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PARDON CHURCH stood between TVilderness Row and Sutton Street; the site is now occupied by a chapel, built for the use of a Welsh congregation of the Methodist persuasion.
CHARTERHOUSE SQUARE, was antiently the Church Yard of the monastery; but is now formed of very handsome houses; the north-east corner is denominated Rutland Court or Place; having been the residence of that noble family; but was afterwards used as a theatre by Sir William D'Avenant.
The square was inhabited in 1614, by Sir William Munson; in 1616, by lady Finch, and her son Heneage; in 1617, by William, lord Cavendish; 1637, by lord Dunsmore, and lady De la Warre; 1643, lord Grey de Werk; and in 1645, by lady Wharton. The water which supplied the hospital and neighbourhood, previously to the New River water, was conveyed from the IVhite Conduit, ncar Islington.
CHARTERHOUSE Lane leads to Smithfield Bars, the northern boundary of the city liberty, whence returning to Smithfield by the end of Cow LANE, now, King STREET, we pass Hosier, or probably Ozier LANE, and come to PIE CORNER,
Pia  so called from an antient inn bearing the sign of the Magpie. 2. 27
Cock Lane was notorious at the commencement of the present reign for one of the most infamous deceptions practised on the credulity of the public, denominated the Cock LANE Ghost, of which we have already given an ample account.+
We now, with reluctance, visit the mansions of distress; where we do not wish to detain the reader but as little as possible, except his benevolence should induce him, as it does many in this charitable city, to alleviate the sufferings of those shut from the society of their fellow creatures.
* “ Pardon Church Yard," says Stow, “served, after its first purpose, for the burying of such as desperately ended their lives, or were executed for felonies : who were fetched thither usually in a close cari, veiled over and covered with black, having a plain white cross upon it, .and at the fore end a St. John's cross without, and within a bell ringing (by shaking of the cart), whereby the same might be heard when it passed; and this was called the Friary Cart, which belonged to St. John's, and had the privilege of sanctuary." + Yol. I. p. 515.
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LUDGATE, so called from baving been held in the premises of one of the antient city gates, is a prison for debtors who are free of the city, for clergymen, proctors, and attornies. There are gifts for the benofit of the prisoners to the annual amount of 1+0?, and upwards. The prisoners are well lodged,
consistent with their circumstances. Extra Giltspur STREET COMPTER, is a massy and not inelegant Galates structure for the purpose intended; it is built conformably to P. 32 the humane suggestions of the late Mr. Howard, and does
equal honour to the spirit of a great commercial city, and the taste of Mr. Dance, who planned and attended to the
finishing of the wbole. In this edifice, the debtors, who latra have heretofore been confined in the loathsome dungeon of Patei Wood Street, oppressed by misfortune, neglected by friends, 3 and deprived of the comforts and conveniencies of life, even
to a greater degree than is consistent with the claims of ac. tual and proved guilt, will, in future, it is hoped, by gentle treatment be encouraged to devote their time to do justice to
their creditors and restore honour to themselves. * Extra
NEWGATE formerly stood across the street, and considered Bir tú as one of the entrances to the city was not an inelegant build, 23 ing; but as a prison, “the builders seem to have regarded
in their plan,” says Mr. Howard, “ nothing but the single article of keeping prisoners in safe custodly." The rooms and cells were so close as to be almost the constant seats of disease, and sources of infection, to the destruction of mul. titudes, not only in the prison, but abroad ; and a shocking instance occurred in the year 1750, when an infectious fever denominated the gaol fever, broke out among the prisoners, owing to the groat number of them being confined in close and unwholesome apartments. This contagion, by the foul cloaths and infeated bodies of the criminals, was communicated to the Sessions House in the Old Bailey, where it was caught by a great number of persons, and not only proved fatal to Sir Samuel Pennant, lord mayor, but to Sir Danie! Lambert, alderman; Sir Thomas Abney, judge of the Common Pleas; Mr. baron Clark; Mr. Cox, under sheriff, many of the lawyers that attended the sessions; most of the Mid,
dlesex Europ. Mag. XIV, 481,
dlesex jury; and several of the spectators. In consequence of this disaster, and a representation made to the court of aldermen by lord chief justice Lee, a machine was soon after placed on the top of Newgate to supply a circulation of fresh air; the prison was well cleansed, and every other precaution taken to preserve the health of the prisoners.
Though the city had such very cogent reasons for rebuilding the gaol, thirty years elapsed before any resolution passed for carrying it into execution; and the first stone of the present structure was laid by Mr. Alderman Beckford, during his second mayoralty, in 1770. It is a massy, and rather superb building, and many of the inconveniences of the old prison are avoided in the present; but there are still some manifest errors; so that “ without more than ordinary care, the prisoners will be in great danger of the gaol fever."
The plan of the whole is an area of three squares ; the north quadrangie for debtors of both sexes, a wall dividing the men from the women. A large quadrangle behind the keeper's house for men felons ; on one side of which is a plain and neat chapel. The south quadrangle contains apartments for state prisoners, &c.; a wall divides these from the women felons. The cells, built in addition to the old prison for condemned malefactors, continue for the same use at present. We subjoin Mr. Howard's account of them: “ There are upon each of the three floors five; all vaulted, near nine feet high to the crown. Those on the ground floor measure full nine feet by six ; the five on the first story are a little larger, on account of the set-off in the wall; and the five uppermost still a little larger, for the same reason, In the upper part of each cell, is a window clouble grated, near three feet by one and a half. The doors are four inches thick. The strong stone wall is lined all round each cell with planks, studded with broad-headed pails. In each cell is a barrack bedstead. I was told, continues Mr. Howard, by those who attended me, that criminals who had affected an air of boldness during their trial, and appeared quite unconcerned at the pronouncing sentence upon them, were struck with horror, and shed tears, when brought to these darksome solitary abodes"*.
The street before Newgate, from Fleet Lane to the pump, formed a triangular range of buildings, denominated the Great Old Bailey, the Little Old Bailey, and Hart Rov Street. The opposite side of the main street formed another triangle, called Giltspur Street, Pie Corner, and a narrow alley adjoining St. Sepulchre's, called Church Lane. Upon the removal of the first of these ranges of building, the space was appointed for the place of execution for condemned criminals, on a stage with a gallows, before the debtor's door. X
A broad yard divides Newgate from the The SESSIONS House ; a very handsome stone and brick building. A court is held here eight times in the year for the trial of criminal offenders in London and Middlesex. The judges are the lord mayor, the aldermen past the chair, and the recorder, attended by the sheriffs, and one of the national
* Mr. Robert Dow, of whom we have made mention in Vol. II, p. 384, appointed, in the year 1612, the sexton of St. Sepulchre's church to pronounce two solemn exhortations to the persons condemned ; for which, and for ringing the passing bell, as they were carried to the place of execution, he left 17. 6s. 8d. yearly for ever.
“ The following is the exhortation to be pronounced to the candemned prisoners in Newgate, the night before their execution.
s. You prisoners that are within,
“ Who for wickedness end sin, “ After many mercies shewn you, are now appointed to die 10-morrow in the forenoon : give ear, and understand, that 10-morrow morning the greatest bell of St. Sepulchre's shall toll for you in form ard manner of a passing bell, as used to be tolled for those that are at the point of death, to the end that all godly people hearing that bell, and knowing it is for you, going to your deaths, may be stirred up heartily, to pray to God to bestow his grace and mercy upon you, whilst you live; I beseech you, for Jesus Christ his sake, to keep this night in watching and prayer, for the salvation of your own souls, while there is yet time and place for mercy : as knowing 10-morrow you must appear before the judgment seat of your Creator, there to give an account of all things done in this life, and to suffer eternal tormenis for your sing
judges. Here are two juries; one of citizens, to try such as have offended in the city; and another of housekeepers of the county of Middlesex, to try offences committed in the county. The crimes cognizable in this court are high and petty treason, murder, felony, forgery, petty larceny, burglary, cheating, &c. The court is empowered to inflict corporal punishments, transportation, and loss of life.
A vacant piece of ground, intended for an extension and improvement of the Sessions House, was lately covered by an elegant structure, erected for the corporation of Surgeons; but on their quitting the premises, the whole was converted to barracks for the city militia reginients.
In the Old Bailey stood SYDNEY House, in which that family resided, till they removed to Leicester House. The site was after the fire, the dwelling of the notorious Jonathan Wild; of a coachmaker; and at present is a bro
committed against him, unless upon hearty and unfeigned repentance, you find mercy, through the merits, death, and passion of your only mediator and advocate, Jesus Christ, who now sits at the right hand of God, to make intercession for as many of you, as penitently return to him."
On the day of execution, as the condemned criminals pass by St. Se: pulchre's church, in their way to Tyburn, the following words were appointed to be spoken :- All good people, pray heartily unto God for these poor sinners, who are now going to their deaths, for whom this great bell doth toll."
“ You that are condemned to die, repent with lamentable tears : ask mercy of the Lord, for the salvation of your own souls, through the merits, death, and passion of Jesus Christ, who now sits at the right hand of God, to make intercession for as many of you as penitently reture unto him.''
Lord have mercy upon you ;
Lord have mercy upon you ;
“ Christ have mercy upon you." The latter exhortation has been discontinued since the executions have taken place before the prison ; and instead of the passing bell of St. Sepulchre's, one which belonged to St. John, Southwark, and sold by that parish, when they set up their new bells, was fixed on the rop of Newgate, warns to prayers in the chapel, and is used as the knell for criminals awaiting their wretched fate.