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CHARITABLE JUDGMENT. LET us take a survey of the world, and see what a mixture there is of amiable and hateful qualities among the children of men.
There is beauty and comeliness; there is vigour and vivacity; there is good humour and compaffion; there is wit, and judgment, and industry, even among those that are profiigate and abandoned to many vices. There is fobriety, and love, and honesty, and justice, and decency amongst men that “ know not God,” and believe not the gospel of our “ Lord Jesus.” There are very few of the sons and daughters of Adam, but are poffeffed of something good and agreeable, either by nature or acquirement; therefore, when there is a necessary occasion to mention the vices of any man, we should not speak evil of him in the gross, nor heap repoaches on him by wholesale. It is very difingenuous to talk scandal in superlatives, as though every man who was a sinner, was a perfect villain, the very worst of men, all over hateful and abominable.- Watts.
CHARITI. THOUGH the goodness of a man's heart did not incline him to acts of charity, one would think the desire of honour', should. For as building fine houses, purchasing fine clothes, pictures and other such like articles of expense, fhows nothing more than an ambition to be respected above other people: would not one great act of charity, one instance of redeeming a poor family from all the miseries of poverty, or restoring an unfortunate tradesman to the means of procuring a livelihood by his industry, acquire more real respect and more lasting honour ? The former are the works of other people's hands--the latter the acts of his own heart.- Fielding.
THOUGH we may sometimes unintentionally bestow our beneficence on the unworthy, it does not take from the merit of ilie aét: for charity doth not adopt the vices of its objects. -Idem.
CHARITY is a virtue of the heart, and not of the hands, says an old writer. Gifts and alms are the expresiions, not the essence of this virtue.
funis on the poor and indigent without being charitable, and may be charitable when he is not able to beltow any thing. Charity therefore is a habit of good-will or benevolence in the fool, which difpofes us to the love, aff/tance, and relief of mankind, especially of those who land in need of it. The poor man Who has this excellent frame of mind, is no lefs Citiiled:
A man may
the reward of this virtue, than the man who founds a college: For my own part, I am charitable to an extravagance this way: I never saw an indigent person in my life, without reaching out to him some of this imaginary relief. I cannot but sympathise with every one I meet that is in affliction; and if my abilities were equal to my wilhes, there should be neither pain nor poverty in the world.-Guardian.
CONFIDENCE. SELF-confidence is the first requisite to great undertakings; yet he who forms his opinion of himself, without knowing the powers of other men, is very liable to error.-- Johnson.
THERE would be few enterprizes of great labour or hazard undertaken, if we had not the power of magnifying the advantages which we persuade ourselves to expect froin them.
NOTHING is more fatal to happiness or virtue than that confidence which flatters us with an opinion of our strength, and by assuring us of the power of retreat, precipitates us into hazard. Idler.
GENSURE. A GOOD conscience is to the soul, what health is to the body; it preserves a constant ease and serenity within us, and more than countervails all the calamities and afflictions which can possibly befall us. I know nothing so hard for a generous mind to get over, as calumny and reproach ; and cannot find any method of quieting the soul under them, besides this single one of our being conscious to ourselves that we do not deserve them.-Speclator.
COMPLAISANCE. THERE are many arts of graciousness and concilatior which are to be practised without expence, and by which those may be made our friends who have never received from us any real benefit. Such arts, when they include neither guilt nor meanness, it is surely reasonable to learn ; for who would want that love which is so easily to be gained ? --Rambler.
THE univerfal axiom in which all complaisance is included, and from which flow all the formalities which custom has established in civilized nations, is, “ That no man should give any preference to himself;" a rule fo comprehensive and certain, that perhaps it is not easy for the mind to imagine ag incivility without fuppcling it to be brokea.Idem.
79 WISDOM and virtue are by no means fufficient, without the supplemental laws of good breeding, to secure freedom from degenerating into rudeness, or self-esteem from swelling into infolence. A thoufand incivilities may be committed, and a thousand offices neglected, without any remorse of conscience, or reproach from reason.-Ibid.
COMPLAISANCE renders a superior amiable, an equal agreeable, and an inferior acceptable. It smooths distinction, fweetens conversation, and makes every one in company pleased with himself. It produces good-nature and mutual benevolence, encourages the timorous, soothes the turbulent, humanizes the fierce, and distinguishes the society of civilized persons from a confusion of favages. In a word, complaisance is a virtue that blends all orders of men together in a friendly intercourse of words and actions, and is suited to that equality in human nature which every one ought to consider, so far as is consistent with the order and economy of the world.
If we could look into the secret anguish and amiation of every nian's heart, we should often find, that more of it arises from little imaginary distress, such as checks, frowns, contradictions, expressions of contempt, and (what Shakespeare reckons among other evils under the Sun)
-The proud man's contumely,
That patient merit of th’ unworthy takes, than from the more real pains and calamities of life. The only method to remove these imaginary distresses as much as posible out of human life, would be the universal practice of such an ingenuous complaisance as I have been here describing, which may be defined to be, a constant endeavour to please thoje whom we converse with, so far as we may do it innocently. Guardian.
CONSOLATION. NO one ought to remind another of misfortunes of which the sufferer does not complain, and which there are no means proposed of alleviating. We have no right to excite thoughts which necessarily give pain, whenever they return, and which perhaps might not have revived but by absurd and unreasonable compaffion.- Ramller.
NOTHING is more offensive to a mind convinced that its distress is without a remedy, and preparing to submit quietly to irresistible calamity, than thofe petty and conjectured comforts which unikilful officiousness thinks it yirtue to administer. Jubnson,
CRITICISM. HE who is taught by a critic to disike that which pleased him in its natural state, has the same reason to complain of his instructor, as the madman to rail at his doctor, who, when he thought himself master of Peru, physicked him to poverty. -Idler.
IF we consider cheerfulness in three lights, with regard to ourselves, to those we converse with, and to the great Author of our being, it will not a little recommend itself on each of these
The man who is possessed of this excellent frame of mind is not only easy in his thoughts, but a perfect master of all the powers and faculties of his soul : his imagination is always clear, and his judgment undisturbed : his teniper is even and unrufiled, whether in action or in solitude. He comes with a relish to all those goods which nature has provided for him, tastes all the pleasures of the creation which are poured about him, and does not feel the full weight of those accidental evils which may befall him.
If we consider him in relation to the persons whom he converses with, it naturally produces love and good-will towards him. A cheerful mind is not only disposed to be affable and obliging, but raises the same good humour in those who come within its influence. A man finds himself pleased, he does not know why, with the cheerfulness of his companion. It is like a sudden sunshine that awakens a secret delight in the mind, without her attending to it." The heart rejoices of its own accord, and naturally flows out into friendship and benevolence towards the person who has so kindly an effect
When I consider this cheerful state of mind in its third relation, I cannot but look upon it as a constant habitual gratitude to the great Author of nature. An inward cheer. fulness is an inplicit praise and thanksgiving to providence under all its dispensations It is a kind of acquicscence in the state wherein we are placed, and a secret approbation of the divine will in his conduct towards nian.---Speflator.
CUNNING. CUNNING differs from wisdom as twilight from open day. He that walks in the sun-fhine, goes boldly forward by the Acareft way; he fees that when this path is ftrait and even, bs
Cunning.--Causes of War. may proceed in security, and when it is rough and crooked, he easily complies with the turns, and avoids the obstructions. But the traveller in the dulk fears more, as he fees less; he' knows there may be danger, and therefore suspects that he is never safe, tries every step before he fixes his foot, and shrinks at every noise, lest violence should approach him. Cunning discovers little at a time, and has no other means of certainty than multiplication of stratagems, and superfluity of fufpicion. Yet men thus narrow by nature, and mean by art, are sometimes able to rise by the miscarriages of bravery and the openness of integrity; and by watching failures, and snatching opportunities, obtain advantages which belong properly to higher characters.--Idler.
CAUSES of WAR SOMETIMES a war between two princes is to decide which of them shall dispossess a third of his dominions, whereto neither of them pretend to any right. Sometimes one prince quarreleth with another, for fear the other should quarrel with him. Sometimes a war is entered upon, because the enemy is too strong; and sometimes, because he is too weak. Some. times our neighbours want the things which we have, or have the things which we want; and we both fight till they take ours, or give us theirs. It is considered a very justifiable cause of war, to invade a country after the people have been wasted by famine, destroyed by pestilence, or embroiled by factionsamong themselves.
It is justifiable to enter into a war against our nearest ally, when one of his towns lies convenient for us, or a territory of land, that would render our dominions round and compact. If a prince fends forces into a nation, where the people are poor and ignorant, he may lawfully put half of them to death, and make Naves of the rest, in order to civilize and reduce them from their barbarous way
of living. It is a very kingly, honourable, and frequent practice, when one prince desires the assistance of another, to secure him against an invasion, that the assistant, when he hath driven out the invader, should seize on the dominions himself, and kill, imprison, or banish the prince he came to relieve. Alliance by blood or marriage is a frequent cause of war between princes; and the nearer the kindred is, the greater is their disposition to quarrel. There is likewise a kind of beggarly princes in Europe, not able to make war by themselves, who hire out their troops to richer nations, for so much a day to