din of the Chinese in gardens and orangeries, while large language on every side; the clangor of and populous villages present them- their gongs, the shrill notes of their muselves at every winding of the stream, sic, and the glare of their fire-works, all and tend not a little to embellish its combine to form a scene so novel and banks. But what engages a stranger's striking, that the impression which it attention more than all the rest, is leaves on the inemory, can hardly ever the endless variety of Chinese boats be erased! and vessels of every description, froin the It took us nearly an hour, to make our sanpan to junks of a thousand tons, con- way through the throng on this part of tinually passing and repassing before his the river, when the sight of European or eyes: of these the most curious and beau- rather Anglo-Oriental houses announced utul are the tea and passage boats. The our vicinity to the factories, which are former arc long and very handsome. In situated on the north-eastern side of Tea these the tea is brought down from the or Tigris. interior provinces to Canton; when they The European factories at Canton eshave got a fair wind they make use of tend a considerable way along the banks sails, but at other times they impel them of the river, at the distauce of about along by bamboo pales, having a bench two hundred feet from the water's edge; running along from one end of the vessel they consist of a range of very elegant to the other, on each side, and close to houses, each having the flag of the nation the water's edge; on these ten or a dozen to which it belongs, hoisted from sunrise men (each with his bamboo) stand, and till sunset, on a flag-staff opposite to the drive the boat with considerable velocity. gate of the factory.

The Wampoa passage-boats, however, Except the French, this range exhilook like little floating castles, so elegantly bited in day-time the colours of most of are they painted and decorated. A dome the European maritime powers; but the raised several feet ahore the deck, and oc- English factory or rather series of warecupying two-thirds of the vessel's length, - houses exceeds all the others both in clefitted up inside with tables, chairs, &c. gance and extent: in this great and comall of excellent workmanship, serves as a mercial city, the mart of European trade cabin, where the passengers can sit and seems to be fixed at the British factors, drink tea, or loll on sofas, at their ease; Here it is, that one beholds the bustle on the sides are stairs to ascend into the of Chinese merchants and people of all cabin, aud the vessel inside and out, is descriptions; the mountains (if I may be varnished in the highest stile: these oc- allowed the expression) of the must v casionally make use of sails like the tea lunble Chinese goods of every kind piked boats, buitleytor the most part are sculled up on the beach, to be transported to by vars on cach quarter. "They charger our ships at Wampoa: while the try and European from six to ten dollars for a comuned commerce of other nabong rente ders their representatives despicable in toms, even the houses, manufactures, the eyes of the Chinese, who look upon where, in short, the tout-en-semble is so spethe English as the most respectable and cifically different from what he had been respousible nation with wbich they have accustomed to see, that he could alınost any cominunication. As a proof of this, fancy himself transported into a new worlu. it is a well-known fact, that the English Canton, if we may judge by the Chihoxes of dollars, having the company's nese maps, or by the suburbs, must be a stamp on them, will pass through China, city of great extent. A person may ramas a bank-lote does through England; ble for miles through the suburbs, withthe Chinesc never attempting to count out meeting with any thing like a terminathem, but trusting implicity to the num- tion: he frequently indeed comes to gates ber marked thereon: whereas in their leading into the Tartarian, city, when dealings with other nations, they take spe- he is obliged to alter his course, as cial care to count over every dollar they no Europeans are permitted to enter that receive from them.

part of the town. There seems to be Before the British factory, and extend- little difference, however, between this ing nearly down to the water's edge, there and the suburbs, in respect to the buildis a very elegant verendah, raised on ings, as we often had long perspective handsomne pillars, fagged with square views through these gates, into the streets marble slabs, and commanding an exten- of the Tartarian city, and observed the sive view of the river, east and west, the same bustle, the same kind of shops, and Dutch and French Follies, the suburbs, the same general appearance indeed as the southern bank of the Tigris, and a outside of the gates. The streets in Canconsiderable scope of the country in that ton are very narrow, paved with little direction.

round stones, like those of North YarAdjoining this verendah, is the long mouth, and Aagged close to the sides room, where the company's table is of the houses. They are about the kept for the super-cargoes; and a very width of the rows and lanes of English princely one it is: a dinner being every towns; Market row in North-Yarmouth, day spread here, at which kings might sit bearing a strikiug similitude to the genedown, and consider themselves as “ faring rality of the streets in this city, with reBumptuously!"

spect to dimensions, the height of the Indeed it must be allowed, that the East houses excepted. India directors are extremely liberal in

There is no dwelling-house to be seen the establishments of their servants; and in the streets here; all are shops: they even this circumstance procures them a are seldom more than two stories high, degree of respect in the eyes of the Chi- the lower or ground floor is more properly nese, which the agents of other nations the shop, the rest of the house serving as may long look for in vain. The captains a store: the door is generally in the inidof the company's ships have always free dle of the shop, with a window on each access to this table. I believe, but no side, near one of which there is a counter others uniess by invitation: the officers and writing materials, as books, paper, &c. of men-of-war are always invited here, The rest is crammed on every side with and treated in the most handsome man- mustus, or specimens of whaterer they Der by the super cargoes.

have got to sell. The weather was now so cold that we There is almost always one of the party were obliged to have fires in our rooms; sitting at the counter writing, or calculate for thoughi Canton lies nearly in the same ing with his abacus, on which instrument parallel of latitude as Calcutta, yet there a Chinese will perform any operation in is a difference of perhaps fifteen or twenty numbers with as much, or more cclerity, degrees of the thermometer between the than the most expert European arithmetwo places; caused by the mountains of tician. China and Tartary, from which the It is amusing enough, to see a Chinese north-east monsoon blows extremely cool. chucking about the little balls on the aba

A stranger arriving in any foreign coun- cus with one hand, humming the calculatry, most of course be very much amused tions in his iliscordant jargon, and noting with the novel scenes that surround him; down the result with the other hand. though many of them may not, perhaps, They are not very neat in their writing be essentially different from those in his materials, being obliged to keep cone own country; but here he cannot fail to stabiiy rabbing down the Indian ink on have ample scope for his curiosity, where a slab with some water, which they keep the inhabitants, language, manners, cuso by them in a cup; they never make use MONTHLY MAQ., No. 158.



of pens

made of quills, but camel's-hair themselves, in a tacit kind of manner, brushes tied to the end of a piece of slen- allow our Wedgewoud, &c. tu be equal der cave, which they hold in their hands if not superior to their own lung-boasted in a very curious manner, quite different manufacture; of course, to curiosity, from our method of holding the pen. more than any thing else, they are to

The Chinese paper is very thin, pliable, indebted for what they annually espurt smooth, and delicate, and in a hot country to England. is preferable to European paper, which Painting is a very favourite art in this in India particularly, is very rarely fit to city, especially in oil colours, both un write upon. It seems that the great eva- canvas and glass. It is curious to see poration of moisture from the surface of them painting ou the back of the latter the earth in these countries, occasioned substance, where things are so reversedd, by the intense heat of the sun, impreg- that one would suppose it an awkward of nates the bibulous paper of Europe with dificult thing to accomplish, yet they liawater, and is the cause of the ink sink- page it with

as much tacility as if painting on it. Whereas the Chinese papering on canvas. Laving a fine glossy surface, the pores of It is singular that not one of their own which are consequently blocked up, the landscapes is painted at all according to moisture is not imbibed; and hence its the rules of perspective, of which they superiority over the European, and that do not appear to liave the slightest idea; kind of the latter, called vellum, or yet they copy all kinds of European drasglazed over the rough or porous. The ings with intinite exactness, above-inentioned eraporation is likewise They are celebrated for their happithe cause of all kinds of metals rusting ness in taking the most striking like so much more in hot climates than in cold. nesses, drawing every feature with grea!

It is said that tradesmen are obliged correctness. Notwithstanding whick, to confine themselves to particular streets they seldom give satisfaction; and this 15 according to their occupations; but with probably owing to their sitting down on very few exceptions this is not the case, these occasions, to delineate the features, at least in the suburbs, for in almost every and not to flatter the vanity of their cusstreet you may sce a variety of different tomers, like some of our fine miniature kinds of shops and manufactures inter- painters! mixed. Cabinet-makers, indeed, seem There are therefore many laughable to be an exception, as they generally oc- scenes between the Chinese and Euroa cupy streets by themselves; and some

peans on these subjects, when one of the other streets are entirely filled with pain- latter begins to find fault with a likeness, ters and picture-shops.

the China-man generally answers him by The ivory manufactures always engage saying, “ no bab got handsome face, lxı a stranger's attention, when at Canton; can hab handsorne picture, massa." and in these the Chinese are allowed to (To be continued.) excel all other nations. Their fans in particular are exquisitely formed of to the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. ivory, tortoise-shell, tilayree and sandal

SIR, wood; a kind called japanned YOMMON Sense has, in Number the most, at least they are the nearest, ject with which, froin my situation, I being twenty dollars each. Next the

must be well acquainted, that cunimda tortoise-shell, fifteen dullars; ivory, from justice to the public induces me to trou six to fourteen dollars each; and sandal ble you with the following additional alwood, one dollar each.

servations on the subject of his letterThese are what are called first chop Many years ago several persons were fans; others of inferior workmanship may burnt, in consequence of being anable m be got much cheaper. It is astonishing get out of a house on fire in Bishopsgatr with what dexterity they put on cypliers street, being afraid to leap from the winand coats of arms to any article; they dows. I turned my thoughts to the malare the most exact copyers in the world, ter, and had directly (for the use of as and are always provided with books of family), in case of a fire, an apparat heraldry, whereby they are enabled to made, by which the most timis, infirin, delineate any figure in the snost correct or sickly person could be let dowa saltar, waoner.

and with perfect decency (though werely Their porcelain or China ware, it is in their night clothes) from any chambez well known, has not the attractions it to the street, &c. used to possess; indeed the Chinese I had a strong board, of light deal, of

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