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space about three-fourths by half a mile, once occupied by houses and the temple of the Sun. This area is now a ploughed field, a garden of herbs, and the solitary obelisk (of Osirtasen I.) which still rises in the midst, is the sole remnant of the former splendors of the place." A little above Cairo, on the western side of the river, are the pyramids of Ghizeh, Saqqara, and Dashour. "The pyramids of Ghizeh" (thus writes a modern traveller) "are numerous; but those which are spoken of as the pyramids are three in number; they are situated at the confines of the great Libyan desert, on a bed of limestone rock about one hundred and fifty feet above the level of the sand, and one hundred and sixty above the river. There is now scarcely a vestige of the ruins of Memphis; but sufficient observation has been made to determine the site of that ancient city; and the pyramids are believed to mark the situation of its western suburbs." The Greek writers, who have said any thing illustrating the history of Egypt, all concur in stating that it was the unanimous tradition of the Egyptian priests, that the pyramids were the oldest of their monuments. According to Manetho, the three great pyramids at Memphis were built by the first three kings of the fourth dynasty. In a small tomb near the great pyramid, the name of the founder has been discovered. Manetho writes it in Greek, 2ov(fis (Suphis); Eratosthenes says that, in Egyptian, this means xopaazoj, i. e. "one who has much hair." The phonetic hieroglyphics, it is said, furnish as the name, two words, which in Coptic mean "much hair." The name of his son, who founded the second pyramid, has also been discovered in an adjacent tomb. In the cartouche it reads She-fre. Manetho calls him Suphis II., and Herodotus writes it Cephrenes. Col. Vyse deciphered the name of the founder of the third pyramid on the remains of a coffin, which he discovered in the interior of it. The name, as usual, is in a cartouche; read off into characters familiar to us, it is Min-ka-re. According to Manetho, the name of the builder of the third pyramid was Mencheres.
As to Memphis, once known as Moph, Noph, Mcnf, (as well as by other names,) and now Mitraheny; little of it is left. "Large mounds of rubbish, a colossal statue sunk deep in the ground, and a few fragments of granite are all that remains." So says a modern authority, without making any allusion to the great Sphinx, which is in this neighborhood. The colossus above spoken of is of Remeses II.
Proceeding up the river and passing by Benisoocf, from which a road leads to the Fyoom, we pause at Beni Hassan, on the eastern bank of the river. Here are some very fine grottoes with curious paintings. These grottoes are cut in the solid rock, and Sir Gardner Wilkinson states that "from the sculptures of Beni Hassan we learn that the Egyptians were acquainted with the manufacture of linen, glass, cabinet work, gold ornaments, and numerous objects indicative of art and refinement, and various gymnastic exercises; the games of draughts, ball, mora, and other well-known modern amusements were common at the same period. The style of architecture was grand and chaste, and the fluted columns of Beni Hassan are of a character calling to mind the purity of the Doric, which, indeed seems to have derived its origin from Egypt."
We next reach Girgeh, three hours' ride distant from Abydus, (now known as Arabat el matfoon.) Here are groves of acacia, and here also was found the tablet of which a representation has been given on a previous page. This spot was also deemed peculiarly sacred, as being the burial-place of Osiris. ." There are two temples at Abydus and many tombs.
The next locality designated on the map is Dendera (Tentyris). Here was found the zodiac, from which, as has already been mentioned, the French savans deduced such extraordinary conclusions as to the antiquity of the work; all of which were quietly disposed of by Champollion's reading on the zodiac itself the name of Augustus Caesar.
We next come upon Thebes, once the proud capital of upper Egypt (Diospolis Magna). On the eastern bank are Karnac and Luxor; on the western the tombs of the kings, private tombs, several temples, and colossi of the plains. It would require a volume to describe the objects of interest that here arrest the archaeologist. Sir Gardner Wilkinson has given a volume to the subject, to which the inquiring reader is referred. We present the account afforded by another traveller of his approach to Thebes. "We saw before us" (says he), "the bed of a fine river, and an extensive plain, but no buildings, nor was there the distant hum of human beings; the only sounds that reached the ear were the gently rippling current of the waters, and the hoarse croaking of the bullfrogs now in full chorus. At last, the top of a lofty propylon was pointed out, marking the situation of Karnac, and we could just catch a glimpse of the ruins of Luxor." We cannot withhold the picture which follows of antiquarian enthusiasm.
"M. Bonomi, pointing to the heights of Q,h'oornah, informed us that he had taken up his residence there, among the tombs, one of which he had swept and purified, and by putting up a door and making other necessary arrangements, had converted it into a very commodious, dry, and comfortable dwelling. Here he had resided several years, devoting himself to the study of Egyptian antiquities. Like Robinson Crusoe, he kept his boat, his cat, his dog, his goats, and—not a parrot, but an ostrich, which took her flights into the desert, and regularly came to be fed. He had fowls also which supplied him with eggs; and from time to time he laid in a stock of provisions from Kheneh. Engaged in intellectual pursuits, his wants were few; the climate suited his constitution; he enjoyed the best of health, and the habits of the people were agreeable to his taste. He was acquainted with the language, and by continued acts of kindness and philanthropy, had secured the friendly auspices of the natives, who called him 'Aboo Nom,' sometimes 'Aboo Youssouf Nom,' his own name being Joseph; and as he often acted the part of the good Samaritan, they would add 'El Hhakkim Inglese,' regarding him as the 'favored of Allah,' and applying to him on all occasions for advice. His appearance was venerable; and having adopted their costume, they seemed to forget that he was a Christian: they occasionally interchanged presents, and lived on terms of the greatest harmony; for whatever disputes arose, no one offered to molest Aboo Nom."
Agreeable as it would be to dwell longer among these interesting ruins, we must not forget that the purpose we have in view is not to write the narrative of a picturesque tour up the Nile. Referring our readers, therefore, to the views presented on previous pages of portions of Luxor and Karnac, as affording some faint idea of these stupendous monuments of ancient art, we pass on to Esneh.
Here it will be remembered was another zodiac, on which Champollion found the name of Antoninus, to the utter overthrow of the learned calculations and conjectures of the