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Prayer and Thanksgiving for. Victory
General Military Orders
The Speaker's Address to the Prince Regent
Prince Regent's Speech to both Houses of Purliament
Proclamation of Alurshal Soult
Bavarian Declaration
Proclamation addressed to the French
Proclamation to the Inhubitants of Tyról
Prince Regent's Address to the Inhabitants of Hanover
Swiss Confederation
Dutch Proclamations, &c.
Marquis of Wellington's Proclamation

(234) (235) (436) (237) (239) (240) (243) (244) (ibid.) (245) (246) (252)

LITERARY SELECTIONS AND RETROSPECT.

BIOGRAPHICAL ANECDOTES AND CHARACTERS.
Early Life of Mr. Penn
Penn's Foundation of Pennsylvania
Controversy letu'een the Papal See and Luther
Death and Character of Luther
Memoirs of the Life of Mr. George Frederic Cooke, of Covent

Garden Theatre
Memoirs of Gustavus IV. of Sweden, and the Swedish Revolution

,

[3] [13] [39] (53]

[66] [77]

MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OF NATIONS,

Description of Christiania, the Capital of Norway

[95] Lapland Valleys and Villages

[1097 Description of Gottenburg

[116] Art of Tattooing, and other Customs, in the South Sea Islands [1267 Present State and Prospects of Owhy hee

[133] Representation of the Russian Ambassador at the Court of Ochallo, in Japan

[136] Description of Bombay

[1457 Description of Columbo

(164) Environs of Tunis

[171 Description and Customs of Naples

[ 180 Description of the Aboriginal Inhabitants of Pennsylvania [193]

CLASSICAL AND POLITE CRITICISM.

Classical View of the Bay of Misenus and its Environs
On Italian Literature
On the Swedish Language
Temple and Mythology of Elephanta
Picturesque Survey of Water, Wood, and Mountain Scenery
Metaphors of Poetry from Nature

[204] [215] [230] [233] [240]

(257) ARTS,

ARTS, SCIENCES, AND NATURAL HISTORY.

Mlethod of taking Iron-moulds out of Cotton

2621 On the Changes of Colour produced on the Surface of Steel

(ibid. New Properties of Light

[ 264 On the Formation of Sulphur in India

268 Process for Artificial Stone Chimney-Pieces

(270 On Mortars and Cements

271 On the Art of Making Coffee in the highest Perfection

[273 On the Process employed for defucing Writing on Puper, for detecting and reviving it; and & Notice of indelible Ink

(277 On the sense of Smell in Fishes

1280 Esperiments of the comparative Strength of Men and Horses, applicable to the Movement of Machines

[285] On Transition Formations

(290)

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POETRY.

The Adieu

(304) The Harp

(ibid.

T306 Modern Greece Hassan's Hall

(307

(308 Seduction

309 Solitude The Confession

310 Adam

318

325 Jatan's Song The Bride of Abydos

328 Zuleika's Tomb

329

331 Moderate Wishes Intemperance

332 Inscription for a Monument intended to be erected in the Church at Hafod (ibid. Love Song

(ibid. On a Pair of Lean Lovers

[333]

POMESTIC LITERATURE.

CHAP. I.

BIBLICAL AND TABOLOGICAL.

Comprising Biblical Criticism ; Theological.Criticism; Sucred Morals ; Ser

mons and Discourses; Single Sermons ; Controversial Divinity [334]

CHAP. II.

PHYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL.

Comprising Medicine, Surgery, Anatomy, Physiology, Optics, Astronomy,
Aletcorology, Geography, and Paleology

(353) CHAP CHAP. III.

MORAL AND POLITICAL.

Containing History, Voyages, Travels, Commerce, Military Systems, Political
Economy, English Jurisprudence, and Law

[369]

CHAP. IV.

LITERATURE AND POLITE LETTERS."

Containing Transactions of Literary Societies, Biography, Clussics, Criticism,

Philology, Grummar, Poetry, Drama, Nevels, Tules, and Romances - (391)

FOREIGN LITERATURE.

CHAP. I.

BIBLICAL AND THEOLOGICAL.

Containing Notices or Analyses of various Publications of Germany, Hungary, Greece, France, America, Russia, and the East

- (437)

CHAP. II.

PAYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL.

Containing Notices or Analyses of various Publications of France, Germany,
Italy, Sueden, und America

(442)

CHAP. III.

MORAL AND POLITICAL,

Containing Notices or Analyses of various Publications of France, Germany,
Italy, Holland, Americu

(449)

CHAP. IV.

LITERATURE AND POLITE ARTS.

Containing Notices or Analyses of various Publications of Italy, Malta,
France, Germany, and Russia -

[453]

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will be devoted to the improvements and discoveries in chemistry during the long, and, in many respects, auspicious reign of his present majesty. In order to give a connected view of this interesting and highly important science, we must briefly narrate what had been known and done previously to the period that more immediately claims our attention.

In surveying the progress of chemistry, the earlier part of its history is involved in obscurity and fable. remote antiquity some traces of the practice of certain arts may be discovered, the principles of which are chemical, though depending more upon accident than upon any acquired scientific knowledge. They were, in truth, the result of casual observation, or of experiments dictated by necessity, and were long taught and practised without any knowledge of the principles on which they were founded.

Of these arts, metallurgy, or the art of extracting metals from their ores, of purifying, casting, and forging them, was

b

probably

1819.

Iron was

probably of the earliest invention, since some knowledge of it must have been indispensable in that period of society in which the others would be cultivated. Gold, silver, and copper, which are often found native, and which are easily worked, appear to have been first applied to use. of later introduction. The properties and uses of these, as well as of lead and tin, were, however, known at a very early period, so early indeed as to have left no traces of the time of their discovery. Other chemical arts, as that of brickmaking; the manufacture of earthenware, the arts of dyeing, bleaching, fermentation, &c., though of later origin, were practised in the early ages: and it is a curious but very well ascertained fact, that there is scarcely a savage nation that has not found out the method of producing, from some substance or other, a fermented, exhilarating, and spirituous liquor.

In Egypt the various chemical arts made considerable progress, and that country has been regarded as the parent of chemistry. It made no part of the Grecian philosophy; though a number of observations respecting the chemical properties of bodies may be found in the writings of Theophrastus, Aristotle, and others.

The delusions of alchemy gave rise to the experimental method of investigation, and thus laid the foundation of chemical science, and at the same time, perhaps, contributed more than any other circumstance to the superiority of the modern over the ancient mode of philosophizing. To alchemy, chemistry unquestionably owes its origin. It had no existence, as a distinct branch of knowledge, prior to the pursuits of the alchemists. By their experiments several of the properties of bodies were investigated: an apparatus was invented : 'rules were at length delivered for conducting chemical processes ; and many of the principal agents of chemistry were discovered, arranged under classes, and characterized by their most striking properties.

It has been found difficult to fix with precision the date of the origin of alchemy; and we know nothing of the circum

stances

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