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Nagnis, who with a patriotic zeal forsook has an extensive flock of them, and the
the court, and devoted his attention to Agricultural Society of Zell inaintain, at
agricultural pursuits. When he settled their cost, a mixed breed improved to the
on bis estates in 1786, he found himself last degree of fineness. Many of the
potefted of three thousand native dheep, flocks in the Eleciorate of Hanover, the
which returned him one thousand two Duchy of Brunfwick, the Palitinate,
hundred rix-dollars per annam. He now Suabia, Badeu, &c. are also indebted to
pofelles above nine thousand theep, im- the Merino theep for their palpable im-
proved by the breeds of Hungary and provement. The breed was adopted by
Spain, which yield him twenty-lix thou- Brunfuick in 1783, by Suabia and Ba-
fand rix-dollars per annum. This en- den, 1788.
lightener breeder conducts luis sheep-farm

with admirable order and intelligent skill, “The first man, whose attention was die
beyond all prailc. The fine manufactures rected to this important branch of na-
of Pruiiia are increased three-fold within tional ecouomy, was Colbert. This mini-
the late thirteen years; and the encou- iter formed a delign of improving the
ragement given to the adoption of Me- French breeds of theep by importing froru
rivo thee;', makes it probable that the Spain and England such as were at that
country will, ere long, bc able exclusively time more perfect than France could
to supply itself with fine wool, which is boalt of pollelling. Colbert's views were
at prefent partly imported froin Saxony useful and well-digested; but they were
by purchase at the Leipzig fairs before also new, consequently there were not

wanting those who oppofed the execuGERMANY, &c.

tion of thein. Since that time, however, “ The first importation of Merino Meep an able and accurate observer has stept into this country, was made by the Em- forth to undertake this pursuit, and has prefs Maria Theresa in 1775; but the rapidly caused the improvement of the success was commensurate with the at- French flocks to such an extent, that it tention paid to them, which was next to may almofi be said to have sprung at nove, though there are ftill to be found once from infancy to maturity. DauAlocks of improved wool derived from benton is the naine of the enlightened these, in the Austrian states, and more par- agriculturilt, who, with a success equal to ticularly in Bohemia and Ilungary. The his perseverance, has devoted himself to examples of Saxony and Silelia feem also the cultivation of a race fo important to to have awakened the attention of the our fabfistence, to our clothing, and to a Austrian government, which is at this time multitude of arts connected with our inemploying ageuts in Spain to procure nuinerable wants; a cultivation, evidently Merino theep.

tending to release France from a kind of Anspach and Bayreuth applied them- tribute, which the annually pays to Spain selves to this useful pursuit in 1788, and for fine wool. The breed was first imstill more strenuoully in 1790. So com- ported from that country in 1770, and pletc, indeed, was their conviction of its Daubenton having, by the experiments importance, that there are at this time made during feren years, ascertained that but few breeders, whose flocks have not he had by judicious intermixture proat leatt begun to introduce the Spanish duced a breed bearing wool equal in cross.

quality to that hitherto obtained froin “ The Duke of Wirtemberg (who was Spain, fent various portions of it to diffond of agriculture,) imported Merino ferent manufacturers in 1783, and 1784; Theep in 1786, and afterwards established the result of which was, that the highett a regular fale to his subjects. The thirty- price of the finett wouls was offered by two animals, which that brave and skilful them; nay, they even went fo far as to General Moreau presented to the Agri- point out qualities, in which this improved cultural Society of Stralburg, were bred French wool excelled the Spanish. Sucha by the Duke of Wirtemberg. They had being the casc, many landbolders directed been gratuitoully offered to the French their attcution to fo lucrative in objcét; General, after the conclusion of the art and M. Dangevillier, at that time govermitice, and are now neiu bwalburg at nor of Rainbouillet, applied to the Spanish Sulz.

Court for a flock. The king gave orders “In other parts of Germany, the fame for a selection to be inade from the mott race is also been adopted with the molt perfect breeds, and three hundred and decisive fuccess

. The Chanberlain Von fixty-feven were fent in 1786. They proAlolk, wwufe domain is in Mecklenburg, peeded by moderate jowneys to Rute


bouillet, after braving passed the winter in and Friesland, with complete success, and the neighbourhood of Bourdeaux; and from holding forth promise of still greater adthe time of their original departure to vantages. His fpirited exertions have that of their final arrival, about three encouraged others in the same pursuit, feore of them died. The survivors gave and the pablic partiality towards the rise to the extensive flock now kept at celebrated Merino race, which is founded Rambouillet; and to the confiderable on experiments in almost every civilized nuinber which have been sold to indivi- nation of Europe, gives reason to believe duals, as the breed progressively increal- that fine-wooled theep will ultimately ed. At first, several rains and ewes were cause the common breeds to disappear. giren to encourage enterprifing farmers;

“ CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. but as it appeared that these were de- " Agriculturists have told us that animals, Spised merely because they were a gift, a which are transported from North to fale was substituted. The provincial ad- South, viz. from a climate less warm than miniftrations, then establified, made ap- that to which they are removed, will de. plication for them, and had a preference. generate, whether they breed among Since that time, and especially of late, themselves, or cross any other race of the prices at Rambouillet have been the country; and that, vice versa, animals much increased, and have indeed reached taken from South to North, improve those a height, which appears extraordinary in with which they are connected. Many a country, where it is not cuttomary, as facts, however exist, in opposition to this in England, to expend considerable fums opinion ; besides which, it is easy to prove for the purpose of acquiring a theep par- that the degeneracy complained of, thould ticularly suited to the breeder's purpose. be ascribed to other causes than thoso The Merino race having thus been proved which are adduced. When a sufficient to carry as valuable a fleece in France as nuinber of experiments fliall have been in Spain, an opposition has next been made by accurate observers, it will be made to the button ; those, who willıcd found from a comparison of them, that to depreciate it, having allerted that the want of knowledge, a bad choice, neglect, anitnal was not dilpoted to facten kindly, and improper nutriment, tend as much and that its felh was very coarse; affer- and even more towards degeneration of tions, which have both been experimen- the species, than the greater or less detaily proved to be totally deititute of gree of heat which prevails under a diffoundation. There are at present in ferent latitude. The success of fine France more than fifteen thousand of the wooled sheep at the Cape of Good Hope, pure Merino breed, belides an immense proves that this general opinion is not kumber improved by the crols.

founded upon facts. I am convinced, “ HOLLAND.

indeed, after the observations which I “There are few regions of Europe, whose have collected in Spain, upon the breeds temperature and foil differ more than of that country, upon their mode of rearthose of Spain and Holland. The Merino ing, upon the nature of the soil and cliArcep, transported from a scorching cli- mate, that the general causes of their fine mate to a cold and tarthy country, have, wools are not those usually supposed. devertheless, preferved, in Holland, the The prefervation in its utmost purity of qualities which distinguilh them from the Merino race, at the Cape of Good other breeds, and bare remained vigo- Hope, in the marshes of Holland, and unTuully healthy. It was not till 1789, that der the rigorous climate of Sweden, add Mr. Twent made the first ftuall importa- an additional proof to this my unalterable tion, whicha be placed upon his farin be- principle: finc-wooled jheep may be reared tween Leyden and the Hague. It con- wherever induftrious men and intelligent füled of two rams and four ewes, which breeders exifl. The Spanish breed was are now increased to two hundred, besides taken to the Cape in 1782, and Lord those sold from it, this being the number Somerville received specimens of its exto which Mr. T. is obliged to confine cellence, with an aflurance from his corhuimself by the liunits of his farm. It is respondent, that the wool hrad rather by parting with the lealt perfect ninals, gained than loft in quality, from its aod preierving thule which bear the growth of eighteen years in that colony. langelt as well as fineii wool that he bas

“ ITALY. Broed a valuable fock; preferable, in. “ Is Italy then, which bas fo long des decil, so any in HollandMr. Twent fpiled the useful arts, willing to awake In alto cruited the different breeds of from the trance, into which ignorance Hollanly pruticularly those of thie Texel me fanaticism have, ull now, plunged



her? Has her 'connexion with France, have been introduced. Wher the com
a nation hitherto 1o fatal to her, produced inercial fpirit and patriotifin which atriu?
an electrive movement which leads her mate this nation are couldered, no doubt
to objects of real utility? Piedinont can exist but that the Merino theep will
posieties many flocks both of the pare fpeedily be naturalized in that itland, and
and improved native breeds. Coont become a new fource of wealth to a
Grancrie, a mun of genius, and a fouid people ever ready to avail themselves of
patriot, a warmı protector of arts and of fources opened to their habitual inertiry..
copinerce, becoming a member of ad- The papers on this fubjeći, publihed hiyo
ministration, on his return tiom his en- the Board of Agriculure, ilse ellorts of
bafly to Spain, conceived the project of various Agricultural Societies, as well as.
fecuring to Piedmont this fource of os individuals, prove that a breed, fo in-
keadth; for which purpofe he obtained timately commected with the profperity
from the court of Madrid permillion to of their manufactures, will weet with the
take from that country one hundred and reception due to its vaft utility. The
titiy of the beli Segovian breed, Selected late Dake of Bedford, a powertul patron
by the Prince of Mafieraw. The war, of agriculture, Lord Somerville, obie King
which prevailed at this period, did not of England; and fome other agriculturists;
permit the governmem to pursue the pro- have procured Nierino Nicep, froin which
gress of this new ettablithinent; and then the stock is begmuing to mereale. It is
lofs of the minitier would have been fok gratifying to lee the head of a govern
lowed by the loss of the fine-kooled race,' ment, as well as the men noft" dikin-
but for the interference of the Academy guithed by their influence, their wealth,
of Agriculture, and spirited individuals, and their knowledge, encourage, bv ali
who have thereby encreased the present the means in their power, the wir nietur.
kock to five thoutand; and unanimoutly of the arts.".
affert that the deece is not inferior in As I thall bere, Sir, conclude my sketch
quality to that of the animals origmally of Montieur Lasteyrie's publication, it
jurported; that in no other refpect has it remains for me only to point out (which
degenerated; that the cross with the Ro- I do with a bluth) tikt Great Britain is,
mad, Neapolitan and Paduan breeds, not from any apparent national antipathy
has been most satisfactory in its retults; on liis part, but dejérvedly placed the lait-
and that the fesh of the Merinos is in- in his aceount. Great Britain, wliole
finitely more delicate than that of the fuperfine manufactures are far more ex-
pative dheep.

tentise than those of any other nation,

whole vital interefts are therefore mate "England, which has of lato years shone rially connected with the internal produce to pre-eminent in her various improve of the article, which forins the subject of ments, milt, nevertheless, be charged this paper-Great Britain is ftill inactive, with neglecting almoit to the prefent mo- when the dificulties of procuring the are ment the improvement of fine wools. ticle mutt, to all appearance, annually Those for combing, not less afefub in cer- increase, and the power to grow it at tain kinds of manufacture, have had the lone, in full perfection, as well as with preference in that country, and the per- immense advantage, is become incontrofeverance of breeders has been rewarde: vertible.

Your's, &c. by producing adunirable wool of its kind.

BENJAMIN THOMPSON. The prejudices of other countries have Hill Lodge, near Nottinghum, found their way bither; and it has been January 4th, 1807. constantly afferter that the fineness of the fecco depended upon climate, foil, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. and pasturage; confequently that in Eng- $11, hand, the quality of Spanith wool mit T ford, uiven by the Rev. Mr. Lyfons

, degenerate. The merchants and manufacturers, milled by the fame prejudices in the 11t rol. recently publifhed, of his as the breeders, have embraced the fatne Magun Britannia, a work of immense opinion; but the first were guided, in fome degree, by different motives: they feared Every British patriot will readily acknowthat interior success inight diminish the ledge the obligations of the Country to Mr. advantages which impactation produced Thompson, for his well-timed publication on to them. Little more than a dozen years a subject so important to our Commercial and ago the Englife nation did not know the Agricultural intercits, but which at this moMerino breed, in its living tate; lincement is rendered of such fingular consequence which, some few of that valuable race

by the seitrictions receally adopted in Spain.


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extent and labour, is deemed by persons the Newdigates to the Lukes of Cople,' who poffets the best informatiou respect- who appear from the parith-register, to ing multifarious subjects treated in it, to bare rclidedat Hlavnes occasionally, from coitain a contiderable number of errors' 16?0 to 1654.” Some of that family may and madvertencies; such indeed as arc pollibiy bave refided at Hawnes, but the fearcely to be avoided in a compilation of ancient estate and residence of the Lukes, this nature, and which that gentleman according to universal tradition, was a will, no doubt, be glad to correct. I Wood-end, which is still vilited as an ob. iliall beg leave to point out a few which ject of historical attention, and established bappen to come within the compass of celebrity. muy own perfonal knowledge or immediate P. 14. « The estates of the Duke of observation,

Bedford Now form (Mr. L. affirms) Page ?. Edward the Elder is fuid by what may be considered as by far the Mr. Lyfous to have built a fortress at largeti landed property in the County." Bedford, on the fouth fide of the river This is not perfectly correct. The Dulc Oufc. in the fame page we are told that of Bedford is certainly the principal landBedford Caitle was built by the Beau- proprietor, but Lord St. John and Mr. champs, probably on the fčite of king Whitbread are not very far inferior to Edward's fortreis. Nevertheless, Mr. L. him. Their united poffctions in this fruly remarks, p. 46, « that the vestiges {mall County, of which the rental is, of the Caftle are to be seen at the back however, in proportion to the 'cxtent very of the Swan Iun. On the Keep is now a large, (not iefs it is supposed thau three Bowling Green." But the Swan Innis, and Inundred thousand pounds per annum) are the Cuttle was, not on the south, but the cítimated at more than forty thousand north, fide of the river Ouse. Mr. L. sub-pounds yearly value; and are probably joins that the fcite of the Castle, with the little inferior to those of any other tcn Suau Inn, is vow the property of the proprietors. The Marquis of Bute, the Duke of Bedford, and it is presumed that Earl of Olory, Lord llainpden, Lady it pated from the Goltwicks, by purchase, Lucas, Sir Philip Monous, Sir Georye to the Marlborough family, and from Oiborne, and Mr. Pyin, rank high in the ther with several other estates which had second class. heen in the Goftwicks, to the Duke of P. 16. Flitwick loufe is not in tlie Bedford's grandfather." But why risque occupation of the Right Ilonourable John random presumptions in a work, whose Trevor, who refides at Bromham, the efence it is to exhibit plain matter of Bedfordihire Seat of his brother Lord fact? The Swan In and Caitle Close Viscount Hampden, but of Robert 'Trevor, adjoining, were purchased by the late efq. a different branch of the same family! Duke ot' Bedford 'loon after he came of P. 18. The village of Lidlington, nge, of John Staines, efq. of Biddenham, where, occupying a farm of the Duke of a village Dear Bedford, who inherited the Bedford's, lives the rustic Poet Batchelor, estate from bis father, to whom it was author of “ Village Scencs," &c. affords about half a century ago deviled by the very pleasing profpećts, as does the neighsill of Mr. llenry Horton, an attorney bourhood oť Houghton Conquest

, IIawdex of great eminence and respectability, and Harlinuton;" but for the molt beaumany years refident in Bedford.

tiful and picturesque scenery in the P. 3. We are informed that Sir Sa- County, is to be found on the north-west muel Loke's house was cither Hawnes.or fide of it along the fertile and fecluded Wood-end. But this was never before vale, through which the Ouse, fince the fupposed to admit of a doubt. Sir Samuel publication of Cowper's charming Talk, Lake's boufe was unquestionably fituated a clatlical stream, winds its placid meanAt Wood-end, in the parith of Cople, dering course, occasionally fpreading into about fire miles froin "Bedford. It is broad and inagnificent expanses of water. now a farm-houte, belonging to the Duke From Chellington, Odell, and Felmersof Belford, and contains many curious ham, the views are particularly rich and reinails of antimity. In his account of striking. Cupla.p. 71, Mr. L. expressly attirns, P. 23. There is no turnpike-road from Amt Wound-end wis the relidence of the Bedford to Eaton Socon, on the north family of the Lakes; to the memory of lide of the Oute. The old and new roads sham vucions monuments are erected in join, not at Barford bridge, but a! the the parith-church. Mr. L. obferves, font of Wrurton hill, beyond the village

92," that the manor of Hawnes is of Great Barford. jured to lose onded by purcbafe from P. 47. Caldwell priory scar Bedford, The last pro

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was, till about the year 1790, the pro- persons of unexceptionable conduct and
perty of a family of the name not of Gare inorals.
diner, but of Garnow.

Mr. Lysons' has noticed the recent prietor of that name, was a merchant re- erection of the County Goal, the County udent in the City of London.

Infirınary, and the house of Industry; all P. 51. “A considerahle tradc," Mr. of them buildings remarkably well adapted Le remarks, “is carried on in coals to their respective purposes, and planned brought by the Ouse to Bedford from by the same excellent architect, Mr. Lyon and Yarmouth.” Bedford being John Wing, of Bedford, a man equally the head of the navigation, a considerable esteemed for his talents and integrity. In trade is not only carried on with Lynn consequence of the laudable exertions of for coals, but for corn, timber, iron, salt, the inhabitants, very great improvements and various other commodities. There in the course of the last ten or fifteen is no communication, whatever between years have been idade, chiefly under the Bedford and the port of Yarmouth. fuperintendance of Mr. Wing, in this an

Ibid. The population of Bedford has cient, but by no means unpleatant or unnot increased, as Mr. L. afferts from er- facial town; and ioany others of confiderroncous information, of late years. Per- able magnitude are in uo diftant cone haps no town in the kingdom has re- templation. nained more Stationary than Bedford, for P. 82. Elstoy is not a vicarage, but a several centuries past. From Speed's perpetual curacy or donative, tenable with Map, of which the date is 1608, it appears any preferment, and in the gift of Mr. to have been at that period of almost ex. Whitbread; by whom it was a short time actly the saine dimentions as at prelent. fince presented, in a most generous manThe nuinber of houfcs is fomewhát dimi- ner, to the worthy and respectable clergynished of late years, in consequence of man who now enjoys it, without the lealt the fire mentioned by Mr. L. which hap- folicitation or expećtation on his part. pened on the 25th of May, 1802, by. P. 85. Jemima Marchioness Grey, which about seventy habitations were grand-daughter and heiress of the last burnt down, most of them very mean and Duke of Kent, was not the wife of the miserable cottages,wattled and thatched. Lord Chancellor Hardwicke, as stated by The far greater proportion of thenı las Mr. L. but of the late Earl of Hardwické, since been re-built in a manner that re- son of the Chancellor, and uncle of the decis credit upon the town. Many other present Nobleman of that name. tenements, old and ruinous, have also P. 86. The only son of the Duke of been taken down within thetc few years, Kent was not known by the title of Earl and new habitations erected, to the great of Harold, but fimply Lord Harold: his improveinent, but by no means the father being Duke, Marquis, and Earl of general enlargement of the town. Kent, and Baron of Harold. He died

P.53. There is no house now occupied when just of age, (and said to have been by the single brethren in the society of a young man of great accomplishınents) the Moravians. It was some years tince in the year 1723, by a very singular acciconverted into a school. The number of dent; being choaked with an ear of bara, these recluse and inoffensive fc&aries has ley, inadvertently taken into his mouth, of late congderably declined, and that and which working its way into the throat, enthubaltic spirit by wbich they were once it was found impoflible to extract. so inuch distinguilhed, has very much P. 89. No manor in Goldington or abated. It might have been mentioned elfewhere, could have been purchased by that there bas been at Bedford, for forty the grandfather of the present Duke of years past, a Methodist Chapel of the Bedford, of the Duke of Marlborough, or Wesleyan persuafion. Mr. Welley is res of any other person in the year 1774, as ported to have said, that the Methodists Jolin Duke of Bedford died in the month would not flourish at Bedford, because of January, 1771. The same mistake octhey experienced no perfecution. Within curs in the account of the parith of Rathese few years, liowever, their numbers vensden,


120. kave, as in alioli all otlıcr places, greatly make no apology for troubling you increased, and a handfono chapel luns with these observations, which, if not becn newly raised on the fcite of the old wholly undeserving of notice, you will one. A finall Jewish fynagogue allo bas have the goodness to infert in your excel been established within the last three lent mifcellany. Your's, &c. Years, encouraged by the spirit of tole- Bedford,

Wx, BELSHAM ration which remarkably prevails in this Jan. 12th, 1807. place. The Jews ietiled at Bedford ure


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