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&c. &c. &c.


In inscribing these volumes* to your Grace, I am fortunately emancipated from the necessity of intruding upon you the commonplace subjects of dedication. Most of these Poems have been long before the public, and were inscribed, at the time of their publication, to the various excellent persons nearly connected with your Grace, whose names they retain. I am, therefore, well aware, that these compositions, of little intrinsic value in themselves, will, like other memorials of dear friends, who have been removed from the world, claim some value in your Grace's estimation, from the names of their former patrons.

May your Grace live long to exercise the virtues of your predecessors, whose duties you inherit along with their rank and possessions. Such is the sincere wish of,

My Lord Duke,
Your Grace's early Friend,
And much obliged humble Servant,

Abbotsford, April 3, 1830.

*[The collective edition of Sir Walter Scott's Poetical Works. Edin. 1830.- Ep.)







The Introduction originally prefixed to "The Min- I now acknowledge as the Father of Poetry, must strelsy of the Scottish Border," was rather of an his- have himself looked back to an ancestry of poetical torical than a literary nature; and the remarks which predecessors, and is only held original because we follow have been added, to afford the general reader know not from whom he copied. Indeed, though some information upon the character of Ballad Pu- much must be ascribed to the riches of his own indietry.

vidual genius, the poetry of Homer argues a degree of . It would be throwing away words to prove, what perfection in an art which practice had already renail must admit, the general taste and propensity of dered regular, and concerning which, his frequent nations in their early state, to cultivate some species mention of the bards, or chanters of poetry, indicates of rude poetry. When the organs and faculties of plainly that it was studied by many, and known and a primitive race have developed themselves, each admired by all. for its proper and necessary use, there is a natural It is indeed easily discovered, that the qualities tendency to employ them in a more refined and re- necessary for composing such poems are not the guadal manner for purposes of amusement. The portion of every man in the tribe; that the bard, to savage, after proving the activity of his limbs in the reach excellence in his art, must possess something chase or the battle, trains them to more measured more than a full command of words and phrases, movements, to dance at the festivals of his tribe, or and the knack of arranging them in such form as to perforin obeisance before the altars of his deity. ancient examples have fixed upon as the recognised From the same impulse, he is disposed to refine the structure of national verse. The tribe speedily beordinary sperch which forms the vehicle of social come sensible, that besides this degree of mechanical communication betwixt him and his brethren, until, facility, which (like making what are called at school by a more ornate diction, modulated by certain rules nonsense verses) may be attained by dint of memory of rhythm, cadence, assonance of termination, or re- and practice, much higher qualifications are decurrence of sound or letter, he obtains a dialect manded. A keen and active power of observation, more solemn in expression, to record the laws or capable of perceiving at a glance the leading cir. exploits of his tribe, or more sweet in sound, in cumstances from which the incident described dewhich to plead his own cause to his mistress. rives its character ; quick and powerful feelings, to

This primeval poetry must have one general cha- enable the bard to comprehend and delineate those racter in all nations, both as to its merits and its of the actors in his piece; and a command of lanimperfections. The earlier poets have the advan- guage, alternately soft and elevated, and suited to taze, and it is not a small one, of having the first express the conceptions which he had formed in his choice out of the stock of materials which are proper mind, are all necessary to eininence in the poetical to the art; and thus they compel later authors, if art. they would avoid slavishly imitating the fathers of Above all, to attain the highest point of his profes. verse, in to various devices, often more ingenious than sion, the poet must have that original power of emboelegant, that they may establish, if not an absolute dying and detailing circumstances, which can place claim to orginality, at least a visible distinction hea before the eyes of others a scene which only exists twist themselves and their predecessors. Thus it in his own imagination. This last high and creative happens, that early poets almost uniformly display faculty, namely, that of impressing the mind of the a bold, rude, original cast of genius and expression. hearers with scenes and sentiments having no exThey have walked at free-will, and with uncon istence save through their art, has procured for the strained steps, along the wilds of Parnassus, while bards of Greece the term of Ilointne, which, as it sinther followers move with constrained gestures and gularly happens, is literally translated by the Scotforced attitudes, in order to avoid placing their feet tsh epithet for the same class of persons, whom where their predecessors have stepped before them. they termed the Makers. The French phrase of The first bard who compared his hero to a lion, Troveurs, or Troubadours, namely, the-Finders, or struck a bold and congenial note, though the simile, Inventors, has the same reference to the quality of in a nation of hunters, be a very obvious one; but original conception and invention proper to the poevery subsequent poet who shall use it, must either etical art, and without which it can hardly be said struggle hard to give his lion, as heralds say, with a to exist to any pleasing or useful purpose. difference, or lie under the imputation of being a The mere arrangement of words into poetical Servile imitator.

rhythm, or combining them according to a technical 1: is not probable that, by any researches of mo- rule or mcasure, is so closely connected with the art dern times, we shall ever reach back to an earlier of music, that an alliance between these two fine inodel of poetry than Homer; but as there lived arts is very soon closely formed. It is fruitless to heroes before Agamemnon, so, unquestionably, poets inquire which of them has been first invented, since existed before the iminortal Bard who gave the King + (Sir Walter Scott, as this paragraph intimates, never doubled of kings his fame; and he whom all civilized nations that the lial and Odyssey were sultantially the works of one * {These remarks were first appended to the edition of 1830. – that it was the most irreligious one he had heard of, and could

never be believed in by any poet. -ED.)


doubtless the precedence is accidental; and it sig. I frequently occur where the statements of poetical nifies little whether the musician adapts verses to a tradition are unexpectedly confirmed. rude tune, or whether the primitive poet, in reciting To the lovers and adınirers of poetry as an art, it his productions, falls naturally into a chant or song. cannot be uninteresting to have a glimpse of the With this additional accomplishment, the poet be- National Muse in her cradle, or to hear her babbling comes aoidos, or the man of song, and his character the earliest attempts at the formation of the tuneful is complete when the additional accompaniment of sounds with which she was afterwards to charm a lute or harp is added to his vocal performance. posterity. And I may venture to add, that among

Here, therefore, we have the history of early poet- poetry, which, however rude, was a gift of Nature's ry in all nations. But it is evident that, though poetry first-fruits, even a reader of refined taste will find seems a plant proper to almost all soils, yet not only his patience rewarded, by passages in which the is it of various kinds, according to the climate and rude minstrel rises into sublimity or melts into pacountry in which it has its origin, but the poetry of thos. These were the merits which induced the clas. different nations differs still more widely in the de- sical Addisont to write an elaborate commentary gree of excellence which it attains. This must de- upon the ballad of Chevy Chase, and which roused, pend in some measure, no doubt, on the temper and like the sound of a trumpet, the heroic blood of Sir manners of the people, or their proximity to those Philip Sidney.I spirit-stirring events which are naturally selected as It is true, that passages of this high character the subject of poetry, and on the more comprehen- occur seldoin; for during the infancy of the art of sive or energetic character of the language spoken poetry, the bards have been generally satisfied with by the tribe. But the progress of the art is far more a rude and careless expression of their sentiments; dependent upon the rise of some highly-gifted indi- and even when a more felicitous expression, or loftier vidual, possessing in a pre-eminent and uncommon numbers, have been dictated by the enthusiasm of degree the powers demanded, whose talents influ- the composition, the advantage came unsought for, ence the taste of a whole nation, and entail on their and perhaps unnoticed, either by the minstrel or the posterity and language a character almost indelibly audience. sacred. In this respect Homer stands alone and Another cause contributed to the tenuity of thought unrivalled, as a light from whose lamp the genius of and poverty of expression, by which old ballads are successive ages, and of distant nations, has caught too often distinguished. The apparent simplicity of fire and illumination; and who, though the early the ballad stanza carried with it a strong temptation poet of a rude age, has purchased for the era he has to loose and trivial composition. The collection of celebrated, so much reverence, that, not daring to rhymes, accumulated by the earliest of the craft, bestow on it the term of barbarous, we distinguish appear to have been considered as forming a joint it as the heroic period.

stock for the common use of the profession: and not No other poet (sacred and inspired authors ex mere rhymes only, but verses and stanzas, have been cepted) ever did, or ever will, possess the same in- used as common property, so as to give an appearfluence over posterity, in so many distant lands, as ance of sameness and crudity to the whole series of has been acquired by the blind old man of Chios; popular poetry. Such, for instance, is the salutation yet we are assured that his works, collected by the so often repeated, pious care of Pisistratus, who caused to be united

"Now Heaven thoe save, thou brave young knight, into their present forin ihose divine poems, would

Now Heaven thee save and sec." otherwise, if preserved at all, have appeared to And such the usual expression for taking counsel succeeding generations in the humble state of a with, collection of detached ballads, connected only as re

" Rede me, rede me, brother dear, ferring to the same age, the same general subjects,

My rede shall rise at thee." and the same cycle of heroes, like the metrical po- Such also is the unvaried account of the rose and the ems of the Cid in Spain,* or of Robin Hood in Eng-brier, which are said to spring out of the grave of the land.

hero and heroine of these metrical legends, with litIn other countries, less favoured, either in language tle effort at a variation of the expressions in which or in picturesque incident, it cannot be supposed that the incident is prescriptively told. The least acquainteven the genius of Homer could have soared to such ance with the subject will recall a great number of exclusive eminence, since he must at once have been commonplace verses, which each ballad-maker has deprived of the subjects and themes so well adapted unceremoniously appropriated to himself ; thereby for his muse, and of the lofty, melodious, and flexi- greatly facilitating his own task, and at the same ble language in which he recorded them. Other na ume degrading his art by his slovenly use of overtions, during the formation of their ancient poetry, scutched phrases. From the same indolence, the wanted the genius of Homer, as well as his pictu- balladmongers of most nations have availed themresque scenery and lofty language. Yet the investi- selves of every opportunity of prolonging their pieces, gation of the early poetry of every nation, even the of the same kind, withoui the labour of actual comrudest, carries with it an object of curiosity and inte- position. Il a message is to be delivered, the poet rest. It is a chapter in the history of the childhood of 'saves himself a litule trouble, by using exactly the society, and its resemblance to, or dissimilarity from, same words in which it was originally couched, to the popular rhynies of other nations in the same secure its being transmitted to the person for whose stage, must needs illustrate the ancient history of ear it was intended. The bards of ruder climes, and states; their slower or swifter progress toward ci- less favoured languages, may indeed claim the counvilization; their gradual or more rapid adoption tenance of Homer for such repetitions; but whilst, of manners, sentiments, and religion. The study, in the Father of Poetry, they give the reader an optherefore, of lays rescued from the gulf of oblivion, portunity to pause, and look back upon the enchantmust in every case possess considerable interest for ed ground over which they have travelled, they afthe moral philosopher and general historian. ford nothing to the modern bard, save facilitating the

The historian of an individual nation is equally or power of stupifying the audience with stanzas of dull more deeply interested in the researches into popular and tedious iteration. poetry, since he must not disdain to gather from the Another cause of the fatness and insipidity, which tradition conveyed in ancient ditties and ballads, is the great imperfection of ballad poetry, is to be asthe information necessary to confirm or correct in cribed less to the compositions in their original state, telligence collected from more certain sources. And when rehearsed by their authors, than to the ignoalthough the poets were a fabling race from the very rance and errors of the reciters or transcribers, by beginning of time, and so much addicted to exagge whom they have been transmitted to us. The more ration, that their accounts are seldom to be relied popular the composition of an ancient poet, or Maon without corroborative evidence, yet instances ker, became, the greater chance there was of its be

• [The "Poema del Cid" (of which Mr. Frere has translated + (See The Spectator, No. 70 and 74.) some specimens) is, however, considered by every historian of Spanish literature, as the work of one hand; and is evidently found not my heart moved more than with the sound of a trum

: I never heard the old song of Percie and Donglas, that I more ancient than the detached ballads on the Adventures of the pet; and yet it is sung but by some blind crowder, with no rougher Campeador, which are included in the Cancioneros.-ED.) voice than rude style.-SIDNEY.]

ing corrupted; for a poem transmitted through a ple of this degrading species of alchymy, by which number of reciters, like a book reprinted in a multitude the ore of antiquity is deteriorated and adulterated. of editions, incurs the risk of impertinent interpo- While Addison, in an age which had never attended lations from the conceii of one rehearser, unintel- to popular poetry, wrote his classical criticism on that ligible blunders from the stupidity of another, and ballad, be naturally took for his text the ordinary omissions qually to be regretted, from the want of stall-copy, although he might, and ought to have memory in a third. This sort of injury is felt very suspected, that a ditty couched in the language early, and the reader will find a curious instance in nearly of his own time, could not be the same with the Introduction to the Romance of Sir Tristrem. that which Sir Philip Sidney, more than one hundred Robert die Brunne there complains, that though the years before, had spoken of, as being "evil apparel; Romance of Sir Tristrem was the best which had | led in the dust and cobwebs of an uncivilized age." ever been made, if it could be recited as composed by The venerable Bishop Percy was the first to correct the author, Thomas of Erceldoune; yet that it was this mistake, by producing a copy of the song, as old written in such an ornate style of language, and such at least as the reign of Henry VII., bearing the name a difficult strain of versification, as to lose all value in of the author, or transcriber, Richard Sheale. But the mouths of ordinary minstrels, who could scarce-even the Rev. Editor himself fell under the mistake ly repeat one stanza without omitting some part of of supposing the modern Chevy Chase to be a new it , and marring, consequently, both the sense and copy of the original ballad, expressly modernized by the rhythm of the passage. This deterioration could some one later bard. On the contrary, the current not be limited to one author alone; others must have version is now universally allowed to have been prosuffered from the same cause in the same or a greater duced by the gradual alterations of numerous reciters, degree. Nay, we are authorized to conclude, that in during iwo centuries, in the course of which the balproportion to the care bestowed by the author upon lad has been gradually moulded into a composition any poem to attain what bis age might suppose to be bearing only a general resemblance to the originalthe highest graces of poetry, the greater was the da- expressing the same events and sentiments in much mage which it sustained by ihe inaccuracy of reciters, smoother language, and more flowing and easy veror their desire to humble both the sense and diction sification; but losing in poetical fire and energy, of the poem to their powers of recollection, and the and in the vigour and pithiness of the expression, a comprehension of a vulgar audience. It cannot be great deal more than it has gained in suavity of dicexpected that compositions subjected in this way to tion. Thus: mutilation and corruption, should continue to pre

" The Percy owt of Northumberland, sent their original sense or diction; and the accuracy

And a vowe to God mayd he,

That he wolde hunte in the mountayns of our editions of popular poetry, unless in the rare

Off Cheviot within layes thre, event of recovering original or early copies, is lessen

In the mauger of doughty Dougles, ed in proportion.

And all that ever with him be," But the chance of these corruptions is incalculably Becomes, increased, when we consider that the ballads have

"The stout Earl of Northumberland been, not in one, but innumerable instances of trans

A vow to God did mako, mission, liable to similar alterations, through a long

His pleasure in the Scottish woods course of centuries, during which they have been

Three summer days to take," &c. handed from one ignorant reciter to another, each From this, and other examples of the same kind, discarding whatever original words or phrases time of which many might be quoted, we must often exor fashion had, in his opinion, rendered obsolete, and pect to find the remains of Minstrel poetry, comsubstituting anachronisms by expressions taken from posed originally for the courts of princes and halls the customs of his own day. And here it may be re- of nobles, disguised in the more modern and vulgar marked, that the desire of the reciter to be intelligi- dialect in which they have been of late sung to the ble, however natural and laudable, has been one of frequenters of the rustic ale-bench. It is unnecesthe greatest causes of the deterioration of ancient sary to mention more than one other remarkable poetry. The minstrel who endeavoured to recite and humbling instance, printed in the curious collecwith fidelity the words of the author, might indeed tion entitled, a Ballad Book, where we find, in the fall into errors of sound and sense, and substitute words of the ingenious Editor, & a stupid ballad printcorruptions for words he did not understand. But ed as it was sung in Annandale, founded on the wellthe ingenuity of a skilful critic could often, in that known story of the Prince of Salerno's daughter, case, revive and restore the original meaning; while but with the uncouth change of Dysmal for Ghisthe corrupted words became, in such cases, a warrant monda, and Guiscard transformed into a greasy for the authenticity of the whole poem.t

kitchen-boy. In general, however, the later reciters appear to

"To what base uses may we not return !" have been far less desirous to speak the author's words, than to introduce amendments and new read Sometimes a still more material and systematic ings of their own, which have always produced the difference appears between the poems of antiquity, effect of modernizing, and usually that of degrading as they were originally composed, and as they now and vulgarizing, the rugged sense and spirit of the exist. This occurs in cases where the longer meantique minstrel. Thus, undergoing from age to age trical romances, which were in fashion during the a gradual process of alteration and recomposition, middle ages, were reduced to shorter compositions, our popular and oral minstrelsy has lost, in a great in order that they might be chanted before an inmeasure, its original appearance; and the strong ferior audience. A ballad, for example, of Thomas wuches by which it had been formerly characterized, of Erceldoune, and his intrigues with the Queen of have been generally smoothed down and destroyed Faery-Land, is, or has been, long current in Teviotby a process similar to that by which a coin, pass- dale, and other parts of Scotland. Two ancient ing from hand to hand, loses in circulation all the copies of a poem, or romance, on the same subject, nner marks of the impress.

and containing very often the same words and turns The very fine ballad of Chevy Chase is an exam- of expression, are preserved in the libraries of the

Cathedral of Lincoln and Peterborough. We are * ("That thou may hear in Sir Tristrem Over grate it has the steem,

left to conjecture whether the originals of such balOver all that is or was,

lads have been gradually contracted into their If men it sayd as made Thomas;

modern shape by the impatience of later audiences,

combined with the lack of memory displayed by But of some copple some is away;" &c.) + An instance occure in the valuable old ballad, called Auld more modern reciters, or whether, in particular Maitland. The reciter repeated a verse, descriptive of the defence cases, some ballad-maker may have actually set of a castle, thus :

himself to work to retrench the old details of the "With Spring-lall, stanes, and goads of airn Among them fast he threw."

1 See Percy's Reliques, vol. I, p. 2.

The Ballad-Book was

$ ICharles Kirkpatrick Sharpe, Esq. Spring wall is a corruption of Springald, a military engine for eastina darts or stones, the restoration of which reading gives a printeil in 1823, and inscribed to Sir Walter Scott; the impression precise and clear sense to the lines.

consisting of only thirty copies.)

But I hear it no man no way --

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minstrels, and regularly and systematically to mo- | possessed over the jargon of various tribes of Irish dernize, and if the phrase be permitted, to balladize, and British origin, limited and contracted in every a metrical romance. We are assured, however, varying dialect, and differing, at the same time, from that " Roswal and Lilian” was sung through the each other. This superiority being considered, and streets of Edinburgh two generations since; and we a fair length of time being allowed, it is no wonder know that the Romance of Sir Eger, Sir Grime, that, while the Scottish people retained their Celtic and Sir Greysteil,” had also its own particular chant music, and many of their Celtic customs, together or tune. The stall-copies of both these roman and have adopted, throughout the Lowlands, the Saxon

with iheir Celtic dynasty, they should nevertheless as they now exist, are very much abbreviated, probably exhibit them when they were undergoing, language, while in the Highlands they retained the or had nearly undergone, the process of being cut Celtic dialect, along with the dress, arms, manners, down into ballads.

and government of their fathers. Taking into consideration the various indirect There was, for a time, a solemn national recog: channels by which the popular poetry of our ances nisance that the Saxon language and poetry had tors has been transmitted to their posterity, it is not originally been that of the royal family. For at nothing surprising that it should reach us in a muti- the coronations of the kings of Scotland, previous lated and degraded state, and that it should little to Alexander III., it was a part of the solemnity, correspond with the ideas we are apt to form of that a Celtic bard stepped forth, so soon as the king the first productions of national genius; nay, it is assumed his seat upon the fated stone, and recited the more to be wondered at that we posscas so many genealogy of the monarch in Celtic verse, setting ballads of considerable merit, than that the much forth his descent, and the right which he had by greater number of them which must have once ex- birth to occupy the place of sovereignty. For a time, isted, should have perished before our time.

no doubt, the Celtic songs and poems remained Having given this brief account of ballad poetry current in the Lowlands, while any remnant of the in general, the purpose of the present prefatory re- language yet lasted. The Gaelic or Irish bards, we marks will be accomplished, by shortly noticing the are also aware, occasionally strolled into the Lowpopular poetry of Scotland,' and some of the efforts lands, where their music might be received with fawhich have been made to collect and illustrate it. vour, even after their recitation was no longer unIt is now generally admitted that the Scots and derstood. But though these aboriginal poets showed Picts, however differing otherwise, were each by de-themselves at festivals and other places of public scent a Celtic race; that they advanced in a course resort, it does not appear that, as in Homer's time, of victory somewhat farther than the present fron- they were honoured with high places at the board, tier between England and Scotland, and about the and savoury morsels of the chine; but they seem end of the eleventh century subdued and rendered rather to have been accounted fit company for the tributary the Britons of Strathcluyd, who were also feigned fools and sturdy beggars with whom they a Celtic race like themselves. Excepting, therefore, were ranked by a Scottish statute.t the provinces of Berwickshire and the Lothians, Time was necessary wholly to eradicate one lanwhich were chiefly inhabited by an Anglo-Saxon guage and introduce another; but it is remarkable population, the whole of Scotland was peopled by that, at the death of Alexander the Third, the last different tribes of the same aboriginal race,*-á Scottish king of the pure Celtic race, the popular race passionately addicted to music, as appears lament for his death was composed in Scoto-Eng. from the kindred Celtic nations of Irish, Welsh, lish, and, though closely resembling the modern and Scottish, preserving each to this day a style dialect, is the earliest example we have of that lanand character of music peculiar to their own coun guage, whether in prose or poetry. About the try, though all three bear marks of general resem same time flourished the celebrated Thomas the blance to each other. That of Scotland, in particu- Rhymer, whose poem, written in English, or Lowlar, is early noticed and extolled by ancient authors, land Scottish, with the most anxious attention both and its remains, to which the natives are passion to versification and alliteration, forms, even as it ately attached, are still found to afford pleasure even now exists, a very curious specimen of the early to those who cultivate the art upon a more refined romance.s Such complicated construction was and varied system.

greatly too concise for the public ear, which is best This skill in music did not, of course, exist without amused by a looser diction, in which numerous rea corresponding degree of talent for a species of po- petitions, and prolonged descriptions, enable the etry, adapted to the habits of the country, celebra- comprehension of the audience to keep up with the ting the victories of triumphant clane, pouring forth voice of the singer or reciter, and supply the gaps lamentations over fallen heroes, and recording such which in general must have taken place, either marvellous adventures as were calculated to amuse through a failure of attention in the hearers, or of individual families around their household fires, or voice and distinct enunciation on the part of the the whole tribe when regaling in the hallof the chief. minstrel. It happened, however, singularly enough, that while

The usual stanza which was selected as the most the music continued to be Celtic in its general mea- natural to the language and the sweetest to the ear, sure, the language of Scotland, most commonly spo- after the complex system of the more courtly meaken, began to be that of their neighbours the Eng- sures, used by Thomas of Erceldoune, was laid lish, introduced by the multitude of Saxons who aside, was that which, when originally introduced, thronged to the court of Malcolm Canmore and his we very often find arranged in two lines, thus :successors; by the crowds of prisoners of war, " Earl Douglas on his milk-whito eteed, most like a baron bold, whom the repeated ravages of the Scots in Northum Rode foremost of his company, whose armour shone like gold;" berland carried off as slaves to their country; by the but which, after being divided into four, constitutes influence of the inhabitants of the richest and most what is now generally called the ballad stanza, — populons provinces in Scotland, Berwickshire, name

"Earl Douglas, on his milk-white steed, ly, and the Lothians, over the more mountainous ;

Most like a baron bold, lastly, by the superiority which a language like the

Rode foremost of his company, Anglo-Saxon, considerably refined, long since redu

Whose armour shone like gold." ced to writing, and capable of expressing the wants,

The breaking of the lines contains a plainer intiwishes, and sentiments of the speakers, must have mation, how the stanza ought to be read, than every

one could gather from the original mode of writing * The author seems to have latterly modified his original opi out the poem, where the position of the cæsura, or nion on some parts of this subject. In his reviewal of Mr. P. F. Tytler's History of Scotland, (Quart. Rev. vol. xli. p. 328.) he

# A curious account of the reception of an Irish or Celtic bard at pays, speaking of the period of the final subjugation of the Pirts,

a festival, is given in Sir John Holland's Buke of the Houlat, Ban"It would appear the Scandinarians had colonice along the fertile ralyne edition, D. liii. shores of Moray, and among the mountains of Sutherland, whose

11" Whan Alexander our king was ded. name speaks for itself, that it was given by the Norwegians; and

Wha Scotland led in luve and Jee, probably they had also settlements in Caithness and the Orcades."

Away was sons of ale and bred, In this essay. bowever, he adheres in the main to his Anti Pink

of wine and wax, of game and glee," &c.] ertonjan doctrine, and treats the Picts as Cells. -ED.

$(See Thomas the Rhymer in a subsequent part of this volume.

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