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tents of his book. Of its style and Of the family and condition in life history. of Amos-of the period in which he

Zechariah. lived. Contents of the book of Amos. All that is known with any degree

His character as a poet considered. of certainty respecting Zechariah is, -History of the book of Amos.

perhaps, the period in which he lived. Obadiah.

- His book consists of two parts, the All accounts of Obadiah at the best the eight first chapters, and the second

first comprising in a series of visions uncertain. Of the fragment extant the remainder of the book...-Remarks under his name.--Of the poetical ta- on the first part.-General observalent of Obadiah.-History of the work tions on poetical visions, with particuascribed to him.

lar reference to Zechariah.Of the Jonah.

second part of the book of Zechariah Brief account of Jonah and of the though differing in point of style period in which he lived.--Difficulties and contents from the first, it is in all attending a correct interpretation of probability the production of the same the book of Jonah---of various ate author.-Of the character of Zechatempts made for that purpose-per

iah-and the history of his book. haps the most marvellous part of the

Malachi. story recorded in it is founded on some

Nothing certain is known respecting popular tradition-or, perhaps, the the person of Malachi, although the whole history is a mere poetical fable period in which he wrote is fixed with

-this last idea appears to be counte- sufficient precision.---Of the contents nanced by many modern critics. Of of the book of Malachi—its general the author and the character of his character and history. work.-History of the book of Jonah.


Little more is known of Daniel for Account of Micah and of the age in certain than that if he was not actually which he lived.-Of the contents of descended from a royal family, he was his book, and of his high poetical cha, at least of noble extraction, and furracter-History of the book of Micah. ther, that he lived in the third year of Nahum.

the reign of Cyrus.--- This information

is, however, sufficient to account geThe precise period in which Nahum nerally for a variety of singular and flourished, and the country in which otherwise obscure passages contained he was born are alike uncertain-both in his book.--Difficulties occurring in can at the best be conjectured from the first part of Daniel (ii.-vi.)...The various passages contained in the small opening of the book (i. ii. 3) is written book extant under his name.-Of the in Hebrew—from chap. ii. 4, to chap. contents of the book of Nahum-its vii. 28, the Aramæan dialect prevails character and history.

—and towards the conclusion The HeHabakkuk.

brew is again adopted.---The conjecThe period in which Habakkuk lived terpolated does not appear sufficiently

ture of the chapters üii.-vi. being inis to be inferred chiefly from his own satisfactory-Perhaps a minute inveswriting which we now possess. Of tigation of the different parts of the the contents of his small book.-His book of Daniel may warrant the idea character as a poet of the very first that it consists of a collection of variorder.-History of the book of Ha

ous pieces, partly referring to Daniel bakkuk.

and partly to some of his friends--So Zephaniah.

much seems certain, that the book of Account of Zephaniah.—Contents Daniel is the production of two auof his book. Of its character and thors who wrote their proportions of history.

it at different periods of time.

That there once existed two original editions Haggai.

of the first part of Daniel may easily Nothing certain known respecting be proved by a comparison instituted the person of Haggai.--Of the con- between our present Chaldee text, and


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the Greek Version of the Septuagint. even admitting that his original naire Early opinions respecting the authen- was Jobab, he certainly ought not to ticity of the book of Daniel.-General be confounded with the Jobab of wbon history of it.

mention is made in the book of Geos Psalms.

sis.---In all probability, the real history Of the origin of the poetry of the assumed as the basis of a fiction.

of a person of the name of Job i Psalms.---Of their antiquity:-With the the scene of action chosen for te exception of the ninetieth Psalm, same.---Of the poetical worth of the which perhaps may have Moses for its book of Job. Of its author and the author, none appear to be the produc. antiquity of his work. Of the genetion of an age prior to that of David. ineness and age of the prologue and ---Of the authors of the Psalms.- The epilogue of the book of Job.-Partiidea that David was the writer of all, cular remarks on the speeches of Eliha. has been long since abandoned---the --History of the book of Job. greater part, however, probably owe their origin to him..-Of the different

The Song of Solomon. authors to whom various Psalms are Some account of its age.--In all attributed, the sons of Korah display probability, Solomon was not the anby far the greatest poetical genius.--- thor of it.---Its contents and the burMany Psalms have erroneous names then of it nothing but love, love, lore ! prefixed to them.---The book of Psalms ---it is in fact a collection of anacremay be generally divided into two parts, ontic odes and idyls.---Of the history which may again be subdivided into of the Song of Solomon. five books.--Of the probable origin of The Lamentations of Jeremiah. our present collection of the Psalms, differing from the general opinion en

The destruction of the temple and tertained on this head.—Of the period the city of Jerusalem form, in all proand design of forming a collection of bability, the theme of this book, and the Psalms---of their titles and super- not the death of Josiah, as some have scriptions--on the most advantageous supposed....Of the internal and extermode of perusing them--and of the nal characteristics of the Lamentations. necessary considerations to be kept in of their author.---History of the book. view for studying them with success.-- Ecclesiastes, or the Preacher. History of the book of Psalıns.

Remarks on the title of the book The Proverbs of Solomon. of Ecclesiastes.--It is improbable that Of the general use of apophthegms Solomon was the author of it---but among the ancients ---Of their charac- sufficient proofs can be adduced that ter and early adoption.---Of the con- the writer was contemporary with the tents and age of the Proverbs attributed author of the book of Daniel and to Solomon.---They comprise two dis- Esther. Of the contents and plan of tinct parts, the first (i.-ix.) containing the book of Ecclesiastes, and of its a panegyric on wisdom, and an admo- history. nitory address to shun the various allurements by which youth is betrayed Introduction to the Reading of the from the paths of rectitude and virtue Apocryphal Scriptures of the old -and the second (x.---xxi.) exhibiting

Testament, by J. G. Eichhorn, I a series of apophthegms, witty con

vol. 8vo. pp. 504. ceits, anecdotes and ænigmas. Of the WITH THREE INDICES, pp. 543. authors of the book of Proverbs, and

Summary of Contents. the advantages to be gleaned from it in a critical point of view.--History of

Introduction.—Great expectations the book of Proverbs.

entertained in modern times from a

critical examination of the Apocryphal Job.

books of the Old Testament-these Contents of the book of Joh.---It have, however, been grievously disapexhibits a mere poetical effusion and pointed. With the exception of the no true history.---It is far from being Ethics of Jesus Sirach, the Wisdom of unlikely that a person like Job may Solomon, the first book of the Macreally have existed---and that, too, cabees, and on certain accounts that of during the patriarchal period ---but Pseudo-Esdras, the rest possess little

or no intrinsic merit----and, perhaps, count of himself, and given a clue to the chief advantage to be derived from ascertain the age in which he lived.-a critical study of them is the light Disquisition on the real period in which they throw on the spirit and which this apocryphal work was writcharacter of the times in which they ten..--It contains a rhapsody of moral were written.

declamations on mundane affairs, enof the Apocryphal Scriptures of livened with a variety of apposite and the Old Testament generally.--The frequently witty remarks on the true literary productions of the Hebrews enjoyment of life---and is most prosubsequent to the Babylonian exile bably a collection of essays of different of a character widely differing from Jewish sages, written at very different their compositions prior to that period. periods of time. - Originally it was --During their exile a general change written in Hebrew, or perhaps the had taken place among them---not Syro-Chaldæan dialect. —That this only their language but the general Apocryphal book is a translation only train of their ideas became gradually is fully evident from numerous pasmore and more assimilated to those of sages in which the Greek text is wholly the nations among whom they lived or unintelligible, or even exhibits direct by whom they were surrounded—and blunders, which any one acquainted when at length, under Alexander the with Hebrew may easily rectify.---For Great, they became more intimately the rest, a strange mixture of superconnected with the Greeks, their reli- stition and religious refinement characgious doctrines ceased to bear the terizes the Ethics of Jesus Sirach. genuine Mosaic stamp, and exhibited a Sketch of the history of this book. strange medley, in which the philosophy of Plato, Pythagoras and the sages

Of the Wisdom of Solomon. of Chaldæa and Persia appeared grafted

General ideas attached by the Jews on that of their original legislator.- to the word copsa, Heb. ndan-synoFrom that period the nation seems nymous with the more modest term divided into two distinct classes --the of philosophy used by their Greek Jews of Palestine and those of Egypt neighbours, and, in fact, embracing a --the former adhering to their ancient union of Jewish theology with GræcoHebrew or Chaldæan tongue---the lat- Oriental philosophy.- The Wisdom of ter availing themselves of the Greek Solomon consists of two parts—the language.--It is to be remarked, that first comprising ch. i.-xi. 1.--- the sethe productions of the former only cond, ch. xi. 2—xix. 22. were admitted into the Jewish canon, Of the first part of the Wisdom of to the exclusion of the latter.—Gene- Solomon. — The name of Solomon ral character and contents of the books merely assumed.-It contains a geneof the Apocrypha.---Whilst those of a ral panegyric on wisdom, and is writmoral and philosophical character tend ten in a style of greater purity and to give us an idea of the state of men- sublimity than is easily met with in tal cultivation and refinement to which the writings of the ancient philosothe Jews in general had attained at a phers or Jewish sages. period immediately preceding the birth Of the second part of the Wisdom of Christ, the historical books have of Solomon.-In point of style and also their value in a chronological sentiment it is greatly inferior to the point of view, as an adherence to the first----being, in all probability, the Seleucidan æra is maintained in them, composition of a different author--and all may be used with advantage in and only attached to the other by way & critical examination of the New of securing its preservation.---Of the Testament, by their contributing not character of the author. a little to elucidate its phraseology Of the Wisdom of Solomon geneand doctrines.

rally.-On the conjecture of Philo Of the Ethics of Jesus the Son of rendered highly improbable by a com

being the author of both parts--this Sirach.

parison drawn between passages exJesus Sirach, the only Apocryphal tracted from his works and the Wiswriter in the Old Testament who has dom of Solomon, in which the same accompanied his work with some ac- subjects are differently treated. --Ano

ther conjecture in favour of Serubabet persecutions commenced against the considered. In all probability it was Jews in Egypt by Ptolemy Philopater, originally written in Greek.--History and exhibits a sad compound of true of the book of Wisdom.

historical facts and legendary fictions. Of the Books of the Maccabees.

---Attempt made to distinguish the

same.--It was probably written in Introductory history of the Jews Egypt.-Nothing is known with any subsequent to their return from exile. degree of certainty respecting the au---Summary review of the contents of thor or the precise period in which he the books of the Maccabees in chro. Aourished.- History of the third book nological order.---The third book nar- of the Maccabees. rates events of a date prior to those contained in the second-and the se

Of Judith. cond, occurrences which took place Summary of the contents of the book previous to those related in the first of Judith. It is a narrative utterly --a fourth book is occasionally no. devoid of any pretension to probability ticed, but its contents are wholly un. or historical truth---perhaps the most known.

plausible conjecture respecting its oriOf the first Book of the Maccabees. gin and history may be, that a Jew It was originally written in Hebrew, wholly ignorant of history and geogra and the Apocryphal text is a version. phy, thought proper, on the strength -Its author was probably a Jew of of some popular tradition, to draw up Palestine.-In it chronological order a narrative respecting the siege of a is duly adhered to, but a partiality for town being raised by the statagem of his own country leads the author into a harlot.- Of the difference between numerous errors and absurdities.-- the Greek text and the Vulgate.--HisHistory of the first book of the Mac tory of the book of Judith. cabees.

Of the Apocryphal Esdras. Of the second Book of the Maccabees. It consists of two parts---the

A critical comparison instituted befirst exhibiting two epistles supposed

tween this book and the book of Ezra, to be addressed by the Jews of Pales in the Old Testament, tends to sbew tine to their brethren in Egypt, relative that the former is wholly grounded to the dedication of their new temple upon the latter, and in many cases is -and the second comprising an abridg- but a free translation of it.- Various ment of a larger work, written by a proofs hereof adduced—a portion of certain Jason of Cyrene, (of whom no Chronicles and of Nehemiah also contraces are now extant,) on the heroic tained in this book--and in all probafeats of the Maccabees, which is, more. bility the book itself is mutilatedover, furnished with a kind of prologue Old Testament, it is of great use to

As a translation of a portion of the and epilogue.--The former part of this book is wholly unconnected with the critical reader. This proved by the latter---and is, in all probability, a

numerous examples.

History of the mere fiction, abounding in numerous Apocryphal book of Esdras. instances of glaring ignorance and

of Baruch. folly.---The second part purports to be His life. The book of Baruch conabridged from a voluminous history tains two letters, one of which is atwritten by an Egyptian Jew in Greek, tributed to Baruch' himself, and the and is mostly drawn up in the style of other to Jeremiah—but from histothe rhetorical school, but the author is rical and internal evidence both mest far from being free from superstitious be pronounced to be spurious. Ok notions--add to this, it teems with er- the history of this book. rors in point of chronology and ancient geography, and contains a tissue of

Of Tobit. improbabilities and falsehoods.---Little Contents of the book of Tobit. It is known respecting the author of this is a mere fiction, probably composed abridgment.--History of the second with a view of exemplifying the doc. book of the Maccabees.

trine that the prayers of pious sufOf the third Book of the Macca- ferers are attended to by the Almighty. beeb.-.-It contains an account of the In it, a belief in the existence of angels

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(wholly unwarranted either by reason of Additions to the Book of Esther, or revelation) is inculcated. Seven as preserved in the Septuagint. archangels are represented as being in attendance on the throne of God, and original Hebrew text-nor could they,

They never formed a part of the good and evil dæmons are supposed to from the circumstance of their conBe wandering about the earth. --At- taining particulars in direct opposition tempt made to account for the origin to it. - Most probably they were writof these doctrines.—Nothing known ten by an Egyptian Jew in Greek.respecting the author.--History of the Varions texts differing widely from book of Tobit.

each other, extant both in Greek and of the Song of the Three Children the ancient Versions. History of the in the Fiery Furnace.

additions to the book of Esther, &c. (Vide Dan. iii. 24–30, according to Sir, the Greek.)

THE inclosed are copies of two A meagre compilation from ancient from a person who emigrated from the penitentiary hymns in no wise adapted Isle of Wight, and has settled in the to the situation of persons suffering Indiana territory. He is cultivating a in the midst of flames and probably farm of 320 acres, for which he paid composed by way of filling up an £90. As he is a man of great reimaginary chasm in the Hebrew- spectability, and has had large concerns Chaldæan original at vers. 21, 22, al- in his hands, (the farm of Tapnels though none actually exists. It is un- 940 acres, and latterly the farm of certain in what language it was origi- Wroxal 500 acres, both well known in nally written. Comparison instituted the island,) much confidence may be between the texts of Theodosius and placed in his judgment. His friends the Septuagint.-History of the Song, have just received the news of the safe &c.

arrival of his family at Philadelphia, Of the History of Bel and the Dragon in hcalth; and of their having all pro

where they were met by Mr. Arnold, at Babylon.

ceeded westward with the fairest pro(Vide Dan. xiv., according to the spects. He says, should any of his Greek.)

friends determine to follow him, he It is no longer doubted but the shall be most happy to give them a whole is a mere fiction.intended to

hearty Americun welcome.

J. P. shew the absurdity and inanity of ido

Ben Davis' Creek, * Indiana, latry, and to prove the superior wis

January 8, 1821. dom and power of Jehovah. - Internal * MY DEAR ŞIR, contradictions and deviations from

“ I have realized the first wish of my historical facts noticed.--Comparison heart, I am become a resident in this between the texts of Theodosius and land of Republican freedom. I have pur. the Septuagint.-It appears never to chased a farm, built a cabin, fenced a have existed in Hebrew or Chaldee. garden, and shall hare two small incloOf its history.

sures sown with Indian corn in the

spring; this in the woods is doing someOf the History of Susanna.

thing. To our many gossiping chats of (Vide Dan. xiii., according to the America, of the advantages and disadvanGreek.)

tages of emigration, I look back with A hacknied story in a very ordinary

pleasure, and experience has confirmed

me in my favourable impressions of it. style and teeming with improbabili

“ There are many persons who come ties, absurdities and errors !--probably brought forth for the express purpose

# “Ben Davis' Creek,' so named of justifying the choice of a very young from an old Indian chief and warrior: it man to be elder or judge.-Compa- was his favourite hunting ground. He rison instituted between the text of is still living, and since the sale and cesTheodosius and that of the Septuagint. sion of the lands of his tribe to the It was in all likelihood originally writ. American government, they are removed ten in Greek.--History of this book. to a distance of 70 miles h

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