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From ashes strewed around, let the damp soil
Nor leaden eye the beauties that arise
YAXURES ; SHELLY OCEAN-SANDS AND THEIR USE ; PULSE
AND OTHER GREEN CROPS PLOUGHED IN ; TURNIPS. From ocean's verge, if not too far removed Its shelly lands, convey a warm compost, From land and wave commixt with richness fraught: This the sour glebe shall sweeten, and for years, Through chilly clay, its vigorous heat shall glow. But if nor oily marl, nor crumbling tan, Nor dung of cattle, nor the trampled street, Nor weed, nor ocean's sand, can lend its aid ; Then, farmer, raise immediate from their seeds The juicy stalks of largely-spreading pulse, Beans, buck-wheat, spurry, or the climbing vetch ; These early reaped, and buried in the soil, Enrich the parent womb from whence they sprung. Or sow the bulbous turnip ; this shall yield Sweet pasture to the flocks or lowing herds, And well prepare thy land for future crops.
ARGUMENT IX FAVOR OF MAXURING; LONDON MARKET
GARDENS. -COVENT GARDEX MARKET.
HEDGES AND FENCING ; THE SLOE, HOLLY; THE HAWTHORN,
AND HOW TO SET IT.
Thus hath the faithful Muse his lore pursued, Who, trusting to the culture of his plough, Refused the dunghill's aid. Yet listen not To doubtful precepts, with implicit faith ; Experience to experience oft opposed Leaves truth uncertain. See what various crops, In quick succession, crown the gardened fields On Thames' prolific bank. On culture's hand Alone do these Horticulists rely ? Or do they owe to London's rich manure Those products which its crowded markets fill? Both lend their aid : and both, with art improved, Have spread the glory of their gardens wide, A theme of wonder to the distant swain. Hence the piazzaed / square, where erst, embowered In solemn sloth, good Martin's lazy monks Droned out their useless lives in pampered ease, Now boasts, from industry's rough hand supplied, Each various esculent the teeming earth In every changing season can produce.
Yet not alone to raise, but to secure Thy products from invasion, and divide For various use the appropriated fields, Disdain not thus to learn. For this, the sloe, The furze, the holly, to thy hand present Their branches, and their different inerits boast. But from the nursery then with care select Quick hawthorn sets, well rooted, smooth, and Then low as sinks thy ditch on either side, (straight; Let rise in height the sloping bank ; there plant Thy future fence, at intervals a foot From each to each, in beds of richest mould.
CULTURE AND MANURE MOST BOTH BE USED. - KINDS OF
MANCRES, AND THEIR VARIOUS ISES; MARL, TAN; DUNG OF CATTLE, SWINE, PIGEONS, HORSES, SHEEP ; SOOT ; MUCK ; STREET-SWEEPING ; GREENS.
Join, then, with culture the prolific strength Of such manure as best inclines to aid Thy failing glebe. Let oily marl impart Its unctuous moisture, or the crumbling? tan Its glowing heat. Nor from the grazing herds, Nor bristly swine obscene, disdain to heap Their cooling ordure. Nor the warmer dungs Of fiery pigeons, of the stabled horse, Or folded flock, neglect. From sprinkled soot,
HOW TO DEFEND AND CULTIVATE THE GROWING HEDGE;
HEDGEROW BIRDS AND FLOWERS ; CRAB-TREES. Nor ends the labor here; but to defend Thy infant shoots from depredation deep, At proper distance drive stiff oaken stakes ; Which, interwove with boughs and flexile twigs, Frustrate the nibbling flock or browsing herd. Thus, if from weeds, that rob them of their food, Or choke, by covering from the vital air, The hoe's neat culture keep the thickening shoots, Soon shall they rise, and to thy field afford A beauteous, strong, impenetrable fence. The linnet, goldfinch, nightingale, and thrush, Here, by security invited, build Their little nests, and all thy labors cheer With melody : the hand of lovely May Here strews her sweetest blossoms; and if mixed
1 Covent Garden, which is now a market for greens, roots, etc., was formerly a garden belonging to the monks of St. Martin's convent,
2 The bark of oak, after it has been used by the tanner. It is frequently made use of for hot-beds, particularly for raising pine-apples; and is called by the gardeners tan.
1 If weeds are suffered to stand till they are ripe before they are made this use of, their seeds will fill the ground, and it will be difficult to get them out again.
With stocks of knotted crabs, ingrafted fruits, When autumn crowns the year, shall sınile around.
Aspiring still, shall spread their powerful arms, While the weak puny race, obscured below, Sickening, die off, and leave their victors room.
TREE-CULTURE ; CAUSES FOR IT ; CHOICE OF A NURSERY, AND
From seeds, or suckers, layers, or sets, arise
USES OF THE VARIOUS FOREST-TREES; BEECH, BOX, YEW,
LINDEN, BIRCH, A$H, OSIER, CHESTNUT. Nor small the praise the skilful planter claims From his befriended country. Various arts Borrow from him materials. The soft beech, And close-grained box, employ the turner's wheel, And with a thousand implements supply Mechanic skill. Their beauteous veins the yew And phyllerea lend, to surface o'er The cabinet. Smooth linden best obeys The carver's chisel : best his curious work Displays in all its nicest touches. Birch Ah ! why should birch supply the chair ? since oft Its cruel twigs compel the smarting youth To dread the hateful seat. Tough-bending ash Gives to the humble swain his useful plough, And for the peer his prouder chariot builds. To weave our baskets the soft osier lends His pliant twigs : staves that nor shrink nor swell, The cooper's close-wrought cask to chestnut owes.
SELECTION AND PLANTING OF SEED FOR NURSERY PLANTS ;
SPRING-CULTURE OF SEEDLINGS.
Then from the summit of the fairest tree, His seed selected ripe, and sowed in rills On nature's fruitful lap : the harrow's care Indulgent covers from keen frosts that pierce, Or vermin who devour. The wintry months In embryo close the future forest lies, And waits for germination : but in spring, When their green heads first rise above the earth, And ask thy fostering hand ; then to their roots The light soil gently move, and strew around Old leaves, or littered straw, to screen from heat The tender infants. Leave not to vile weeds This friendly office ; whose false kindness chokes, Or starves the nurslings they pretend to shade.
TRANSPLANTING OF NURSLINGS; WHEN AND HOW.
When now four summers have beheld their youth Attended in the nursery, then transplant, The soil prepared, to where thy future grove Is destined to uprear its leafy head. Avoid the error of impatience. He Who, eager to enjoy the cooling shade His hands shall raise, removes at vast expenso Tall trees, with envy and regret shall see His neighbor's infant plants soon, soon outstrip The tardy loiterers of his dwindled copse.
The sweet-leaved walnut's undulated grain, Polished with care, adds to the workman's art Its varying beauties. The tall, towering elm, Scooped into hollow tubes, in secret streams Conveys for many a mile the limpid wave ; Or from its height, when humbled to the ground, Conveys the pride of mortal man to dust. And last the oak, king of Britannia's woods, And guardian of her isle ! whose sons robust, The best supporters of incumbent weight, Their beams and pillars to the builder give. Of strength immense : or in the bounding deep The loose foundations lay of floating walls, Impregnably secure. But sunk, but fallen From all your ancient grandeur, 0 ye groves ! Beneath whose lofty, venerable boughs, The Druid erst his solemn rites performed, And taught to distant realms his sacred lore, Where are your beauties fled ? where but to serve Your thankless country, who unblushing sees, Her naked forests longing for your shade.
HOW TO RAISE THE BEST TIMBER.
THE PRINCE EXTORTED TO RENEW THE OAK FORESTS OF
ENGLAND. - DEAN, WINDSOR, AND SHERWOOD FORESTS.
But if thy emulation's generous pride Would boast the largest timber straight and strong! Thick let the seedlings in their native beds Stand unremoved ; so shall each lateral branch, Obstructed, send its nourishment to raise The towering stem: and they whose vigorous health Exalts above the rest their lofty heads,
The task, the glorious task, for thee remains, O prince beloved ! for thee more nobly born Than for thyself alone, the patriot work Yet unattempted waits. Olet not pass The fair occasion to remotest time Thy name with praise, with honor to transmit! So shall thy country's rising fleets to thee Owe future triumph ; so her naval strength, Supported from within, shall fix thy claim To ocean's sovereignty ; and to thy ports,
1 Not "gpontaneous ;' yet creative energy never flags ; preservation is perpetual creation, and seeds and eggs are constantly being produced by the ceaseless love and wise dom of God, where neither the one nor the other existed.
Here sheltered from the north, his ripening fruits Display their sweet temptations from the wall, Or from the gay espalier : while below, His various esculents, from glowing beds, Give the fair promise of delicious feasts.
THE GROVE, AND ITS M088-GROWN, RUINED TEMPLE.
In every climate of the peopled earth,
O native Sherwood, happy were thy bard,
There from his forming hand new scenes arise, The fair creation of his fancy's eye. Lo ! bosomed in the solemn, shady grove, Whose reverend branches wave on yonder hill, He views the moss-grown temple's ruined tower, Covered with creeping ivy's clustered leaves ; The mansion seeming of some rural god, Whom nature's choristers, in untaught hymns Of wild yet sweetest harmony, adore.
A PROSPECT OVER AN IMPROVED AND CULTIVATED LAND
SCAPE ; SHRUBS ; THE ORANGE, ALMOND, PINE, GELDERROSE, ACACIA, ROSES, HONEYSCCKLE, MEZEREON, LAURUSTINTS, LABURNCY.
DRAINING ; IRRIGATION. And hence, disdaining low and trivial things ; Why should I tell of him whose obvious art, To drain the low damp meadow, sloping sinks A hollow trench ; which, arched at half its depth, Covered with filtering brush-wood, furze, or broom, And surfaced o'er with earth, in secret streams Draws its collected moisture from the glebe? Or why of him, who o'er his sandy fields, Too dry to bear the sun's meridian beam, Calls from the neighboring hills obsequious springs, Which, led in winding currents through the mead, Cool the hot soil, refresh the thirsty plain, While withered plants reviving smile around ?
From the bold brow of that aspiring steep, Where hang the nibbling flocks, and view below Their downward shadows in the glassy wave, What pleasing landscapes spread before his eye! Of scattered villages, and winding streams, And meadows green, and woods, and distant spires, Seeming, above the blue horizon's bound, To prop the canopy of Heaven. Now lost Amidst a blooming wilderness of shrubs, The golden orange, arbute ever green, The early-blooming almond, feathery pine, Fair opulus,' to spring, to autumn dear, And the sweet shades of varying verdure caught From soft acacia's gently waving branch, Heedless he wanders : while the grateful scents Of sweet-brier, roses, honeysuckles wild, Regale the smell; and to the encbanted eye Mezereon's purple, laurustinus white, And pale laburnum's pendent flowers display Their different beauties.
LANDSCAPE-GARDENING; A TASTEFULLY LAID OUT FARY ;
WALKS ; WALL-FRUITS, ESCULENTS. But sing, O muse! the swain, the happy gwain, Whom taste and nature, leading o'er his fields, Conduct to every rural beauty. See ! Before his footsteps winds the waving walk, Here gently rising, there descending slow, Through the tall grove, or near the water's brink, Where flowers besprinkled paint the shelving bank, And weeping willows bend to kiss the stream. Now wandering o'er the lawn he roves, Beneath the hawthorn's secret shade reclines : Where purple violets hang their bashful heads, Where yellow cowslips, and the blushing pink, Their mingled sweets and lovely hues combine.
LAWNS ; WATERFALLS ; HAUNTS OF MEDITATION.
O'er the smooth-shorn grass His lingering footsteps leisurely proceed, In meditation deep : - when, hark! the sound of distant water steals upon his ear ; And sudden opens to his pausing eye The rapid, rough cascade, from the rude rock Down dashing in a stream of lucid foam : Then glides away, meandering o'er the lawn, A liquid surface ; shining seen afar, At intervals, beneath the shadowy trees ; Till lost and buried in the distant grove. Wrapt into sacred musing, he reclines Beneath the covert of embowering sbades ; And, painting to his mind the bustling scenes Of pride and bold ambition, pities kings.
1 The gelder-rose, a marsh shrub, called also the snow
1 The officers on board the Spanish fleet, in 1588, called the Invincible Armada, had it in their orders, if they could not subdue the island, at least to destroy the forest of Dean, which is in the neighborhood of river Severn.
HE GARDENS OF EPICCRIS.
APOSTROPHE TO THE GENICS OF GARDENS ; PARADISE, THE
Hail, sweet retirement! Wisdom's peaceful seat ! Genius of gardens ! Nature's fairest child ! Where, lifted from the crowd, and calmly placed Thou who, inspired by the directing mind
Beyond the deafening roar of human strife, Of Heaven, didst plan the scenes of Paradise ! The Athenian sage' his happy followers taught, Thou at whose bidding rose the Hesperian bowers That pleasure sprang from virtue. Gracious Hearen! Of ancient fame, the fair Aonian mount,
How worthy thy divine beneficence, Castalian springs, and all the enchanting groves This fair established truth! Ye blissful bowers, Of Tempe's vale : 0 where hast thou been hid ? Ye vocal groves, whose echoes caught his lore, For ages where have strayed thy steps unknown? O might I hear, through time's long tract conveyed, Welcome at length, thrice welcome to the shore The moral lessons taught beneath your shades ! Of Britain's beauteous isle ; where verdant plains, And, lo! transported to the sacred scenes, Where hills and dales, and woods and waters join, Such the divine enchantment of the muse, To aid thy pencil, favor thy designs,
I see the sage : I hear, I hear his voice. And give thy varying landscapes every charm.
THE TRUE DOCTRINE OF EPICURIS, CALLED 'GARDEN PHILOS
OPHY ; ' TEMPERANCE, COURAGE, FORTITUDE.
The end of life is happiness ; the means
That end to gain, fair virtue gives alone.
From the vain phantoms of delusive fear,
Or strong desire's intemperance, spring the woes
Which human life embitter. O, my sons,
From error's darkening clouds, from groundless fear Of plans by line and compass, rules abhorred
Enfeebling all her powers, with early skill,
Clear the bewildered mind. Let fortitude
Establish in your breasts her steadfast throne ; The calm serene recess of thoughtful man,
So shall the stings of evil fix no wound : In meditation's silent, sacred hour.
Nor dread of poverty, nor pain, nor grief,
Nor life's disasters, nor the fear of death, CHISWICK GARDENS; RICHMOND AND OATLAND. Shake the just purpose of your steady souls. And, lo ! the progress of thy steps appears
The golden curb of temperance next prepare, In fair improvements scattered round the land, To rein the impetuous sallies of desire. Earliest in Chiswick's beauteous model seen :
AVOID ANGER, AMBITION, LEWDNESS, AVARICE. There thy first favorite, in the happy shade
"He who the kindling sparks of anger checks, To nature introduced, the goddess wooed,
Shall ne'er with fruitless tears in vain lament And in sweet rapture there enjoyed her charms.
Its flame's destructive rage. Who from the vale In Richmond's venerable woods and wilds,
Ambition's dangerous pinnacle surveys ; The calm retreat, where wearied majesty,
Safe from the blast which shakes the towering pile, Unbending from his cares for Britain's peace,
Enjoys secure repose, nor dreads the storm
When public clamors rise. Who cautious turns
From lewd temptation smiling in the eye Smiling on beauty.
Of wantonness, hath burst the golden bands THE VALE OF ESHER ; SOUTHCOTE'S GROUNDS AND HAGLEY
Of future anguish ; hath redeemed his frame
From early feebleness, and dire disease.
Who lets the griping hand of avarice pinch
Excludes fair friendship, charity, and love,
From their divine exertions in his breast. Variety, where mingled lights and shades, [break,
MODERATION TAUGHT ; WATER AND GARDEX-ROOTS, HERBS Where lawns and groves, and opening prospects AND FRUITS, SCFFICE FOR HEALTH ; THE CELESTIAL VENUS. With sweet surprise, upon the wandering eye. "And see, my friends, this garden's little bound, On Hagley's hills, irregular and wild,
So small the wants of nature, well supplies Where through romantic scenes of hanging woods, Our board with plenty ; roots, or wholesome pulse, And valleys green, and rocks, and hollow dales,
Or herbs, or flavored fruits ; and from the stream While echo talks, and nymphs and dryads play, The hand of moderation fills a cup, Thou rov'st enamored ; leading by the hand To thirst delicious. Hence nor fevers rise, Its master, who, inspired with all thy art,
Nor surfeits, nor the boiling blood, inflamed Adds beauties to what nature planned so fair.
With turbid violence, the veins distends. 1 The taste for straight lines, regular platforms, and clipt 1 Epicurus, who, on account of teaching in his garden, was trees, was imported from Holland at the Revolution.
called the garden philosopher; and his disciples, philoso2 Mr. Southcote's estate.
phers of the garden. He died at Athens. B.C. 270, aged 71.
Hear, then, and weigh the moment of my words : -
With sudden inundation? Ah, with care
of hay-making. A method of preserving hay from being
mow-burnt, or taking fire. Of harvest, and the harvesthome. The praises of England with regard to its various products. Apples. Hops. Hemp. Flax. Coals. Fuller's earth. Stone. Lead. Tin. Iron. Dyer's herbs. Esculents. Medicinals. Transitions from the cultivation of the earth to the care of sheep, cattle, and horses. Of feeding sheep. Of their diseases. Sheep-shearing. Of improving the breed. Of the dairy and its products. Of horses. The draught-horse, road-horse, hunter, race-horse, and warhorse. Concluding with an address to the Prince to prefer the arts of peace to those of war.
PARY-PRODUCTS ; MOWING, HAY-RAKING. While thus at ease, beneath embellished shades, We rove delighted ; lo ! the ripening mead Calls forth the laboring hinds. In slanting rows, With still-approaching step, and levelled stroke, The early mower, bending o'er his scythe, Lays low the slender grass ; emblem of man, Falling benea the ruthless hand of time. Then follows blithe, equipped with fork and rake, In light array, the train of nymphs and swains. Wide o'er the field, their labor seeming sport, They toss the withering herbage. Light it flies, Borne on the wings of zephyr ; whose soft gale, Now while the ascending sun's bright beam exhales The grateful sweetness of the new-mown hay, Breathing refreshment, fans the toiling swain.
THE HAYMAKERS ; THEIR MIRTH ; LUNCHEON ; THE HAY
CART, BARN, HAY-STACK. And soon the jocund dale and echoing hill Resound with merriment. The simple jest, The village tale of scandal, and the taunts Of rude unpolished wit, raise sudden bursts Of laughter from beneath the spreading oak, Where, thrown at ease and sheltered from the sun, The plain repast and wholesome beverage cheer Their spirits. Light as air they spring, renewed, To social labor : soon the ponderous wain Moves slowly onwards with its fragrant load, And swells the barn capacious : or, to crown Their toil, large tapering pyramids they build, The magazines of plenty, to insure From winter's want the flocks and lowing herds.
WHEAT-HARVEST ; RAVAGES OF THE TEMPEST AND THE DE
STRUCTIVE CHASE; OPPRESSIVE TRESPASSES OF WEALTU UPON POVERTY.
And now the ruler of the golden day From the fierce Lion glows with heat intense ; While Ceres in the ripening field looks down In smiles benign. Now with enraptured eye The end of all his toil, and its reward, The farmer views. Ah, gracious heaven! attend His fervent prayer : restrain the tempest's rage, The dreadful blight disarm ; nor in one blast The products of the laboring year destroy! Yet vain is heaven's indulgence ; for when now In ready ranks the impatient reapers stand, Armed with the scythe or sickle :- echoes shrill Of winding horns, the shouts and hallowings loud Of huntsmen, and the cry of opening hounds, Float in the gale melodious, but invade His frighted sense with dread. Near and more near The unwelcome sounds approach ; and sudden o'er His fence the tall stag bounds : in close pursuit The hunter train, on many a noble steed, Undaunted follow ; while the eager pack Burst unresisted through the yielding hedge, In vain, unheard, the wretched hind exclaims : The ruin of his crop in vain laments; Deaf to his cries, they traverse the ripe field In cruel exultation ; trampling down Beneath their feet, in one short moment's sport, The peace, the comfort of his future year. Unfeeling wealth ! ah, when wilt thou forbear Thy insults, thy injustice to the poor? When taste the bliss of nursing in thy breast The sweet sensations of humanity? Yet all are not destroyers : some unspoiled By fortune still preserve a feeling heart.
HOW TO OBVIATE THE EFFECTS OF A SHOWER IN WETTING
THE HAY ; SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION. But do the threatening clouds precipitate Thy work, and hurry to the field thy team, Ere the sun's heat, or penetrating wind, Hath drawn its moisture from the fading grass ? Or hath the bursting shower thy labors drenched
WIEAT-SHEAFS; BEER ; RYE ; OATS ; THE LAST LOAD;
HARVEST-HOME ; THE FESTIVAL OF HARVEST-HOME. Now see the yellow fields, with laborers spreal, Resign their treasures to the reaper's hand.
1 Epicurus placed in his garden a statue of the Venus Celestis, which probably he might intend should be symbolical of his doctrine.