« PreviousContinue »
concurrence of this house, the minillers ftitution to a more equal mixture, and corre would always be obliged to comply, and sequently to a greater perfection, than is consequently would be obliged to change was ever in before that law took place. their measures, as often as the people As to bribery and corruption, Sir, if it changed their minds.
were posible to influence, by such base With feptennial parliaments, Sir, we are means, the majority of the electors of not exposed to either of these misfortunes, Great Britain tu chuse such men as would because, if the minifters, after having felt p:obably give up their liberties; if it were the pulse of the parliament, which they can possible to influence, by such means, a maalways soon do, resolve upon any mea!ures, jority of the members of this house to conthey have generally time enough, before sent to the establishment of arbitrary power; the new elections come on, to give the peo- I would readily allow, that the calculations ple a proper information, in order to thew made by the gentlemen of the other side them the justice and the wisdom of the were juft, and their inference true; but I measures they have pursued; and if the am persuaded that neither of these is poffipeople should at any time be too much ble. As the members of this house geneelated, or too much dejected, or fhould rally arc, and must always be, gentlemen without a cause change their minds, those of fortune and figure in their country, is at the helm of affairs have time to set them it possible to suppose, that any one of them right before a new election comes on. could, by a pension, or a poft, be influenced
As to faction and sedition, Sir, I will to consent to the overthrow of our conftitu. grant, that, in monarchical and arilocrati- tion ; by which the enjoyment, not only cal governments, it generally ariles from of what he got, but of what he before violence and opprefion; but, in democra- had, would be rendered altogether precaritical governments, it always arises from the ous: I will allow, Sir, that, with respect to people's having too great a share in the go. bribery, the price must be higher or lower, vernment. For in all countries, and in all generally in proportion to the virtue of the governments, there always will be many man who is to be bribed; but it must likefactious and unquiet spirits, who can never wise be granted, that the humour he hapa be at rest either in power or out of power: pens to be in at the time, the spirit he hapwhen in power, they are never easy, unless pens to be endowed with, adds a great deal every man submits entiely to their direc- to his virtue. When no encroachments tion; and when out of power, they are al- are made upon the rights of the people, ways working and intriguing against thole when the people do not think themselves that are in, without any regard to juliice, in any danger, there may be many of the or to the intercft of their country. In po- electors, who, by a bribe of ten guineas, pular governments such men have too much might be induced to vote for one candidate game, they have too many opportunities rather than another; but if the court were forworking upon and corrupting the inirds making any encroachments upon the rights of the people, in order to give them a bad of the people, a proper spirit would, with. impression of, and to raile discontents a. out doubt, arise in the nation; and in such gainst, those that have the management a cause, I am persuaded, that none, or very of the public affairs for the time; and few, eren of such electors, could be induced these discontents often break out into sedia to vote for a court candidate; no, not for tions and insurrections. This, Sir, would ten times the sum. in my opinion be our misfortune, if our There may, Sir, be some bribery and parliament were either annual or triennial: corruption in the nation; I am afraid there by such frequent elections there would be will always be fome: but it is no proof of so much power thrown into the hands of it, that ftrangers are sometimes chosen; the people, as would destroy that equal mix- for a gentleman may have so much natural ture which is the beauty of our constitution: influence over a borough in his neighbourin short, our government would really be- hood, as to be able to prevail with them come a democratical government, and to chuse any person he pleases to recom. might from thence very probably diverge mend; and if upon such recommendatica into a tyrannical. Therefore, in order to they chuse one or two of his friends, who preserve our conftitution, in order to pre- are perhaps ftrangers to them, it is not vent our falling under tyranny and arbi- from thence to be inferred, that the two trary power, we cught to preserve that law, strangers were chosen their representatives which I really think has brought our con- by the means of bribery and corruption.
To infinuate, Sir, that money may be had as fatal effects as the foriner ; but, ifued from the public treasury for bribing thank God, this was wisely provided elections, is really something very extra- against by the very law which is now ordinary, especially in those gentlemen wanted to be repealed. wjo know how many checks are upon As such ferments may hereafter often every thilling that can be issued from happen, I must think that frequent electhence; and how regularly the money tions will always be dangerous; for which granted in one year for the public service reason, as far as I can see at present, I of the nation, must always be accounted fhall, I believe, at all times, think it a for the very next fefion, in this house, very dangerous experiment to repeal the and likewise in the other, if they have feptennial bill. a mind to call for any such account. And as to the gentlemen in offices, if they have $137, Lord LYTTELTON's Speech on any advantage over country gentlemen,
the Repeal of the All, called the Jew Bill, in having something else to depend on be
in the Year 17153• fides their own private fortunes, they have
Mr. Speaker, likewise many disadvantages: they are ob- I see no occafion to enter at present into liged to live here at London with their fa. the merits of the bill we pasied the last milies, by which they are put to a much fellion, for the naturalization of Jews, begreater expence than gentlemen of equal cause I am convinced, that in the present fortunes who live in the country: this lays temper of the nation, not a single foreign them under a very great disadvantage, Jew will think it expedient to take the with respect to the supporting their interest benefit of that act; and therefore the rein the country. The country gentleman, pealing of it is giving up nothing. Iaffentby living among the electors, and pur- ed to it last year, in hopes it might induce chasing the necessaries for his family from fome wealthy Jews to come and settle them, keeps up an acquaintance and cor- among us: in that light I saw enough of respondence with them, without putting utility in it, to make me incline rather to himself to any extraordinary charge; approve than dislike it; but that any man whereas a gentleman who lives in London alive could be zealous, either for or against has no other way of keeping up an ac
it, I confefs I had no idea. What affects quaintance or correspondence among his our religion is, indeed, of the highest and friends in the country, but by going down most serious importance: God forbid we once or twice a year, at a very extraordi- should ever be indifferent about that! but nary charge, and often without any other I thought this had no more to do with rebufiness ; so that we may conclude, a gen- ligion, than any turnpike-act we passed in tleman in ottice cannot, even in feven that fesfion; and, after all the divinity that years, fave much for distributing in ready has been preached on the subject, I think money at the time of an election; and í so itill. really believe, if the fact were narrowly en
Resolution and steadiness are excellent quired into, it would appear, that the gen- qualities; but, it is the application of them tlemen in otfice are as little guilty of brib- upon which their value depends. A wise ing their electors with ready money, as any government, Mr. Speaker, will know where other set of gentlemen in the kingdom. to yield, as well as where to refift: and
That there are ferinents cfien raising there is no furer mark of littleness of mind among the people without any just cause, in an administration, than obstinacy in is what I am surprised to hear controvert- trides. Public wisdom, on fome occaed, fince very late experience may convince fions, must condescend to give way to po. us of the contrary. Do not we know what pular folly, especially in a free country, a ferment was raised in the nation towards where the humour of the people mull be the latter end of the late queen's reign considered as attentively as the humour of And it is well known what a fatal change a king in an absolute monarchy. Ur.der in the affairs of this nation was introduced, both forms of government, a prulent and or at least confirmed, by an election's con- honest ministry will indulge a small foliy, ing on while the nation was in that ferment. and will relift a great one. Not to vouchDo not we know what a ferment was rais- safe now and then a kind indulgence to ed in the nation soon after his late majesty's the former, would discover an ignorance accession ? And if an election had then been in human nature; not to refilt the latter allowed to come on, while the nation was at all times would be meannels and ferin that ferment, it might perhaps have vility.
3 E 2
Sir, I look on the bill we are at present archy, have separate interests; and are debating, not as a sacrifice made to popu. continually at variance one with the other. larity (for it sacrifices nothing) but as a It is our happiness, that here they formi prudent regard to some consequences arif- but one syltem. While this harmony lasts, ing from the nature of the clamour railed whatever hurts the church, hurts the state: against the late act for naturalizing Jews, whatever weakens the credit of the gowhich seem to require a particular confin vernors of the church, takes away from deration.
the civil power a part of its strength, and It has been hitherto the rare and envied shakes the whole contitution. felicity of his majesty's reign, that his sub- Sir, I trust and believe that, by speecily j.ets have enjoyed such a settled tranquil. palling this bill, we shall filence that oblolity, such a freedom from angry religious quy which has fo unjustly been cait upon disputes, as is not to be paralleled in any our reverend prelates (some of the most former times. The true Chriftian spirit respectable that ever adorned our church) of moderation, of charity, of universal be- for the part they took in the act which nevolence, has prevailed in the people, has this rèpeals. And it greatly concerns the prevailed in the clergy of all ranks and whole community, that they should not degrees, instead of those narrow princi- lose that respect which is fo justly due to ples, those bigoted pleasures, that furious, them, by a popular clamour kept up in that implacable, that igncrant zeal, which opposition to a measure of no importance had often done so much hurt both to the in itself, But if the departing from that church and the state. But froin the ill. measure, should not remove the prejudice understood, insignificant act of parliament fo malicioufly raised, I am certain that no you are now moved to repeal, occalion has further step you can take will be able to been taken to deprive us of this ineitima- remove it; and, therefore, I hope you will ble advantage. It is a pretence to disturb stop here. This appears to be a reasonable the peace of the church, to infuse idle fear and safe condescension, by which nobody into the minds of the people, and make re. will be hurt; but all beyond this would be ligion itself an engine of sedition. It be- dangerous weakness in government: it hoves the piety, as well as the wisdom of might open a door to the wildest enthuparliament, to disappoint those endeavours. fiaim, and to the most mischievous attacks Sir, the very worit
' mischief that can be of political disaffection working upon that done to religion, is to pervert it to the pur- enthusiasm. If you encourage and authoposes of fadion. Heaven and hell are not rize it to fall on the synagogue, it will go more distant, than the benevolent spirit of from thence to the meeting-house, and in the Gospel, and the malignant spirit of the end to the palace. But let us be care. party. The most impious wars ever made ful to check its further progress. The were those called holy wars. He who hates more zealous we are to support Chriftiani. another man for not being a Christian, is ty, the more vigilant should we be in maine himself not a Christian. Christianity, Sir, taining toleration. If we bring back perbreathes love, and peace, and good will tó fecution, we bring back the Anti-christian man. A temper conformable to the dic- spirit of popery; and when the spirit is tates of that holy religion, has lately dif- here, the whole system will soon follow. tinguished this nation; and a glorious dif- Toleration is the basis of all public quiet. tinction it was! But there is latent, at all. It is a charter of freedom given to the times, in the minds of the vulgar, a spark mind, more valuable, I think, than that of enthusiasm, which, if blown by the which fecures our persons and estates. Inbreath of a party, may, even when it seems deed, they are inseparably connected toge. quite extinguished, be suddenly revived and ther; for, where the mind is not free, raised to a flame. The act of last session where the conscience is enthralled, there for naturalizing Jews, has very unexpect- is no freedom. Spiritual tyranny puts on edly administered fuel to feed that flame. the galling chains; but civil tyranny
is To what a height it may rise, if it should called in, to rivet and fix them. We see continue much longer, one cannot easily it in Spain, and many other countries ; tell; but, take away the fuel, and it will we have formerly both seen and felt it in die of itself.
England. By the bleffing of God, we are It is the misfortune of all the Roman now delivered from all kinds of opprefCatholic countries, that there the church fion. Let us take care, that they inay and the fate, the civil power and the hiere never return.
tell him he is heartily welcome to them, § 1. The Story of Le Fevra.
and to a dozen more, if they will do him ITE T was some time in the summer of that good.
year in which Dendermond was taken Though I am persuaded, said my urcie by the allies, which was about seven years Toby, as the landlord shut the door, he is before my father came into the country, a very compassionate fellow—Trim,—yet and about as many after the time that my I cannot help entertaining an high opinion uncle Toby and 'Trim had privately dea of his guest too; there mult be something camped from my father's house in town, more than common in him, that in so short in order to lay some of the finest sieges to a time should win so much upon the affecfome of the finest fortified cities in Europe tions of his hoft;---And of his whole faWhen my uncle Toby was one evening mily, added the corporal, for they are all getting his fupper, with Trim fitting be concerned for him.-Step after him, said hind him at a small fideboard;—The lande my uncle Toby,—do Trim,—and ask if he lord of a little inn in the village came into knows his name. the parlour with an empty phial in his hand I have quite forgot it, truly, said to beg a glass or two of fack; 'tis for a the landlord, coming back into the parpoor gentleman,—I think, of the army, faid tour with the corporal, but I can ask his the landlord, who has been taken ill at my son again :--Has he a son with him house four days ago, and has never held up then said my uncle Toby.---- A boy, his head since, or had a desire to taste any replied the landlord, of about eleven or thing 'till just now, that he has a fancy for twelve years of age; but the poor creaa glass of sack and a thin toaít.-I ihink, ture has tasted almost as little as his fa. lays he, taking his hand from his forehead, ther; he does nothing but mourn and lait would comfort me.-
ment for him night and day:-he has not --If could neither beg, borro:v, nor ftirred from the bed-fide these two days. buy such a thing -added the landlord, My uncle Toby laid down his knife and I would almost iteal it for the poor gentle- fork, and thrust his plate from before man, he is so ill.--I hope in God he will him, as the landlord gave him the account; fill mend, continued he-we are all of us and Trim, without being ordered, took concerned for him.
away without saying one word, and in a few Thou are a good-natured soul, I will minutes after brought him his pipe and answer for thee, cried my uncle Toby; tobacco. and thou shals drink the poor gentleman's -Stay in the room, a little, says my health in a glass of lack thyself,
-and take urcle Toby.a couple of bottles, with my service, and Trim!—faid my uncle Toby, after lie
3 E 3
had, lighted his pipe, and smoked about a fill another pipe, faid my uncle Toby, and dozen whis-Trim came in front of his not interrupt thee till thou hast done; so mafter, and made his bow ; my uncle fit down at thy ease, Trim, in the window Toby smoked on, and said no more.-- seat, and begin thy story again. The corCorporal ! faid my uncle Toby--the cor- poral made his old bow, which generally poral made his bow. My uncle Toby spoke, as plain as a bow could speak it proceeded no farther, but finished his pipe. "Your honour is good :"-And having
Trim! said my uncle Toby, I have a done that, he sat down, as he was orproject in my head, as it is a bad night, of dered,--and began the itory to my uncle
a wrapping myself up warm in iny roquelaure, Toby over again in pretty near the same and paying a visit to this poor gentleman.— words. Your honour's roqu laure, replied the cor- I despaired at first, said the corporal, poral, has not once been had on, since the of being able to bring back any intellinight before your honour received your gence to your honour, about the lieutenant wound, when we mounted guard in the and his son; for when I asked where his trenches before the gate of St. Nicholas; servant was, from whom I made myself ---and besides, it is so cold and rainy a sure of knowing every thing which was night, that what with the roquelaure, and proper to be asked-That's a right diswhat with the weather, 'twill be enough tinction, Trim, said my uncle Tobs—I was to give your honour your death, and bring answered, an' please your honour, that he on your honour's torment in your groin. - had no servant with him ;-that he had I fear fo, replied my uncle Toby; but I come to the inn with hired horses, which, am not at rest in my mind, Tiim, since upon finding himself unable to proceed, the account the landlord has given me.- (to join, I suppose, the regiment) he had I wish I had not known so much of this dismissed the morning after he came.- If affair-added my uncle Toly,-- or that I I get better, my dear, said he, as he gave had known more of it:—How Thall we his parle to his son to pay the man,-we manage it? - Leave it, an't please your can hire horses from hence,--But alas ! honour, to me, quoth the corporal;—I'll the poor gentleman will never get from take my hat and stick, and go to the hence, said the landlady to me,- for I house and reconnoitre, and act accord- heard the death-watch all night long :ingly; and I will bring your honour a full and when he dies, the youth, his son, will .account in an hour.- Thou shalt go, Trim, certainly die with him: for he is brokensaid my uncle Toby, and here's a fhilling hearted already. for thee to drink with his fervani-I shall I was hearing this account, continued get it all out of him, said the corporal, the corporal, when the youth came into fhutting the door.
the kitchen, to order the thin toast the landMy uncle Toby filled his second pipe; lord spoke of;--but I will do it for my faand had it not been, that he now and then ther myself, said the youth – Pray let me wardered from the point, with considering save you the trouble, young gentleman, said whether it was not full as well to have I, taking up a fork for the purpose, and the curtain of the tennaile a straight line, offering him my chair to sit down upon by as a crooked one,-he might be said to the fire, whilft I did it.--I believe, sir, have thought of nothing else but poor faille, very modestly, I can please him Le Fevre and his boy the whole time he beit myful.-I am sure, faid I, his honour smoked it.
will noi like the toast the world for being It was not till my uncle Toby had toasted by an old soldier.— The youth knocked the ahes out of his third pipe, took hold of my hand, and instantly burst that corporal Trim returned from the inn, into tears. - Póor youth! said my uncle and gave hi'n the following account. Toby, he has been bred up from an in
I despaired at first, said the corporal, of fant in the army, and the name of a soldier, being able to bring back your honour any Trim, founded in his ears like the of kind of intelligence concerning the poor a friend ;-I wish I had him here. fick lieutenant-Is he in the army then ? - I never, in the longest march, faid faid my uncle Toby He is, said the cor- the corporal, had fo great a mind to my poral - Ind in what regiment? said my dinner, as I had to cry with him for comuncie Tuby-l'll tell your honour, replied pany:-What could be the matter with the corp ral, everything straight for me,' an' pleate your honour ? Nothing in wards, as I learnt it.--Tnen, Trim, I'll the world, Trim, faid my uncle Toby,