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derisively, and sportively. But woe unto them for what their hands have written ! and woe unto them for the reward they will reap! Among what I said to them was this: If what you aim at were a part of the Mohammedan religion, either theoretically or practically, I would have outrun you in receiving it, and Khalil ben 'Abdallab and 'Othmán ben Mohammed Bello, the two descendants of Fódiye, would have outrun you; nay, the great Sultan, our lord `Abd e' Rahmán, the son of your lord, Hishám, and the Khakán of the two lands and seas, the Sultan 'Abd el Mend, the son of the Sultan Mahmúd, the son of the Sultan 'Abd el Hamid, would have anticipated you. As for your postulate,* that you have inherited the duty of doing battle with the infidels and of hating them from the time of our fathers and grandfathers, we are more nearly related to them than you, for you have no ancestry in it, since you have only adopted your present opinions about thirty years ago, and a man only inherits from his father and grandfather. Whose guest is this Christian? And again, in whose alliance and safe-conduct is this Christian? He is the guest and protégé of the Sultan of the Faithful, 'Abd el Mejíd, and of the Imám of the Mos lims, our lord 'Abd e' Rahmán. Lo! he inherited the duty of warring with the infidels from his fathers and grandfathers; and he possesses his religion from the earliest of the fathers, from the time of the prophets. But as for the people of Nukkuma, t they have neither religion, nor learning, nor understanding, nor humanity. What then gives them any superiority or pre-eminence over those eminent persons, seeing that they are the tail of mankind, living in the tail of the world, and that, op to this date, the invitation of the Sunna and of indispensable dutiest has not reached them? But there is no need to dilate on what they say in their perversity, nor on what is said to them in disputation. The main thing is that you should know, O you body of believers, that God has sent us prophets with His book and His ordinances, and has elucidated them and made them plain, and that whoever wishes to add to them in what He has enjoined is accursed and cast out, and whoever diminishes aught therefrom is condemned and punished. Therefore treat the Maslim according to the treatment ordered for him in the book of God and in the Sunna of the Prophet, whether the Moslim be an upright or a careless one; treat the Kitábis as they are to be treated, whether they be hostile, or under compact, or under tribute; and treat the Infidel generally as he is to be treated, whether he be hostile or not hostile : For all are His servants; His will is irresistible by them; His ordinance sticks close to them; His knowledge comprehends them.'s Whoever treats these different classes with any other treatment than what He has appointed erts in his judgment and is wicked. And this Christian is to-day the guest of the Moslims, under their protection, their covenant, and safe-conduct. No Moslim can lawfully hurt him. On the contrary, to injure him is a burning shame. Nay, he has the rights of a guest, for the guest of the munificent is munificently treated; and every believer is munificent, and every hypocrite is sordid. And does that manificence which is not imprinted in the disposition make a believer? The recompense of kindness is by kindness, in imitation of the character of the merciful Lord. God says, “Is there any recompense of kindness except kindness?' And behold ! this man's nation, the English, have done us services which are neither doubted or denied: which are their friendship to our brethren the Moslims, and their sincerity to them, and their cordiality with them, and their helpfulness to our two Sultans, 'Abd e' Rahmán and 'Abd el Mejíd. This is publicly known and acknowledged about the English. It is, therefore, our right and duty to show gratitude for their kindness, and to strengthen whatever covenant and confidence there is between us and them. And I apply this to you, my brethren. Therefore whoever belongs to the jurisdiction of our Tawárek, the people of Karidénne, the kingdom of Alkuttaba ben Kawa ben Imma ben Ig e' Sheikh ben Karidénne, and then whoever is behind them of my companions and friends, Dinnik, the kingdom of my brother, and nephew, and pupil, Musa ben Bodhál ben Katim; 1 then those behind them of our partisans the people of Aïr the Kél-gerés and the Kel-owí; then our darlings, A la Fódiye, their learned men, the intelligent and humane, who have the ordinances and the right of decision, on them be my salutation and el Islám! the people of the Imám, • That is, main principle on which you base your wish to hurt a Christian ; or it means pretenar † That is, the Fülbe of Másina. About Núkkuma, or Xúkuma, see the note, ante, p. TOS. #veel

This pangage rhymes in the original, and seems to be quoted from some familiar source, but it is not in the Kurån.

| Sur., lv.. 60.

I See about the Dinnik, p. 794

EL BAKAY'S LETTER OF RECOMMENDATION.

767

the high-minded, the son of Bello, the Imám ben 'Othmán, the perfect. For, lo! my guest is a guest of theirs, who has nothing to fear from them, since they profess obedience to God, * and know that he protects the ordinances. And especially, as their lord, the Imám Mohammed Bello-God favor him!-said to me, and wrote to me with his own hand, that he and his kingdom were at my disposal so long as it was strung on his string;† therefore I have authority, and I admonish you about my and your guest, indeed about whatever Englishman shall come after him, whether he come to me, or pass near you, or abide among you for a time and then return. And what I demand and charge you, the same injunction I lay upon my brethren (though I have not seen them with my eyes, I have seen them by my faith, and I count kindred with them by the ties of religion), the people of Bórnu, especially the Sheikh 'Omár ben Mohammed, the Emír, the Just. Then let not that which is dreaded hinder you.I Lo! he is a distinguished man among the Christians. However there are between us and them such protectors of El Islám and champions of the peoples (the Christians), that if they break through them to get at us, and attack us, there is no good of life, and no sufficiency in a host. But God is our reliance : surely He outwits every deceiver, betrays every traitor, and makes every unbeliever a liar; for he says in his book, to us and to His Prophet, 'God is your stay, and those of the believers that follow you.' 'If they try to deceive you, then God is your support. It is He that has strengthened you with His help, and with the faithful, and has united their hearts.'** It is then by the religion of God that we are exalted and are victorious. Religion is weak only through its professors.tt The blessing of the Book of God and the blessing of His Prophet be on us and with us. So let not fear seize any Moslim that they should deceive him and cheat him, on the ground that there is rebellion against the cause of God among them, and that the Sunna of His Prophet is violated among them. And whatever there is of slaughter and battle with him, let him suppress it for its day; for the weakest of men in sense, and the mightiest of them in ignorance, is he who rushes to evil when its season has not come, and who is no match for it on the day when it arrives. And as for me, brethren, I have written for the Englishman specially a general safe-conduct, in which I have included every one in my land, and have added thereto your land, in reliance on your religion and your sure conviction, and in dependence on your intelligence and humanity. Do you then write for him as I have written, on the condition of our being subject to our Imám, our Lord 'Abd e' Rahmán, and our Sultan, 'Abd el Mejíd; and be not like the people of Nukkuma, for they are like the deaf and dumb, since they are offensive to me. Lo! I love my guest the Christian. Be careful that he be not hindered in any thing; for the Prophet used to love the Kuraish, in spite of their unbelief in him and their hostility to him. God says, “There has come to you a Prophet from yourselves; grievous to him is your wickedness; he is anxious about you.'11 And he said to him, “Thou wilt not direct whomsoever thou lovest.'S$ And he used to love his uncles, and to delight in their conversion to El Islám, especially Abu Táleb; except that he knew the decrees of God about the community, and was liable to them together with the community. The most ignorant of men is he who is ignorant of the Book of his Lord and the Sunna of His Prophet, so that he licenses for himself what is unlawful, and forbids what is lawful, and draws near to Him with that which removes him to a distance from Him, and keeps aloof from that which brings him near to Him, who fancies that he does well as to his actions while he does evil as to what is enjoined. God is not worshiped by any act (or rite) but what He has ordered, and is not approached by a worshiper that he should remit any thing but what is remitted. Now salutation is what is reiterated to you, and honor is what is wished to you. Farewell."

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APPENDIX XV. CHIEF TOWNS AND RESIDENCES OF THE INDEPENDENT SONGHAY BETWEEN

THE NIGER AND MY ROUTE BY YA'GHA AND LIBTARKO. Kulman, a large place, the name of which has already become known in Earope through the information of other travelers, in consequence of its great importance & a well-inhabited strong town, as also as a frequented market. The chief part of the inhabitants belong to the tribe of the Kóizé, with the chief (koy) Foní, the son of Arkosú (A'rkosú izze), or, as the Tawárek call him, ag A'rkosú. It may now be laid down in the map with tolerable accuracy, being said to be distant from Tongi (see p. 499) thirty miles to the west.

Téra, the town mentioned already by Ahmed Bábá, said to be even larger than Kulman, and the very largest of the ksúr of the free Songhay, equaling the city of Timbuktu in size, four days from Tongi S.W., two from Dóre E.N.E. The inhab itants wear their hair in long tresses, and possess a good many horses; they are totally independent.

Darghol, residence of the Songhay princes, the descendants of the A'skíá or Sikkíá, the chief of whom at the present day is Koy Kálmia; the inhabitants very warlike, armed with shield, spear, and sword, like the Tawárek. But the energy of these Songhay is counterpoised and baffled by the disunion which prevails among themselves, the inhabitants of Darghol waging war with those of Téra, who do not acknowledge their supremacy. The position of this important town, I am sorry to say, I am not able to determine even approximately. It is very desirable that a European traveler should explore this whole region.

The most important of the other towns of the Songhay are: Kósa; Tákala, ruled by Hawa, a woman (even in Timbuktu, before the conquest of the town by the Fülbe, a woman is said to have exercised the chief influence); Dorógun; Kánseka-koira, Bókar-koira (both called after their chiefs); Kúrchi, with the chief Hemma; Tézi; Góroshi; Karta; Kákaru, or Bámbelokoire (called from the chief, Bámbelo; a powerful community, dominating the neighboring towns and villages); Bangúm; Kerégu; Fómbiten, with the chief Hamma Fómbit; Kánfulí ; Hammakoire; Syrbi; Larba (the town mentioned in a preceding part of this volume, said to be as large as Say, with which and Támkala it was intimately allied at the time of the rising of the Reformer 'Othmán, and offered the most determined resistance); Sífada, Bargul; Kasánni; Alikónchi; Garubánda; Kongozekoire; Wozebángo; Sátumen; Wósolo; Badduléji; Barrobónghala; Kalobánda.

METEOROLOGICAL TABLE.

769

APPENDIX XVI.
FRAGMENTS OF A METEOROLOGICAL REGISTER.

[graphic]

1852.

1852. Nov.

Dec.
sunrise. 41 Outside Kúkawa at 24 sunrise. 55

the village Kali- | 25 sunrise. 43
1.30 P.M. 91 luwa.

1.30 P.M. 78 sunrise. 50

26 sunset. 72 sunset. 74

27-31 No obsy'n. Sky all this time sunrise. 52

cloudy. 1.15 P.M

1853. sunset. 81

Jan. 29 sunrise, 64

sunset. 1.30

sunrise. sunset. 81

3-10 No obsy'n. sunrise. 58.5

11 1.30 P.M. 85 Fine morning. Dec.

sunrise. 56

Fine norning. sunrise. 57.5

1.30 P.M. 87-5 2.0 P.M. 87

13 sunrise. 54 Strong wind. sunset.

2.0 P.M. 75 sunrise.

sunrise. sunset.

1.30 P.M. 76 sunrise.

sunrise. 51 2.0 P.M. 88 Heavy E. gale.

1.30 P.M. 76 sunrise. 51

sunrise. 1.0 P.M

sunrise. sunset. 77

1.30 P.M. 77 sunrise. 47

sunrise. 55 1.30 P.M. 94

1.30 P.M. 77 sunset. 82-3

sunrise. 6 No obsy'n.

2.0 P.M. 80 7 1.30 P.M. 81-2

sunset. 715 sunset. 70.2

sunrise. 56.5 sunrise. 52 Heavy northerly 21 2.0 P.M 86

sunrise. 56 Cold wind. sunset. 69.5

2.0 P.M. 75 sunrise. 48

sunrise. 47.2 2.0 P.M. 82.5

1.30 P.M. 75 sunset.

sunrise. 50.4
sunrise. 56 Foggy in the morn 2.0 P.M. 80-2
ing:

sunrise. 50
sunset.
73.5

1.45 P.M. 85-7 Fine day.
sunrise.

sunrise. 48.5 sunset.

1.45 P.M. 85.2 sunrise. 53

27

sunrise. 51.5 sunset. 72.5

1.50 P.M. 89.4 1.20 P.M. 84

sunrise. 59.6 1.45 P.M. 83

1.45 P.M. 89.5 15 sunrise. 57

29,30 No obsy'n. 1.30 PM

31

sunset. 75 sunset. 76

Feb. 16 1.30 P.M. 83

11 sunrise. 59.5 sunset. 72-30

sunrise. 58-60 17,18 No obsy'n.

1.30 P.M. 90 1.30 P.M. 81

sunset. 76 sunset. 73

In the evening heatsunrise.

lightning toward sunrise. 52 Cold N.E. gale;

the N. very heavy.

Cloudy, the sun shin1.40 P.M. 77

ing forth at times; sunrise. 40 Very cold, but no

in the afternoon wind.

the whole sky toFoggy morning. I

ward the S. overVOL. III.—CCC

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